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“The systematic analysis of training
to demonstrate whether it has met
its objectives in an effective and
Formative evaluation (also known as
internal) is a method of judging the
worth of a program while the program
activities are forming (in progress). This
part of the evaluation focuses on the
The summative evaluation (also know
as external) is a method of judging the
worth of a program at the end of the
program activities (summation). The
focus is on the outcome.
The Ten Factors of Developing
a Training Program
1. Determine needs
2. Set objectives
3. Determine subject content
4. Select qualified applicants
5. Determine the best schedule
The Ten Factors of Developing
a Training Program
6. Select appropriate facilities
7. Select qualified instructors
8. Select and prepare audiovisual
9. Co-ordinate the program
10. Evaluate the program
Reasons for Evaluating
1.“To justify the existence of the training
department by showing how it contributes to
the organizations’ objectives and goals.”
2. “To decide whether to continue or discontinue
3.“To gain information on how to improve future
training programs.” (Kirkpatrick, 1994, )
Kirkpatrick developed a model of
training evaluation in 1959.
Arguably the most widely used
Simple, Flexible and Complete
Should the program be continued?
How can the program be improved?
How can we ensure regulatory
How can we maximize training
How can we be sure training is aligned
How can we demonstrate the value of
The Four Levels of
Level I: Evaluate Reaction
Level II: Evaluate Learning
Level III: Evaluate Behavior
Level IV: Evaluate Results
Fifth level was recently “added”
for return on investment (“ROI”)
but this was not in Kirkpatrick’s
Reaction - What Is It?
How favorably participants react to
the training (“Customer
• Collects reactions to instructor, course,
and learning environment
• Communicates to trainees that their
feedback is valued
• Can provide quantitative information
This level measures how your trainees (the people
being trained), reacted to the training. Obviously, you
want them to feel that the training was a valuable
experience, and you want them to feel good about
the instructor, the topic, the material, its presentation,
and the venue.
It's important to measure reaction, because it helps
you understand how well the training was received
by your audience. It also helps you improve the
training for future trainees, including identifying
important areas or topics that are missing from the
Learning - What Is It?
At level 2, you measure what your trainees have learned.
How much has their knowledge increased as a result of
When you planned the training session, you hopefully
started with a list of specific learning objectives: these
should be the starting point for your measurement. Keep
in mind that you can measure learning in different ways
depending on these objectives, and depending on
whether you're interested in changes to knowledge,
skills, or attitude.
It's important to measure this, because knowing what
your trainees are learning and what they aren't will help
you improve future training.
Learning - What It Looks
Media used to measure learning:
Methods used to measure learning:
• Tests (pre-/post-)
Behavior - What Is It?
Transfer of knowledge,
skills, and/or attitude to the
Measure achievement of
At this level, you evaluate how far your trainees have
changed their behavior, based on the training they
received. Specifically, this looks at how
trainees apply the information.
It's important to realize that behavior can only change if
conditions are favorable. For instance, imagine you've
skipped measurement at the first two Kirkpatrick levels
and, when looking at your group's behavior, you
determine that no behavior change has taken place.
Therefore, you assume that your trainees haven't
learned anything and that the training was ineffective.
However, just because behavior hasn't changed, it
doesn't mean that trainees haven't learned anything.
Perhaps their boss won't let them apply new
knowledge. Or, maybe they've learned everything you
taught, but they have no desire to apply the knowledge
Results - What Is It?
Assesses “bottom line,”
Definition of “results”
dependent upon the goal
of the training program.
At this level, you analyze the final results
of your training. This includes outcomes
that you or your organization have
determined to be good for business,
good for the employees, or good for the
CIRO MODEL OF TRAINING
The four-stage CIRO (Context, Input, Reaction, and Output) model of
training evaluation designed by war et al. (1970) focuses on the
achievement of organization objectives through training. Through
these four stages, the model in a true sense helps the trainer to
understand what requires change, what procedure can bring change
and what evidences are there that the change has occurred.
Contextual evaluation helps in determining the training needs and
objectives. Input evaluation helps to identifying the training resources
and choosing of alternative inputs to training. Reaction evaluation
tracks trainee’s reaction to effect improvement in training. Finally,
outcome evaluation collects immediate and ultimate training outcomes
for future improvement of training. In the USA, the CIRO model is
most extensively used.
Cost-benefits of training
Most of the training decisions taken by organizations
are incremental . Business heads evaluate the cost-
effectiveness of training courses by assessing the cost
and effect within their own business domain. However,
with the incremental approach to training, the ROI is
no longer adequate. The net present value of ROI
needs to be considered, which can also be measured
based on the learning curve experience.
Phillips’ Five-level ROI Model
Phillips’ five-level ROI model (1997) extends Kirkpatrick's framework
making the process of evaluation more specific.
Level Brief Descriptio
1. Reaction and
Measures participants reaction to the programme
and outlines specific plans for implementation.
2. Learning Measures skills, knowledge, attitude categories.
Measures change in behaviour on the job and
specific application of the training material.
Measures business impact of the programme.
5. ROI Measures the monetary value of the results and
Although the suggested training evaluation model
of Phillips has those above five listed stages, his
ROI framework requires consideration of
evaluation, process model, case applications and
practice, operating standards and philosophy and
finally implementation. Phillips suggested that all
these five major elements need to be considered
for calculating the ROI from training.
Evaluation ensures accountability - Training evaluation
ensures that training programs comply with the competency
gaps and that the deliverables are not compromised upon.
Check the Cost - Evaluation ensures that the training
programs are effective in improving the work quality, employee
behaviour, attitude and development of new skills within the
employee within a certain budget. Since globally companies are
trying to cut their costs without compromising upon the quality,
evaluation just aims at achieving the same with training.
Feedback to the Trainer / Training - Evaluation also acts as a
feedback to the trainer or the facilitator and the entire training
process. Since evaluation accesses individuals at the level of
their work, it gets easier to understand the loopholes of the
training and the changes required in the training methodology.
Benefits of Training evaluation
Training and development
(theories and applications)
Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya