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  1. English Module 2 (BES-ENG12) By :Mr. Eben Ezer Kalola 2021
  2. Welcome • Welcome to the Subject English 2. In this module you will have the opportunity to acquaint yourself with the further features and structures of the English language.
  3. Exit learning outcomes Upon completion of this module you should be able to: • Explain how to develop further reading skills. • Describe how to develop preparatory writing competencies. • Describe how to develop learners’ further writing skills. • Explain learner support for writing difficulties. • Explain methods and materials to teach and assess these outcomes.
  4. Assessment • You will be required to do one assignment of 130 marks which must be submitted for this module. • A pass mark of 50% is required in this assignment to get admission to the examination. • The examination question paper will have the same format as the assignment. It will count for 130 marks and has a 3-hour duration. • A final pass mark of 50% is requires (60% of the written examination PLUS 40% of the assignment/ semester mark)
  5. Units covered • Unit 3: Teaching methods and activities for improving learners’ reading • Unit 4: Additional reading development issues • Unit 5: Issues of assessing areas of language development
  6. The syllabus aims for ‘reading’. • The overall aim of teaching English as a second language is the development of the learners ‘communicative skills for meaningful interaction in a multilingual and multi-cultural society.’
  7. The syllabus promotes the following general aims: • to support creativity and intellectual development • to help learners develop self-confidence and a better understanding of the world in which they live • to develop positive attitudes, values and an understanding of local, social and cultural issues • to develop greater awareness of health and population issues, democracy and human rights, information and technology, HIV and AIDS, the environment and individual responsibilities regarding these and to enable learners to talk, read and write about them English Second Language Syllabus Gr 5-7 NIED 2006 2
  8. The syllabus promotes the following specific aims: • to enable learners to communicate effectively in speech and writing in their second language • to enable learners to express thoughts, ideas, experiences and values as an essential part of personal development • to develop proficiency in the medium of instruction
  9. Games for teaching vocabulary in the classroom • Vocabulary games are very effective to teach students new words. They help the students to learn new words easily. • When vocabulary games are used to teach new words, the students are totally involved in learning the process. • They concentrate on the spelling and sound of the word. • Moreover, vocabulary games make learning new words great fun, rather than a monotonous task. • Find the word, cross the word, miming, draw the word, how many times, word bag and Word recognition
  10. Young children's oral language development • Almost all children learn the rules of their language at an early age through use, and over time, without formal instruction. Thus one source for learning must be genetic. • Human beings are born to speak; they have an innate gift for figuring out the rules of the language used in their environment. • Children learn the specific variety of language (dialect) that the important people around them speak.
  11. Oral language components • Oral language, the complex system that relates sounds to meanings, is made up of three components: the phonological, semantic, and syntactic.
  12. The phonological component • It involves the rules for combining sounds. Speakers of English, for example, know that an English word can end, but not begin, with an - ng sound. • We are not aware of our knowledge of these rules, but our ability to understand and pronounce English words demonstrates that we do know a vast number of rules.
  13. The semantic component • It is made up of morphemes, the smallest units of meaning that may be combined with each other to make up words (for example, paper + s are the two morphemes that make up papers), and sentences (Brown, 1973).
  14. The syntactic component • It consists of the rules that enable us to combine morphemes into sentences. • As soon as a child uses two morphemes together, as in "more cracker," she is using a syntactic rule about how morphemes are combined to convey meaning.
  15. Why is reading so important? • Reading is fundamental to function in today's society. • Reading is a vital skill in finding a good job. • Reading is important because it develops the mind. • It is how we discover new things. • Reading develops imagination. • Reading develops the creative side of people. • Reading is fundamental in developing a good self -image. • Good reading skills, especially in a phonics reading program, improve spelling. • Reading is important because words - spoken and written - are the building blocks of life.
  16. Post reading activities • Post-reading activities are intended to revisit and respond to the content which was read while also focusing on language development. • Post-reading activities help students develop reading strategies as they process and make sense of the text and how it relates to them. • For example, discussing words and concepts with other students using graphic organizers helps them strengthen their language development and reading skills.
  17. Types of writing • There are five main types of writing: expository, descriptive, narrative persuasive and creative. There are many other subtypes that fall under these titles but it's easiest to start here.
  18. Expository writing • Expository writing is where the author intends to inform, explain, describe or define their subject to you. • This is the most common type of writing you will find in text books and online. • As the author is mostly trying to tell you all about the subject, their opinions are left out leaving you with facts and figures instead of trying to defend or support an opinion.
  19. Descriptive writing • Descriptive writing uses a lot of great visual words to help you see the person, place or thing they are writing about. • The writing can be poetic at times, and explain things in great detail. • When you are reading descriptive writing you feel as if you are there or can actually picture in your mind what they are describing. • Metaphors, similes and symbols are often used in descriptive writing.
  20. Narrative writing • This is very common in novels, poetry and biographies. • The author puts themselves in their characters shoes and writes as if they were that person. • They tell life stories and involve plots and storylines. • Narrative is fun to read because you can replace the author with yourself and it will seem as if the story is happening to you.
  21. Persuasive writing • Persuasive writing takes on the opinion of the writer or issue the writer is writing for. • This is considered biased material and is most often found in advertising. • You know all of those commercials you see on television? Behind all the talk and messages is a persuasive writer. • Always make sure you do background research when reading this type of material, as every story has two sides!
  22. Feedback • Learning is an active process. • To learn, we need to plan what we're going to do; attempt to do it; and then receive feedback on our work. • We then use this feedback to improve the work we have just done; or, more often in education, to ensure that the next work we do embraces what we have learned. • Feedback also affects how we feel about our work, and inevitably also about ourselves; feedback thus also affects student motivation.
  23. Useful and efficient feedback • Your negative comments have a more powerful impact on students than do your positive ones. Go easy on the negatives; use them where appropriate, but always back them up with suggestions on how to do better next time. • Students are very interested in marks and grades. On ungraded work, they may take more interest in your feedback if you tell them what grade it would have got, and why, and what they could have done to get a higher grade. • Protect your own time. Note how long the first set of feedback you give takes. Keep noting how long you spend on feedback. • Ask your students how useful they find your feedback, and what you could do to make it more useful to them. They'll probably be happy to tell you!