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EMI and EMP Protection and Shielding

complete animated and info graphic description of EMI and EMP and EMC along with definition, causes, effects, products for EMI / EMP shielding and preventive measures

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EMI and EMP Protection and Shielding

  1. 1. 1/14/2018 2 ● Part – I What is EMI, EMP and EMC? ● Part – II Causes / sources of EMI and EMP ● Part – III Effects of EMI and EMP ● Part – IV Mil Stds for EMI / EMP Protection of C4I Facilities ● Part – V Preventive Measures
  2. 2. 1/14/2018 3 What is EMI, EMP and EMC? Definition
  3. 3. Unwanted Signal and Interference Definition
  4. 4.  Electromagnetic Pulse - Powerful pulse of short duration and high intensity electromagnetic radiation such as lightening or nuclear explosion. Nuclear Blast Definition
  5. 5. • Ability of IT Eqpt to operate in proximity of electromagnetic envmt (EMI&EMP), without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation in output or performance Definition
  6. 6. • 100% electronic shielding and containment. • No EMI signal can enter inside DC Definition
  7. 7. No Signals can go outside Definition
  8. 8. Signals interfere with device / sys Definition
  9. 9. EMI EMP EMI is a low intensity interference EMP is a high intensity interference Interfere the electronic / electrical devices but does not cause damage It damages electrical / electronic eqpt Definition
  10. 10. 1/14/2018 11 Causes / Sources of EMI and EMP? Definition Causes
  11. 11. Comm / Sig TowersTx LinesMobile PhonesElectronic DevicesThunderstroms Definition Causes
  12. 12. HV Tx LinesHigh Power Electronic Devices Lightning Nucleur Blast Definition Causes
  13. 13. 1/14/2018 14 Effects of EMI and EMP? Definition Causes Effects
  14. 14. • Unaval of Svc (Shut Down) Definition Causes Effects
  15. 15. HACKER • Stealing of Data – Cyber Attk Definition Causes Effects
  16. 16.  Degrade the performance of IT Devices or cause malfunctioning – Undesirable response Definition Causes Effects
  17. 17.  Cause elec fire and burning of electronic devices Nuclear Blast Definition Causes Effects
  18. 18.  Degrade the performance of IT Devices or cause malfunctioning – Undesirable response Definition Causes Effects
  19. 19. • Complete Damage to IT Devices causing complete blackout. Definition Causes Effects
  20. 20.  Degrade the performance of IT Devices or cause malfunctioning – Undesirable response Comm / Sig Towers
  21. 21. 1/14/2018 22 Definition Causes Effects
  22. 22. 103 1010 EMI 104 1011 RFI 103 108 EMP 1010 • EMI / RFI - 10KHz to 300GHz • EMP - 3 KHz – 300 GHz • NEMP - 1KHz to 100 MHz • NNEMP - 200MHz to 5GHz
  23. 23.  EMI / RFI - 20 dB (10 times higher than normal lvl)  EMP - 20-90 dB (10-30000 times higher) NEMP - 20-90 dB (10-30000 times higher) NNEMP - 30-60 dB (30-1000 times higher) Definition Causes Effects
  24. 24.  EMI - 20 dB  RFI - 20 dB  EMP - 20-90 dB  NEMP - 20-40 dB or 60-90 dB  NNEMP - 30-60 dB  HEMP - 20-40 dB
  25. 25. 1/14/2018 26 Definition Causes Effects
  26. 26. 1/14/2018 27 Mil Stds For EMI / EMP Protection of C4I Facility Definition Causes Effects Stds
  27. 27.  MIL-STD-188-125-1 Fixed C4I Facilities  MIL-STD-188-125-2 Transportable C4I Facilities  MIL-STD-461 Test equipment for electromagnetic compatibility 1/14/2018 28 Definition Causes Effects Stds
  28. 28.  Standard for EMP hardening of fixed ground-based and transportable C4I facilities and prescribed fol:-  Min performance Req  Min test req  Design and test criteria 1/14/2018 29 Definition Causes Effects Stds
