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APA Psychology dec11

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APA Psychology dec11

  1. 1. Using APA Format presented by Jacqueline Mooney
  2. 2. Aims of the session <ul><li>To gain a greater understanding of APA referencing </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to create in-text citations and construct a reference list </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how (referencing software) can aid your study </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Reference APA? <ul><li>Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily </li></ul><ul><li>Provides consistent format within your discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Gives you credibility as a writer </li></ul><ul><li>Protects yourself from plagiarism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Referencing Your Sources <ul><li>Referencing allows your tutors to locate the materials or resources you use within your work. </li></ul><ul><li>Later on in your career if you are writing academic papers other researchers may wish to validate your theories by examining your supporting arguments including your references. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benefits of a Consistent Format <ul><li>For the reader… </li></ul><ul><li>Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources they’re built on. </li></ul><ul><li>For the author… </li></ul><ul><li>Keep track of your sources as you build your arguments within your work. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Establishing Credibility <ul><li>The proper use of APA style shows that you are able to present your work as a professional academic paper. </li></ul><ul><li>As an academic writer you are able to show accountability to your source material. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Avoiding Plagiarism 1 <ul><li>Proper citation of your sources </li></ul><ul><li>in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism can occur very easily if you don’t acknowledge another's work, ideas or suggestions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Avoiding Plagiarism 2 <ul><li>The University uses Turnitin for plagiarism detection... </li></ul><ul><li>Students cannot use it in advance of essay submission to the department, however, staff can set Turnitin so that you can check your written work before final submission. </li></ul><ul><li>See CSD pages for more details: http://www.liv.ac.uk/csd/plagiarism/turnitin/index.htm </li></ul>
  9. 9. Referencing Resources? <ul><li>Liaison Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>LibGuides </li></ul><ul><li>Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed. </li></ul><ul><li>APA website http://www.apastyle.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturers </li></ul><ul><li>Cite Them Right , 8 th ed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>In-text citation </li></ul><ul><li>(in-text referencing) </li></ul>Referencing: a Two Stage Process
  11. 11. Referencing: a Two Stage Process <ul><li>Reference List </li></ul><ul><li>(end-of-text citations) </li></ul>
  12. 12. When Should You Use In-text Citations?
  13. 13. When Should You Use In-text Citations? <ul><li>When quoting any words that are not your own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. When Should You Use In-text Citations? <ul><li>When summarising facts and ideas from a source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarising means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them, using your own words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When paraphrasing a source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Three Parts to In-text Citations <ul><li>Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Caruth states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena”. </li></ul><ul><li> Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Three Parts to In-text Citations <ul><li>Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text </li></ul><ul><li>A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena”. </li></ul><ul><li>A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11). </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format. </li></ul><ul><li>If you run into something unusual, look it up! </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apastyle.org/ </li></ul>Handling Quotes in Your Text
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sometimes additional information is necessary . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Using ‘and’ or ‘&’: if you are citing in-text then you use the ampersand (&) but only within parenthesis, otherwise use ‘and’ to link your authors always use ‘&’ in your Reference List. </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more works within the same year by the same author: </li></ul><ul><li>Fussell (1995a, 1995b, 1995c) </li></ul>Handling In-text Citations
  19. 19. Handling In-text Citations (3 to 5 authors) <ul><li>A work by 3 to 5 authors: </li></ul><ul><li>List all the authors within the text or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by &quot;et al.&quot; within the text or in parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li> (Kernis et al., 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>*Et al. is an abbreviation et alii and means ‘and others’. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Handling In-text Citations (6 or 7 authors) <ul><li>A work by 6 or 7 authors: </li></ul><ul><li>Use the first author's name followed by et al. in main text or parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Ko et al. (2009) argued... Or (Ko et al., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Liua, S. C., Huanga, C. F., Tam, Y., Yeun, Q. Y., & Yen, C. F. (2009). The associations between aggressive behaviors and internet addiction and online activities in adolescents.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 6,  598-605. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Handling In-text Citations (8 or more authors) <ul><li>A work by 8 or more authors: </li></ul><ul><li>Use the first author's name followed by et al. in main text or in parentheses. </li></ul><ul><li>Burger et al. (2007) argued... Or (Burger et al., 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Jeitner, C., Burke, S., Stamm, T., Snigaroff, R., ... Weston, J. (2007). Mercury levels and potential risk from subsistence foods from the Aleutians.  Science of The Total Environment, 384,  93-105. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: </li></ul><ul><li>Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: (“California,” 1999) </li></ul>Handling In-text Citations (No Author)
