Ory_etal_icc_rio2015

J
Jeremie OryPhd Student à Laboratoire COGIT - IGN France
27th International Cartographic Conference
August 23-28, 2015
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Jérémie Ory*, Sidonie Christophe*,
Sara Fabrikant**, Bénédicte Bucher*
*COGIT Lab. – IGN-France
** GIVA Lab. – University of Zurich
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 2
To depict more effectively a territory
To extend knowledge on map usability
Topographic
maps
Orthoimagery
Hybrid
representation
Others cartographic
abstractions
STAKES
To improve the map readability
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
1:25 000 topographic map from Swisstopo
3
CONTEXT
A singular and distinctive visual appearance
1:25 000 topographic map from IGN-France
Different ways to depict a territory
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
How a topographic style is recognized by the map readers?
 Short-term issue
 Research questions
Which maps characteristics are considered by users for recognition?
Which ones are the most representative/used for recognition?
4
ISSUE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 User’s recognition of visual characteristics
5
APPROACH: TOPOGRAPHIC STYLE
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 Aim of the experiment
To identify the visual characteristics which allow users to recognize the IGN-France
topographic style
• 410 experts in geography and cartography
• 85 % are French
VISUAL TEST: AIM AND PARTICIPANTS
6
 Participants
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
VISUAL TEST : COGNITIVE-TASKS
Some visual characteristics are
processed pre-attentively
Some visual
characteristics are
memorized
No cognitive load / directly perceived Highly representative
of the perceived map
7
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 Selection of 6 European topographic map samples designed by various NMAs
TEST: MATERIALS
 Extraction of 16 visual characteristics of IGN-France topographic style
8
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
14% 16%46% 37%44%91%
ICC ACT LINZ IGN-F IGN-FSwisstopo
9
T1: To identify / select a IGN-F topographic map amongst other styles
H1: Users are able to recognize a IGN-France topographic style amongst other styles
TEST: DISTINCTIVE TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
Classification Method : the Sturges calculation method + Jenks natural thresholds
T2: To select the 4 most representative visual characteristics in 4 map samples
(no ranks)
TEST: REPRESENTATIVE GRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS
10
H2: Users visually identify the characteristics representative of the IGN-France style
59% 58%66%
13% 12% 12% 10% 10% 10% 3% 2%
13%24%25%41% 41%
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
Classification Method : the Sturges calculation method + Jenks natural thresholds
T3: To select the 4 most representative visual characteristics from memory
(no ranks)
TEST: MEMORIZED GRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS
11
H3: Users memorize visual characteristics of IGN-France style
55% 47%74%
13% 12% 10% 9% 7% 5% 2%22%
32% 25%26%30%30%
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS
12
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS
13
In visualizing four maps : visual perception
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS
14
In visualizing four maps : visual perceptionWithout visualizing maps : visual memory
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS
15
In visualizing four maps : visual perceptionWithout visualizing maps : visual memoryVisual perception (H2) Visual memory (H3)Complete
topographic map
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
RESULTS
Different kinds of cartographic information
Style signature
information
16
Visual salient
information
Secondary
information
Location
information
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
SUMMARY
Identification of visual characteristics for user’s recognition of IGN-France style in
Visual perception
Visual memory
17
The IGN-France style is quite well recognized by French experts
Due to their mapping experience and cartographic knowledge
Due to the users nationality (knowledge of the depicted territory)
Proposition to classify visual characteristics into 4 distinctive groups
Style signature information
Visual salient information
Located information
Secondary information
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 To formalize the knowledge on topographic style in an unifying framework
18
SUMMARY
18
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 To formalize the knowledge on topographic style in an unifying framework
19
SUMMARY
19
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 My approach is replicable
20
• 163 experts in geography and cartography
• 40 % are Swiss
Participants
69% 62%70% 64% 61%67%
Visual memory Visual perception
OUTLOOKS
Example : Identification the representative visual characteristics of
the Swisstopo style
HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015
 How to use this new knowledge?
OUTLOOKS
Design new topographic styles by interpolating between two or more
original topographic styles
Example : border area
21
Mix topographic maps effectively with orthoimagery (Hoarau 2015)
SwisstopoIGN-France
Abstraction Orthoimagery
Jérémie Ory
jeremie.ory@ign.fr
@Jersig
27th International Cartographic Conference
August 23-28, 2015
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1 sur 22