  29. 29. 1/14/2018 30 Preventive Measures – EMI / EMP Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  30. 30. 1/14/2018 31 Faradays Cage Shielding Cover Al / Cu / Steel 1 Use Shielded Power Cable 2 Proper Earthing3 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  31. 31. 1/14/2018 32 Option I Shielding at Device lvl Not Recom Option II Shielding Enclosures Recom Option III Shielding of Room Not Recom Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  32. 32.  Option 1 : Shielding at component or device Lvl (individual SW, FW or Chassis etc)  Pros :  No need to design Big infra for shielding  No structural changes req  Cons :  Expensive  Req lot of time for implementation  Difficult to implement  Difficult to op and maint  Concl : Not Recom 1/14/2018 33 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  33. 33.  Option 2 : Shielding Enclosures – Faraday’s cage (at Row Lvl )  Pros :  No need to design Big infra for shielding  No structural changes req  Customized solns are aval  Easy to implement  Not Expensive  Cons :  Racks are req to disassemble  Req 1 week time to implement  Cooling may be disturb but honeycomb vents can compensate  Concl : Recom 1/14/2018 34 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  34. 34.  Option 3 : Shielding of Room (6 sided shielding of room )  Cons :  Need to design Big infra for shielding  Structural changes req  Ceiling changes are req  Floor changes are req  Difficult to implement  Expensive  Racks are req to disassemble  Req lot of time to implement  Concl : Not Recom 1/14/2018 35 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  35. 35. 1/14/2018 36 Lvl 2 : Meet or exceed lvl 1 req • Surge protection device on power cord, data and comm cables • Dedicated EMP protected power supply • Double conversion UPS • Use fiber optics • Shielded cable • Shielded Rack, Room or facility • EMP filters • Lvl 1 : • Turn off eqpt – unplug power and data / comm lines • Wrap spare electronic eqpt with aluminum foil • Dedicated EMP protected backup power supply for 1 week Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  36. 36. 1/14/2018 37 Lvl 4 : Meet or exceed lvl 3 req • Use Military EMP std MIL-STD-188-125-1 • 80+ dB shielding protection • Double door EMP protected safe entry • 30+ days of EMP protected power backup Lvl 3: Meet or exceed lvl 2 req • Use civ EMP protection std (IEC SC77C) • 30-80 dB shielding protection through 10GHz • SPD for eqpt outside shielded area • Single door EMP safe entry • 30 days EMP protected power backup Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  37. 37. 1/14/2018 38 Signal / telecom Line Lightening Arrester 5 2 Surge Protection Device3 Lightening Protection Device4 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  38. 38. 1/14/2018 39 Paint Range Copper conductive EMI shielding appl (>30 MHz) Silver conductive Higher freq EMI shielding appl Nickel Conductive Lower freq EMI shielding appl Graphite conductive ESD prevention appls Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  39. 39.  Conductive Paint thickness – 0.025 mm to 0.050 mm  Pros :  Easy to use – spray  Cost effective  Cons :  Mostly all conductive paint are designed for plastic casing of devices.  Paint can’t block medium and low freq signal.  Such paint can’t be used for masonry work.  Paints deteriorate with time – making shielding highly ineffective.  It may not be used for more than 3’ x 3’ x 3’ dimension.  Attenuation lvl is less (<30 dB)  Concl : Not Recom1/14/2018 40
  40. 40.  EMI Shielding Gaskets – use to avoid gaps and completely contain the shielding 1/14/2018 41 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  41. 41.  Stainless Steel enclosures  Fabric Enclosures 1/14/2018 42 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  42. 42.  EMI Shielding Fabric - 35 to 45 dB Protection with double layer made of strong and conductive textile  Ni/Cu/Co Fabric Tape 1/14/2018 43 Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures
  43. 43. 1/14/2018 44 Final Req Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures Final Req
  44. 44. 1/14/2018 45 Preventive measure Faradays cage on double row (HAC) :- • Material – Copper (preferred steel) • Cage - 3-6 mm thickness • 80+ dB shielding protection • Double door EMP protected entry Surge protection device at svc entrance – Type 1 Surge protection device at distribution / sub panels – Type 2 Surge protection device at point of use (ferrites) – Type 3 Generator with 30+ days backup must be EMP protected Double conversion UPS Shielded cable Proper grounding Lightening arrester Proper cable layout (metal cable tray and tight bundles etc) Power Line Filters Data / Signal Line Filters
  45. 45. Definition Causes Effects Stds Preventive Measures Final Req
  46. 46. 1/14/2018 48

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