  23. 23. <ul><li>In-text: William Wundt and his colleagues (Wundt Research Group, n.d.) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: Wundt Research Group [Image] (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology </li></ul>Handling In-text Citations (Image)
  24. 24. Handling In-text Citations (e-mail/websites) <ul><li>A reference to a personal communication: </li></ul><ul><li>Source: email message from C. Everett Koop Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Cite only in the text NOT in Reference List. </li></ul><ul><li>A general reference to a website Source: University of Liverpool website </li></ul><ul><li>Citation: (http://www.liv.ac.uk) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996). </li></ul><ul><li>However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6). </li></ul>In-text Citations Example
  26. 26. In-text Citations Example <ul><li>Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989) , and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2) . Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996) . </li></ul><ul><li>However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6) . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Reference List <ul><li>Also known as end-of-text citations. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of your work on a new page . </li></ul><ul><li>Double spaced and indented if over a single line in length. </li></ul><ul><li>An A-Z list of every source that you cite in your work. </li></ul>
  28. 28. A Sample Reference List
  29. 29. <ul><li>Book Shipley, W. C. (1986). Shipley Institute of Living Scale . Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Article in a magazine Klein, J. (2009, October 5). Violence and Video Games. The New Yorker, 451, 45. </li></ul>References: Some Examples 1
  30. 30. <ul><li>Web page Poland, D. (1998, October 26). The hot button. Roughcut . Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://www.tnt.tv/ </li></ul><ul><li>E-Journal Article </li></ul><ul><li>Culbertson, H., & Bruck, D. (2005). Narcolepsy and disruption to social functioning. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 1 , 14-22. Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://www.liv.ac.uk </li></ul>References: Some Examples 2
  31. 31. <ul><li>A newspaper article Tommasini, A. (1998, October 27). Master teachers whose artistry glows in private. New York Times , p. 2. </li></ul><ul><li>A newspaper source with no known author Cigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises. (1999, September 14). New York Times , p. 17. </li></ul>References: Some Examples 3
  32. 32. <ul><li>While you are conducting research for your essay or assignment you will need to consult a lot of material around your chosen subject area. Even if you don’t directly quote but use the ideas you have gained from these materials you need to show that you have accessed them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bibliography follows your reference list and complies to the same formatting rules. </li></ul>Bibliography
  33. 33. Additional help with APA documentation? <ul><li>APA style: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apastyle.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Check your LibGuides: http://libguides.liv.ac.uk/psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Email your Liaison Librarian: [email_address] </li></ul>
  34. 34. Quiz time... <ul><li>Time to put your learning into practice... </li></ul>
  35. 35. Introducing RefWorks
  36. 36. What is <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li> is an online tool that the library subscribes to which is designed to help researchers easily gather, manage, store and share records from database searches and other types of information, as well as generate citations and bibliographies . </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Create an account </li></ul><ul><li>Export references </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new folder </li></ul><ul><li>Organise references into a folder </li></ul><ul><li>Create a bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Use to create a bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>with in-text citations </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>1. Create an account </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Create search (in this example: Scopus) </li></ul>1. Create an account
  40. 40. <ul><li>Select References and then select Export </li></ul>2. Export references
  41. 41. <ul><li>Select References and then select Export </li></ul>2. Export references
  42. 42. <ul><li>Select to Export to RefWorks </li></ul>2. Export references
  43. 43. <ul><li>Export to RefWorks </li></ul>2. Export references
  44. 44. <ul><li>Export to RefWorks </li></ul>2. Export references
  45. 45. <ul><li>Export to RefWorks </li></ul>2. Export references
  46. 46. 3. Create a folder
  47. 47. 3. Create a folder
  48. 48. 4. Organise references
  49. 49. 4. Organise references
  50. 50. 5. Create a bibliography
  51. 51. <ul><li>Choose output style </li></ul>5. Create a bibliography
  52. 52. <ul><li>View bibliography </li></ul>5. Create a bibliography
  53. 53. <ul><li>View bibliography </li></ul>5. Create a bibliography
  54. 59. Find the Citation Error: A Quick Quiz on APA Style
  55. 60. Directions <ul><li>All of the following slides marked, “Catch the Error,” break one or more APA citation rule. See if you can find the error(s), and then revise the citation so that it conforms with APA style. </li></ul>
  56. 61. Catch the Error #1 <ul><li>Hollingshead measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames (2002, p. 15). </li></ul>
  57. 62. Question 1 Revised <ul><li>Hollingshead (2002) measured aggressiveness in children before and after exposure to violent videogames. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: The year comes after the researcher’s name. No page number is needed if there is no direct quote. </li></ul>
  58. 63. Catch the Error #2 <ul><li>Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong and Tuttle 2005). </li></ul>
  59. 64. Question 2 Revised <ul><li>Neither group showed any significant growth (Wong & Tuttle , 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Use an ampersand (&) when citing parenthetically and put a comma between author(s) and year of publication. </li></ul>
  60. 65. Catch the Error #3 <ul><li>Duffy & Petronius (2002, p. 23) found that none of the subjects showed improvement. </li></ul>
  61. 66. Question 3 Revised <ul><li>Duffy and Petronius (2002) found that none of the subjects showed improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Use “and” -- not ampersand -- when citing authors outside of parentheses. No page number needed since there was no direct quote. </li></ul>
  62. 67. Catch the Error #4 <ul><li>Boyle (1998, 1998, 1998) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. </li></ul>
  63. 68. Question 4 Revised <ul><li>Boyle (1998a, 1998b, 1998c) found in three separate studies that the rats had higher stress hormone levels after exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: To avoid confusion, each study will be designated by a different letter – a, b, c, etc. Items are listed in the reference section alphabetically by title. </li></ul>
  64. 69. Catch the Error #5 <ul><li>Parker (2003, page 12) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group.” </li></ul>
  65. 70. Question 5 Revision <ul><li>Parker (2003) found that there was “no significant difference between the treatment group and the control group” (p. 12) . </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Since a direct quote was used, a page number must be provided after the quote. </li></ul>
  66. 71. Catch the Error #6 <ul><li>The ability to predict the likelihood of criminals returning to crime is vital to those responsible for determining the release and management of offenders (Andrews & Bonta, …… ). Bonta, Law and Hanson …… assert that it is now possible to accurately assess the risk of offending “especially…when predictions are based on actuarially derived information rather than professional and clinical judgment” (p. 124). Measures such as previous offences, age, income and drug or alcohol dependency have been used successfully to predict criminal behaviour (Andrews ………. , 2003; Blackburn, 1993; Bonta, Law & Hanson, ………. Webster & Bailes, 2004). Despite this evidence many violent offenders are still being assessed using professional judgement rather than by actuarial measures (Polaschek ……. …………………… ). </li></ul>
  67. 72. Question 6 Revised <ul><li>The ability to predict the likelihood of criminals returning to crime is vital to those responsible for determining the release and management of offenders (Andrews & Bonta, 2003 ). Bonta, Law and Hanson (1998) assert that it is now possible to accurately assess the risk of offending “especially…when predictions are based on actuarially derived information rather than professional and clinical judgment” (p. 124). Measures such as previous offences, age, income and drug or alcohol dependency have been used successfully to predict criminal behaviour (Andrews & Bonta , 2003; Blackburn, 1993; Bonta, Law & Hanson, 1998; Webster & Bailes, 2004). Despite this evidence many violent offenders are still being assessed using professional judgement rather than by actuarial measures (Polaschek & Reynolds, 2004 ). </li></ul>
  68. 73. Catch the Error #7 <ul><li>John Garrett Bretschneider and Nancy Lewis McCoy, 1968. Sexual Interest and Behavior in Healthy 80- 102-Year-Olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 14, pp. 343-350. </li></ul>
  69. 74. Question 7 Revised <ul><li>Bretschneider, J. G., & McCoy, N. L. (1968). Sexual interest and behavior in healthy 80- 102-year-olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 14 , 343-350. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: 1) only initials for first names; 2) year in parentheses followed by period; 3) lower case in article title; 4) italicize journal name and capitalize first letters; 5) no “Vol.,” just italicize; 6) no “pp.”; 7) hanging indent. </li></ul>
  70. 75. Catch the Error #8 <ul><li>Hashimoto, Thomas. (March 13, 2000, p. 23). Seeing Red in November. Newsweek, vol. 199. </li></ul>
  71. 76. Question 8 Revised <ul><li>Hashimoto, T . ( 2000, March 13 ). Seeing red in November. Newsweek , 199 , 23. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: 1)Only initial for first name. 2)Year comes first, then comma, then month and day, all in parentheses. 3)Title of magazine is italicized, followed by comma, volume number italicized, then page number(s). 4)Hanging indent. </li></ul>
  72. 77. Catch the Error #9 <ul><li>Hardy, G. E., Cahill, J., Stiles, W. B., Ispan, C., Macaskill, N., and Barkham, M. (2005, pp. 59-67). Sudden gains in cognitive therapy for depression: A replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, volume 73. </li></ul>
  73. 78. Question 9 Revised <ul><li>Hardy, G. E., Cahill, J., Stiles, W. B., Ispan, C., Macaskill, N., & Barkham, M. (2005) . Sudden gains in cognitive therapy for depression: A replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 , 59-67 . </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: 1)commas in between authors in list, Ampersand not ‘and’, 2) journal name in italics, 3)no pp. for journals and no need for ‘volume’ (ensure vol number is in italics). </li></ul>
  74. 79. Catch the Error #10 <ul><li>When contacted on 1 st December, Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (phone call, 2005). </li></ul>
  75. 80. Question 10 Revised <ul><li>When contacted, Habbib had no useful explanation except that “mistakes were made” (personal communication, December 1, 2005) . </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: Use “personal communication” and exact date when citing telephone calls, letters, memos, personal interviews, etc. In-text citation only. You do not need to put this in the References section since the data is non-recoverable/non traceable. </li></ul>
  76. 81. The Latest Edition <ul><li>American Psychological Association. (2006). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. </li></ul>
  77. 82. Reminders <ul><li>You don’t have to memorize all the rules. There are hundreds of APA style rules and lots of exceptions to the rules. Use reference sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are planning to write scholarly papers for publication, get the book. Take it in slowly, not all at once. (Preserve your sanity.) </li></ul><ul><li>Have writing consultant review for conformity to APA style. </li></ul>
  78. 83. Good Luck! <ul><li>Jacqui Mooney </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney Jones Library, Room 110 </li></ul><ul><li>(0151) 794 3940 </li></ul>

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