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Ory_etal_icc_rio2015

  • 1. 27th International Cartographic Conference August 23-28, 2015 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Jérémie Ory*, Sidonie Christophe*, Sara Fabrikant**, Bénédicte Bucher* *COGIT Lab. – IGN-France ** GIVA Lab. – University of Zurich HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?
  • 2. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 2 To depict more effectively a territory To extend knowledge on map usability Topographic maps Orthoimagery Hybrid representation Others cartographic abstractions STAKES To improve the map readability
  • 3. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 1:25 000 topographic map from Swisstopo 3 CONTEXT A singular and distinctive visual appearance 1:25 000 topographic map from IGN-France Different ways to depict a territory
  • 4. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 How a topographic style is recognized by the map readers?  Short-term issue  Research questions Which maps characteristics are considered by users for recognition? Which ones are the most representative/used for recognition? 4 ISSUE AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  • 5. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  User’s recognition of visual characteristics 5 APPROACH: TOPOGRAPHIC STYLE
  • 6. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  Aim of the experiment To identify the visual characteristics which allow users to recognize the IGN-France topographic style • 410 experts in geography and cartography • 85 % are French VISUAL TEST: AIM AND PARTICIPANTS 6  Participants
  • 7. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 VISUAL TEST : COGNITIVE-TASKS Some visual characteristics are processed pre-attentively Some visual characteristics are memorized No cognitive load / directly perceived Highly representative of the perceived map 7
  • 8. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  Selection of 6 European topographic map samples designed by various NMAs TEST: MATERIALS  Extraction of 16 visual characteristics of IGN-France topographic style 8
  • 9. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 14% 16%46% 37%44%91% ICC ACT LINZ IGN-F IGN-FSwisstopo 9 T1: To identify / select a IGN-F topographic map amongst other styles H1: Users are able to recognize a IGN-France topographic style amongst other styles TEST: DISTINCTIVE TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
  • 10. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 Classification Method : the Sturges calculation method + Jenks natural thresholds T2: To select the 4 most representative visual characteristics in 4 map samples (no ranks) TEST: REPRESENTATIVE GRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS 10 H2: Users visually identify the characteristics representative of the IGN-France style 59% 58%66% 13% 12% 12% 10% 10% 10% 3% 2% 13%24%25%41% 41%
  • 11. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 Classification Method : the Sturges calculation method + Jenks natural thresholds T3: To select the 4 most representative visual characteristics from memory (no ranks) TEST: MEMORIZED GRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS 11 H3: Users memorize visual characteristics of IGN-France style 55% 47%74% 13% 12% 10% 9% 7% 5% 2%22% 32% 25%26%30%30%
  • 12. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS 12
  • 13. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS 13 In visualizing four maps : visual perception
  • 14. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS 14 In visualizing four maps : visual perceptionWithout visualizing maps : visual memory
  • 15. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 VISUALIZATION OF MAIN RESULTS 15 In visualizing four maps : visual perceptionWithout visualizing maps : visual memoryVisual perception (H2) Visual memory (H3)Complete topographic map
  • 16. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 RESULTS Different kinds of cartographic information Style signature information 16 Visual salient information Secondary information Location information
  • 17. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015 SUMMARY Identification of visual characteristics for user’s recognition of IGN-France style in Visual perception Visual memory 17 The IGN-France style is quite well recognized by French experts Due to their mapping experience and cartographic knowledge Due to the users nationality (knowledge of the depicted territory) Proposition to classify visual characteristics into 4 distinctive groups Style signature information Visual salient information Located information Secondary information
  • 18. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  To formalize the knowledge on topographic style in an unifying framework 18 SUMMARY 18
  • 19. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  To formalize the knowledge on topographic style in an unifying framework 19 SUMMARY 19
  • 20. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  My approach is replicable 20 • 163 experts in geography and cartography • 40 % are Swiss Participants 69% 62%70% 64% 61%67% Visual memory Visual perception OUTLOOKS Example : Identification the representative visual characteristics of the Swisstopo style
  • 21. HOW DO MAP READERS RECOGNIZE A TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING STYLE ?27th ICC2015  How to use this new knowledge? OUTLOOKS Design new topographic styles by interpolating between two or more original topographic styles Example : border area 21 Mix topographic maps effectively with orthoimagery (Hoarau 2015) SwisstopoIGN-France Abstraction Orthoimagery
  • 22. Jérémie Ory jeremie.ory@ign.fr @Jersig 27th International Cartographic Conference August 23-28, 2015 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil