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Human rights have been defined by the United Nations as rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Human rights include to right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of expression, the right to work and education and others. Everyone is entitled to these rights without discrimination.
individuals and groups
against actions which
and human dignity
Rights inherent to all
regardless of race, sex,
language, religion, or
any other status
— RODRIGO DUTERTE
“In the first place, I’d
like to be frank with
you: Are they humans?
What is your definition
of a human being?”
from being a
member of the
Not granted by
any person or
the life and
dignity will be
applies to all.
Cannot be lost
even by a long
passage of time
Not capable of
one cannot be
had without the
realization of the
mostly to political
and civil rights
and cultural rights
a.k.a. collective or
a.k.a. digital rights
A declaration and
enumeration of a
person’s rights and
privileges which the
designed to protect
(De Leon, 2005).
It is a charter of
liberties for the
individual and a
limitation upon the
power of the State
(De Leon, 2005).
Here in the
Philippines, Article III
of the 1987
basic rights of an
1. Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR)
2. International Covenant on Civil
and Political Rights (ICCPR)
3. The International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural
● The basic international statement of the
inalienable rights of human beings.
● It is the first comprehensive international human
rights instrument. It covers civil and political rights,
and economic, social and cultural rights.
● There are 27 rights guaranteed under the UDHR
(refer to your handout).
● Rights covered by UDHR are customary
international law, hence, even during the times
when the bill of rights under the Constitution are
inoperative, rights under UDHR remained in effect.
● Example: The interregnum from February 26, 1986
(the day Corazon C. Aquino took her oath as
President) to March 24, 1986 (immediately before
the adoption of the Freedom Constitution)
• It is an international covenant and is binding on the
respective state parties. It commits its parties to
respect the civil and political rights of individuals.
It includes the 1st generation of human rights.
• There are 23 rights guaranteed under the ICCPR
(refer to your handout).
• In times of public emergency which threatens the
life of the nation and the existence of which is
officially proclaimed, parties may take measures
to derogate from their obligations to the extent
strictly required by the exigencies of the situation.
1. Right to life
2. Freedom from torture
or cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment
3. Freedom from slavery
4. Freedom from imprisonment
for failure to fulfill a contractual obligation
5. Freedom from ex post facto laws
6. Right to recognition as a person before the law
7. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
• First Optional Protocol: Allows victims claiming
to be victims of human rights violations to be
• Second Optional Protocol: Aims to abolish the
death penalty. The Philippines is a signatory to
the Second Optional Protocol.
● Treaties are legally binding written agreements
concluded between States; officially known as
conventions or covenants.
● Under the doctrine of pacta sunct servanda,
once treaty is ratified, the State is bound to
faithfully comply with its treaty obligations
● There are 10 core international human rights
1. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
3. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or
Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
4. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)
5. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
6. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
7. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights
of All Migrant Workers and Members
of Their Families (ICMW)
8. International Convention for the Protection of All Persons
from Enforced Disappearance (CPED)
9. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)
10. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (CRSR)
“The rights of every man
are diminished when the
rights of one man are
CREDITS: This presentation template was
created by Slidesgo, including icons by
Flaticon, and infographics & images by
● Bernas, Joaquin. (2009). The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines: A
Commentary. Quezon City: Rex Printing Company.
● De Leon, Hector. (2005). Textbook on the Philippine Constitution.
Quezon City: Rex Printing Company.
● Coquia, Jorge Rioflorido. (2000). Human rights : An Introductory
Course. Quezon City, Philippines : Central Professional Books
● Petralba, Pepita Jane. (2013). Hornbook on International and
Philippine Human Right Laws. Manila : Rex Book Store
● Republic vs. Sandiganbayan, 407 SCRA 10, G.R. No. 104768 July 21,