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Module #2
Florida Atlantic University
School of Social WorkFamily Violence:
Research Methodology, Assessment, and
Theories...
• Types of Research
• Research methodologies
• Theory
• Macro
• Micro
• Social Construction of Family Violence
• Next step...
Studying Family Violence
• Many fields are involved in the study of family violence
– Criminology
– Social work
– Sociolog...
Types of Research in Family
Violence
• Sociological
– Investigate through surveys
• Social Work
– Investigate through clin...
Types of Research in
Family Violence
• Public Health and Medical
– Investigate through epidemiological studies and
prevale...
Other Types of Research in
Family Violence
• Cross-Cultural/Global Inquiry
– Studying racial and ethnic minorities,
immigr...
Other Types of Research in
Family Violence
• Interdisciplinary Science
– Greater collaboration between
researchers/practit...
Early Methodologies in Family
Violence Research
• Early investigations were weak methodologically
• Shortcomings included:...
Current Methodologies in
Family Violence Research
• Advanced statistical techniques
– Structural equation modeling
– Multi...
Measurements in Family
Violence Research
• Sources of Data:
– Official Records
– Self-Reports
– Victimization and Perpetra...
Issues With Current
Measurements
• Growing recognition of psychological abuse
• Need for multiple measurements
• Lack of c...
Thought Questions
1. A granting agency is offering funding for a study
of the physiological reactions of infants to parent...
Thought Questions
2. A researcher from the field of criminology is
interested in understanding how some teenage boys
manag...
Thought Questions
3. A researcher desires to study elders in a nursing
home. She wants to study whether wealthier
resident...
Theoretical Explanations of
Family Violence
Theoretical Explanations of
Family Violence
• Theory – an integrated set of ideas that
explain a set of observations
– 2 a...
Macro-Theory Explanations
Macro-Theory Areas of Study:
• Cultural factors
• Social-structural variables
• Structural chara...
Micro-Theory Explanations
Micro-Theory Areas of Study:
• Learning Theories
• Individual Differences Theory
• Systems Theor...
Psychiatric Model
• Psychopathology theory: certain
individuals suffer from mental illness,
personality disorders, and oth...
Social-Psychological Model
• Social Learning Theory: integrates modeling
and reinforcement so that people with whom
one in...
Social-Psychological Model
• Frustration-Aggression Theory:
individuals will react aggressively when
some goal is blocked ...
Sociocultural Model
• Culture of Violence Theory: violence is
unevenly distributed with our society and
that violence is m...
Sociocultural Model
• Resource Theory: use of violence within a
relationship depends on the resources a
family member cont...
Group Homework
• Choose a theory that best explains family
violence and explain why and why not?
• Given what you have rea...
Case Example
• 35 y/o married man repeatedly hits
wife. He loves wife and is deeply
committed to her. He is seeking help
b...
Response
Make a written note of what first comes to
your mind in trying to make sense of this
behavior.
Which theoretical ...
Discovering Family Violence:
From Social Condition to Social
Problem
Discovering Family Violence:
From Social Condition to Social Problem
• Social Constructionist Perspective:
– Social proble...
Benefits of Social Constructionist
Agenda
• Provides a theoretical framework for
understanding family violence.
• Generate...
Historical Context:
Discovering Child Maltreatment
• In previous times children thought of as small and
inadequate version...
Child Victimization
• Factors contributing to society’s lack of
recognition of physical child abuse:
– Political powerless...
Historical Context:
Discovering Child Maltreatment
• First child abuse court case (Mary Ellen
Wilson, 8 yrs. old) was reso...
Excerpt from the Battered
Child Syndrome
The battered-child syndrome, a clinical condition in young children who
have rece...
Discovery of Child Abuse
• 1974: Passage of the Child Abuse
Prevention Act.
– Federal funding to states to combat abuse in...
Types of Child Maltreatment
• Physical abuse
• Neglect
• Psychological abuse
• Sexual abuse
• Children who witness violenc...
Historical Context:
Discovering Intimate Partner Violence
• Historically women were chattel
– English common law: “rule of...
Historical Context:
Discovering Intimate Partner Violence
• Society recognized violence against women
because of the women...
Types of Intimate Partner
Violence
• Abused/battered women
• Marital rape
• Dating violence
• Sexual assault among dating ...
Historical Context:
Discovering Elder Abuse
• 1962: Congress authorizes payments to
states for protective services
• 1974:...
Types of Elder Abuse
• Physical
• Emotional/psychological
• Neglect
• Self-neglect
• Abandonment
Discovery of Family Violence:
International Issues
• What are some “Customary Laws” widely
observed?
– China: infanticide
...
Discovery of Family Violence:
New and Emerging Issues
• What are some new and emerging issues?
• Violence between gay/lesb...
Practice, Policy, and Prevention
Issues
• Prevention (before): social and educational
– Family support/training programs
–...
What two important things did we discuss
today?
• Beloved Son Turns on His Father
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/mentally-ill-
youth-in-crisis/
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Family Violence: Research Methodology, Assessment, and Theories

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Family Violence: Research Methodology, Assessment, and Theories

  1. 1. Module #2 Florida Atlantic University School of Social WorkFamily Violence: Research Methodology, Assessment, and Theories Dr. Whiteman
  2. 2. • Types of Research • Research methodologies • Theory • Macro • Micro • Social Construction of Family Violence • Next steps, research, policy, and practice Agenda
  3. 3. Studying Family Violence • Many fields are involved in the study of family violence – Criminology – Social work – Sociology – Psychology – Public health • Advocates – Value-centered group with a political agenda • Feminism has played a role • Problems with divergent groups and opposing viewpoints
  4. 4. Types of Research in Family Violence • Sociological – Investigate through surveys • Social Work – Investigate through clinical samples • Criminological – Investigate through large data banks of crime statistics and through forensic samples • Psychological and Psychiatric – Investigate through small clinical samples and some large surveys
  5. 5. Types of Research in Family Violence • Public Health and Medical – Investigate through epidemiological studies and prevalence and incidence statistics • Neuroscience and Genetics – Investigate through laboratory studies • Legal Research – Investigate through reviews of family violence laws and academic literature to determine what legal changes are needed
  6. 6. Other Types of Research in Family Violence • Cross-Cultural/Global Inquiry – Studying racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, individuals living in rural areas, disabled people, those assigned to military duty, and individuals from countries around the world • Biobehavioral Research – Potential combining of the medical and psychological fields to study
  7. 7. Other Types of Research in Family Violence • Interdisciplinary Science – Greater collaboration between researchers/practitioners, agencies/practitioners, and researchers from different disciplines • Federal Government – Investigation of family violence through surveillance systems (monitoring/tracking) and data collection from large population samples • Youth Risk Behavior System (YBRS) – Increased funding of research projects and expanded collaboration
  8. 8. Early Methodologies in Family Violence Research • Early investigations were weak methodologically • Shortcomings included: – Lack of understanding in ethical principles – Inadequate methods of obtaining data – Underdeveloped theory – Imprecise definitions and methods of measurement – Faulty sampling – Failure to use optimal comparison groups – Overreliance on descriptive and cross-sectional investigations – Use of univariate rather than multivariate methods – Failure to replicate studies or integrate findings – Insufficient adjustments for cultural and ethnic differences
  9. 9. Current Methodologies in Family Violence Research • Advanced statistical techniques – Structural equation modeling – Multivariate and univariate designs • Issues still include: – Lack of random assignment – Lack of theoretical foundation – Lack of clear definitions and constant disagreements – Divergent samples of research participants – Lack of comparison groups – Difficult conducting longitudinal studies – A lack of diversity awareness
  10. 10. Measurements in Family Violence Research • Sources of Data: – Official Records – Self-Reports – Victimization and Perpetration Surveys – Informant Reports – Direct Observations • Scales: – Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS1) – Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64439/table/A47350/ ?report=objectonly – Parent-Child CTS
  11. 11. Issues With Current Measurements • Growing recognition of psychological abuse • Need for multiple measurements • Lack of cultural competence in assessments • Needs to estimate rates of family violence • Researcher training • Overreliance on univariate designs • Use of case histories and qualitative studies • Ethical issues
  12. 12. Thought Questions 1. A granting agency is offering funding for a study of the physiological reactions of infants to parents’ quarreling. • Researchers in which academic field(s) might want to apply for funding? Should there be an effort to assemble a multidisciplinary team? • Where might the researchers locate potential research subjects? • What type of ethical safeguards would they need to undertake? • What should the research design entail?
