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Wikipedia and World Wide Argument Web (DERI meeting 2010-12-03)

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On Wikipedia, knowledge is constructed through collaboration, conflict, and argument. Article discussion spaces form a large and growing proportion of Wikipedia, and we discuss three ongoing contributions to understanding these spaces: interviews with Wikipedia editors and administrators, a large-scale comparative content analysis, and a semantic bookmarklet. Yet for Wikipedia's arguments about knowledge to have a wider impact, we seek to join Wikipedia to the envisioned World Wide Argument Web. We describe the nascent World Wide Argument Web and point to contributions the Social Semantic Web can bring to forming it.

Publié dans : Technologie, Formation
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Wikipedia and World Wide Argument Web (DERI meeting 2010-12-03)

  1. Constructing knowledge through argument: Wikipedia and World Wide Argument Web<br />Jodi Schneider, Alexandre Passant, John Breslin<br />DERI Meeting<br />2010-12-03<br />Galway, Ireland<br />
  2. Outline<br />The Vision<br />Research Progress<br />Future Plans<br />2<br />
  3. World Wide Web & Argument<br />3<br />
  4. World Wide Argument Web (WWAW)<br />4<br />What if instead of following mailing lists, blogs, online magazines, scientific journals…<br />You could follow ARGUMENTS?<br />Who is arguing about this topic? Or product? Or idea?<br />Is their view positive or negative?<br />Are their ideas credible? <br />Are they trustworthy? Do people I trust, trust them?<br />What arguments are they making?<br />
  5. Arguments on Wikipedia<br />5<br />
  6. Wikipedians argue on Talk pages<br />6<br />
  7. 7<br />Digital Enterprise Research Institute<br />www.deri.ie<br />Talk pages need semantics<br />Lots of conversations<br />Viégas: “the fastest growing areas of Wikipedia are devoted to coordination and organization”<br />When are people agreeing/disagreeing?<br />Not well understood!<br />Very little study of Talk pages<br />Largest study: 60 pages, 2 types. Discovered: Featured Articles have10x discussion!<br />Immense variation between pages <br />Data from Stvilia<br />7<br />
  8. My Research Questions<br />8<br />What do Wikipediansdo on Talk pages?<br />What kind of arguments happen on Talk pages?<br />Can we add structure to make pages “fit” how editors and readers use them?<br />
  9. Three ways of understanding Talk pages<br />9<br />Interviews with editors and administrators<br />What do Wikipediansdo on Talk pages?<br />Hand content analysis of 100 Talk pages<br />What kind of arguments happen on Talk pages?<br />A semantic annotation infrastructure<br />Can we add structure to make pages “fit” how editors and readers use them?<br />
  10. 1. Interviews<br />10<br />Administrators<br />Frequently monitor conversations<br />Know + meet co-editors<br />Make community-related edits such as adding infoboxes<br />More likely to move/rename articles and Talk pages<br />Editors<br />Mostly read Talk pages<br />“Get the scoop”—what’s controversial? More details?<br />More likely to read older conversations<br />May learn policy and procedures<br />
  11. 2. Content Analysis<br />11<br />100 Talk pages<br />5 categories of pages<br />Most editors (of the article)<br />Most visits (to the article)<br />Controversial<br />Featured Articles<br />Random<br />15 classifications<br />
  12. 12<br />Digital Enterprise Research Institute<br />www.deri.ie<br />Classification Examples<br />12<br />
  13. 13<br />
  14. Our SIOC WikiTalk ontology<br />WikiDiscussionItem<br />ReferenceItem<br />ReferenceToEdit<br />ReferenceToGuidelinesOrPolicies<br />ReferenceToInternalResources<br />ReferenceToRevertsOrControversialOrRemovedMaterial<br />ReferenceToVandalism<br />RequestItem<br />RequestEditingCoordination<br />RequestHelpElsewhere<br />RequestInfo<br />RequestPeer-review<br />http://rdfs.org/sioc/wikitalk<br />
  15. 3. Semantic markup for Talk pages<br />Develop a content-based semantic model<br />Hand markup Wikipedia Talk pages with RDFa<br />Query to find comments meeting specified criteria<br />JavaScript and SPARQL<br />Formative evaluations<br />Browsing talk pages with & without highlight plugins to identify particular comments<br />15<br />
  16. Structuring Talk Pages: Semantics<br />Reusing existing models (FOAF/SIOC)<br />Article: sioct:WikiArticle<br />Link article to the Talk page: sioc:has_discussion<br />Discussions: sioc:Thread<br />Individual comments: sioc:Post<br />Commenter: foaf:Person / sioc:UserAccount<br />New elements from the previous categorization<br />http://rdfs.org/sioc/wikitalk<br />Focus on references and requests:<br />Difficult to imagine people marking their own comment as off-topic; however, labeling “request for help” is plausible<br />Relevant for querying and retrieving information<br />
  17. 17<br />Digital Enterprise Research Institute<br />www.deri.ie<br />Example RDFa markup<br />17<br />
  18. Using the markup: JavaScript bookmarklets<br />18<br />Highlight posts based on the ontology class – e.g. ReferenceToEdit<br />
  19. Retrieve RequestInfo posts in WikiProject Computing<br />SELECT ?commment ?page <br />WHERE <br />{<br /> ?page sioc:links_to <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Template:WikiProject_Computing > .<br /> ?comment sioc:has_container ?page ; <br /> a sioc:Post ; a siocwt:RequestInfo .<br />}<br />19<br />
  20. Retrieve posts by novices which have no replies<br />SELECT ?comment ?reply ?user ?name <br />WHERE <br />{<br /> ?comment a sioc:Post ; sioc:has_creator ?user .<br /> OPTIONAL { ?user sioc:name ?name . } <br /> OPTIONAL { ?comment sioc:has_reply ?reply . } <br /> FILTER (!BOUND(?name)) FILTER (!BOUND(?reply))<br />}<br />20<br />
  21. Back to the World Wide Argument Web<br />21<br />
  22. Arguing all over the Web<br />Wikipedia is not the only place people argue.<br />Research questions:<br />What related arguments are there?<br />What new arguments that I haven’t seen are there?<br />Should I believe this argument?<br />22<br />
  23. Arguments at BBC’s Have Your Say<br />A simple argument:<br />“Banning new drivers from driving at night would be a knee-jerk reaction to a particular statistic. <br />Cars differ from public transport in that you can go anywhere at any time so why take this<br />advantage away?”<br />23<br />
  24. Analysis<br />The simplest argument: <br /><claim, reason><br />Claim:<br />Banning new drivers from driving at night would be a knee-jerk reaction<br />Reason: <br />With a car you can go anywhere at any time<br />Incomplete!<br />24<br />
  25. Exampleat BBC’s Have Your Say<br />A Case:“I think the proposed restrictions on young drivers are completely unrealistic and unfair. When I was 18 and bought my first car I was studying for my A-levels during the day and therefore needed to work in the evenings to earn my own money and pay for the upkeep of my car. I finished work between 11pm and midnight. If these restrictions had been in place I would have had three options: 1-give up my job (I think we can all agree that the current government is aiming to encourage more people to work and take pride in earning their own money, not rely on state handouts or their parents. 2 - Walk home alone in the dark (clearly this is not a sensible option either for obvious reasons) 3 - demand my parents pick me up and drop me off to work each night (this is also unreasonable as many young people cannot rely on their parents for many reasons e.g. if their parents are also working late or cannot drive).”<br />25<br />
  26. WWAW-related questions<br />What’s possible now?<br />What can the Social Web and Social Semantic Web contribute?<br />How can we make the WWAW as easy to use as Web2.0 tools?<br />26<br />
  27. Parts of the WWAW exist<br />27<br />An interchange format<br />Argument Interchange Format <br />Argument schemes<br />‘Argument from Position to Know’, ‘Argument from Expertise’, …<br />Argument-related ontologies<br />IBIS, ScholOnto, SWAN/SIOC, …<br />Prototype interfaces<br />Argument blogging, Arvina, MAgtALO, …<br />RDF and OWL-based systems<br />Avicenna, ArgDF<br />
  28. Argument blogging (AIF+DGDL)<br />28<br />Source: Wells, Gourlay, & Reed, “Argument blogging,” CMNA 2009<br />
  29. Generate argument maps from conversations (Arvina, MAgtALO)<br />29<br />Snaith, Lawrence, & Reed, “Mixed initiative argument in public deliberation,”ODET 2010<br />
  30. Collating blog comments<br />Collation & querying across the Web<br />30<br />Sindice SIOC plugin for WordPress blogs: did a commenter post on other websites?<br />
  31. Challenge: Adapt for the Social!<br />People don’t want to classify their comments.<br />Many assumptions are implicit.<br />“Don’t make me think!”<br />Not all arguments are equally effective—and not everyone is susceptible to the same arguments!<br />31<br />
  32. Social Semantic Web<br />32<br />
  33. Social Semantic Web research<br />Trust & credibility layer<br />Golbeck, Computing with Social Trust, Springer 2008<br />Hartig, Querying Trust in RDF Data with tSPARQL, ESWC 2009<br />33<br />http://www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.svg<br />
  34. Summary<br />We can increase the effectiveness of Wikipedia Talk pages by understanding how they are used<br />We add semantic structure to Wikipedia Talk pages which can be used to extract socially useful info<br />The World Wide Argument Web is an exciting research area with an existing infrastructure and a need for Social Semantic Web expertise<br />34<br />
  35. Thank You!<br />35<br />Questions & Comments?<br />Contact: <br />jodi.schneider@deri.org<br />
  36. Our Wikipedia-Related Research<br />“Understanding and Improving Wikipedia Article Discussion Spaces.” In SAC 2011 (Web Track), TaiChung, Taiwan, March 21-25, 2011.<br />“Enhancing MediaWiki Talk pages with Semantics for Better Coordination - A Proposal.” In The Fifth Workshop on Semantic Wikis: Linking Data and People Workshop at 7th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), Crete, Greece, May 31, 2010.<br />“A Content Analysis: How Wikipedia Talk Pages Are Used.” In WebSci2010, Web Science Conference. Raleigh, NC,April 26 & 27 2010.<br />36<br />
  37. References<br />Stvilia,Twidale, Smith & Gasser, "Information Quality Work Organization in Wikipedia," JASIST 2008. doi: 10.1002/asi.2081<br />Viégas, Wattenberg, Kriss & Ham, "Talk Before You Type: Coordination in Wikipedia," HICSS 2007. doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2007.511<br />Rahwan,Zablith & Reed, “Laying the foundations for a World Wide Argument Web,” Artificial Intelligence 2007.doi: 10.1016/j.artint.2007.04.015<br />Walton, Reed & Macagno, Argumentation Schemes.<br />37<br />
  38. Further image credits<br />Slide 3<br />The WWW 2003-11-23 http://www.opte.org/maps/<br />Argument – author unknown – via via http://blog.pappastax.com/index.php/2009/11/23/seth-godin-on-online-arguments/ <br />Slide 4<br />Wikipedia logo<br />Slide 31<br />http://www.cafepress.com/+ask_dad_magnet,55304381<br />Talk pages screenshots from <br />http://en.wikipedia.org/Talk: {articlename}<br />3838<br />
  39. Most popular (article visits)<br />Common pattern for Featured Articles, controversial articles, too.<br />
  40. Featured Article<br />
  41. Most editors<br />
  42. 42<br />Digital Enterprise Research Institute<br />www.deri.ie<br />Random 1<br />42<br />
  43. Random 2<br />43<br />
  44. 11 classifications based on Viégas<br />References to <br />Vandalism<br />wiki guidelines & policies<br />internal wiki resources<br />Requests for<br />editing coordination<br />information<br />peer-review<br />Off-topic-remarks<br />Polls<br />Info boxes<br />Images<br />Other<br />44<br />
  45. sioc:Article<br />sioc:Wiki<br />sioc:Thread<br />siocwt:RequestInfo<br />siocwt:Other<br />sioc:UserAccount<br />sioc:UserAccount<br />siocwt:ReferenceToSources, siocwt:ReferenceToGuidelinesOrPolicies<br />sioc:UserAccount<br />sioc:Thread<br />siocwt:RequestEditingCoordination<br />sioc:ip_address<br />sioc:Thread<br />siocwt:RequestEditingCoordination<br />sioc:UserAccount<br />siocwt:RequestEditingCoordination<br />sioc:UserAccount<br />