  13. 13. Thought Questions 2. A researcher from the field of criminology is interested in understanding how some teenage boys manage not to become bullies even though all their friends bully their schoolmates nearly every day. • As the researcher, would you be most interested in gathering data about the father’s arrest record, the family’s socioeconomic status, or obtaining DNA samples? • Would you prefer to study truant boys, incarcerated delinquents, or boys attending a medical clinic? • What theoretical formulation would best direct your research?
  14. 14. Thought Questions 3. A researcher desires to study elders in a nursing home. She wants to study whether wealthier residents get better care than poorer residents. She needs to gain permission from the nursing home’s director. What can she do to form a collaboration with the director? • Should the researcher present the director with a completed research design? If not, why not? • How can the researcher gain data from demented elders? Should she use their data? • Should she use interviews or develop a questionnaire?
  15. 15. Theoretical Explanations of Family Violence
  16. 16. Theoretical Explanations of Family Violence • Theory – an integrated set of ideas that explain a set of observations – 2 approaches: 1. Macro-theory – identify the broad factors that make families prone to violence 2. Micro-theory – identify factors that explain violence on an individual level
  17. 17. Macro-Theory Explanations Macro-Theory Areas of Study: • Cultural factors • Social-structural variables • Structural characteristics of the family • Inadequacies of deterrence • Situational impetus • Evolutionary theory Macro-Theory Variables: • Approval of violence/corporal punishment • Patriarchy • Socialization • Feminist theories • Stress-producing elements • Unequal opportunity • Poverty • Deterrence theory • punishment
  18. 18. Micro-Theory Explanations Micro-Theory Areas of Study: • Learning Theories • Individual Differences Theory • Systems Theory and Interactional Theories • Correlates and Single Factor Variables • Multidimensional Theories Macro-Theory Variables: • Modeling • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning • Avoidance conditioning • Trauma theory • Revictimization • Psychopathology • Trait differences • Attachment needs and anger • Poverty • Drug use
  19. 19. Psychiatric Model • Psychopathology theory: certain individuals suffer from mental illness, personality disorders, and other dysfunctions that cause them to engage in aggressive actions. – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szcsT3pO uBw • Substance abuse theory: drugs or alcohol cause or contribute to family violence
  20. 20. Social-Psychological Model • Social Learning Theory: integrates modeling and reinforcement so that people with whom one interacts are the reinforcers of behavior that results in learning. • Exchange Theory: family violence is based on a determination of cost and rewards. Gelles suggests “people hit family members because they can”. – Criminal sanctions have been the exception rather than the rule.
  21. 21. Social-Psychological Model • Frustration-Aggression Theory: individuals will react aggressively when some goal is blocked or frustrated. • Ecological Theory: family violence occurs when the parent, child, and family are mismatched with the neighborhood and community. Disabled children more at risk for abuse.
  22. 22. Sociocultural Model • Culture of Violence Theory: violence is unevenly distributed with our society and that violence is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic sectors of society • Social Conflict Theory: unacknowledged alienation and shame generate violence within the family
  23. 23. Sociocultural Model • Resource Theory: use of violence within a relationship depends on the resources a family member controls
  24. 24. Group Homework • Choose a theory that best explains family violence and explain why and why not? • Given what you have read what two interventions would be most successful working with your group/population of interest?
  25. 25. Case Example • 35 y/o married man repeatedly hits wife. He loves wife and is deeply committed to her. He is seeking help because he is afraid of losing her. How do we make sense of his hitting someone he loves? Not only that, he feels bad about it but it still keeps happening.
  26. 26. Response Make a written note of what first comes to your mind in trying to make sense of this behavior. Which theoretical perspectives seem to be “better” ways of understanding this puzzling behavior?
  27. 27. Discovering Family Violence: From Social Condition to Social Problem
  28. 28. Discovering Family Violence: From Social Condition to Social Problem • Social Constructionist Perspective: – Social problems “discovered” through process of social reaction and definition – Claimsmakers: ind./group concerned about “unacceptable” condition raises awareness – Those who win a debate about a social issue, define the problem
  29. 29. Benefits of Social Constructionist Agenda • Provides a theoretical framework for understanding family violence. • Generates numerous research questions that require investigation. • Illustrates the use of research in ongoing debates about family violence. • Helps to explain cross-cultural variations in definitions of family violence.
  30. 30. Historical Context: Discovering Child Maltreatment • In previous times children thought of as small and inadequate versions of adults • Children as women did not have “rights” or legal protections • Children considered property – http://youtu.be/iBN9T18QSCI
  31. 31. Child Victimization • Factors contributing to society’s lack of recognition of physical child abuse: – Political powerlessness – The belief that children were small versions of parents – Historically children have been regarded as property of parents – Children considered economic drain on the family
  32. 32. Historical Context: Discovering Child Maltreatment • First child abuse court case (Mary Ellen Wilson, 8 yrs. old) was resolved uner the Prevention to Cruelty to Animals. • 1946: Dr. Caffey reported children with long bone fractures and injuries were a result of trauma. • 1961: Dr. Kemp coined the phrase “battered child syndrome”. Society recognized parents do willfully abuse
  33. 33. Excerpt from the Battered Child Syndrome The battered-child syndrome, a clinical condition in young children who have received serious physical abuse, is a frequent cause of permanent injury or death. The syndrome should be considered in any child exhibiting evidence of fracture of any bone, subdural hematoma, failure to thrive, soft tissue swellings or skin bruising, in any child who dies suddenly, or where the degree and type of injury is at variance with the history given regarding the occurrence of the trauma. Psychiatric factors are probably of prime importance in the pathogenesis of the disorder, but knowledge of these factors is limited. Physicians have a duty and responsibility to the child to require a full evaluation of the problem and to guarantee that no expected repetition of trauma will be permitted to occur. *The full recognition of child abuse as a social problem occurred when doctors described the battered child syndrome.
  34. 34. Discovery of Child Abuse • 1974: Passage of the Child Abuse Prevention Act. – Federal funding to states to combat abuse in it various forms.
  35. 35. Types of Child Maltreatment • Physical abuse • Neglect • Psychological abuse • Sexual abuse • Children who witness violence • Sibling abuse • Abused and abusive adolescents
  36. 36. Historical Context: Discovering Intimate Partner Violence • Historically women were chattel – English common law: “rule of thumb” law – Women had very few legal rights as individuals separate from their husbands. – Restitution for rape of a wife was paid to the husband not the wife. – Early marriage laws allowed a man to hit his wife to “keep her in line.”
  37. 37. Historical Context: Discovering Intimate Partner Violence • Society recognized violence against women because of the women’s movement. – 1848: Women’s Rights Convention • Right to vote (1920) – 1960s and ‘70s: feminist movement • NOW • Chiswick Women’s Aid • National Coalition Against Domestic Violence – 1996: Violence Against Women Act
  38. 38. Types of Intimate Partner Violence • Abused/battered women • Marital rape • Dating violence • Sexual assault among dating couples • Stalking
  39. 39. Historical Context: Discovering Elder Abuse • 1962: Congress authorizes payments to states for protective services • 1974: Mandate for all states to provide protective services • 1978: Hearings on “parent battering” • 1989: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
  40. 40. Types of Elder Abuse • Physical • Emotional/psychological • Neglect • Self-neglect • Abandonment
  41. 41. Discovery of Family Violence: International Issues • What are some “Customary Laws” widely observed? – China: infanticide – India: dowry payments – Afghanistan: Taliban – Chile: “private violence” – Russia: 14,000 intimate homicides annually – Africa/Mideast: female genital mutilation
  42. 42. Discovery of Family Violence: New and Emerging Issues • What are some new and emerging issues? • Violence between gay/lesbian partners – Rates similar to heterosexuals • Cross-cultural factors: Haitian, Latino – Authoritarian parenting styles in some cultures – Higher levels of risk factors – Social isolation
  43. 43. Practice, Policy, and Prevention Issues • Prevention (before): social and educational – Family support/training programs – School-based programs – Community awareness campaigns • Intervention (after): societal responses – Mandatory reporting laws – Family preservation, foster care, adoption – Criminal justice issues – Offender/victim treatment – Shelters/hotlines – Coordinated community responses
  44. 44. What two important things did we discuss today?
  45. 45. • Beloved Son Turns on His Father http://www.cbsnews.com/news/mentally-ill- youth-in-crisis/

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