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Here you will get the details of sensor working in body and our main focus in this topic is on energy effeciency

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  1. 1. Body Area Networks Application and challenges and perspectives in emerging body area networks
  2. 2. Body Area Networks Contents          Introduction to WBAN WBAN Architecture WBAN Applications WBAN Challenges Objectives My specific area of research Major Reasons for signal Attenuations ,Fading and Distortion Some Reference protocols functioning at the MAC Layer References
  3. 3. Body Area Networks What is BAN • There has been increasing interest from researchers, system designers, and application developers on a new type of network architecture • This architecture is known as Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) or Body Area Networks (BANs) • This has been made feasible by novel advances on lightweight, small-size, ultra-low-power, and intelligent monitoring wearable sensors • Sensors continuously monitor human’s physiological activities and actions, such as health status and motion pattern.
  4. 4. Body Area Networks Introduction of WBAN A wireless body area network (WBAN) is a radio frequency (RF) based wireless networking technology It interconnects tiny nodes with sensor or actuator capabilities in, on or around a human body. WBAN is a special kind of network, which is designed and develops for Human body, to monitor, manage and communicate different vital signs of human body like temperature, Blood pressure, ECG etc. These vital signs can be monitored by using different sensor installed on clothes or on the body or even under the skin.
  5. 5. Body Area Networks Positioning of WBAN
  6. 6. Body Area Networks BAN Requirements
  7. 7. Body Area Networks Architecture of BAN WBAN Architecture is of 2 types WBAN Architecture consists of: Wireless Sensor Flat Architecture Multi-Tier Architecture Wireless Actuator Node Wireless Central Unit Wireless Personal Device (PD)
  8. 8. Body Area Networks Architecture of BAN (contd.)
  9. 9. Body Area Networks Architecture of BAN (contd.)
  10. 10. Body Area Networks Architecture of BAN (contd.) Wireless Node : A device that responds to and gathers data on physical stimuli, processes the data if necessary and reports this information wirelessly. Wireless Actuator Node : The patient has actuators which act as a drug-delivery systems. The medicine can be delivered on predetermined moments triggered by an external source (i.e. doctor) or immediately when sensors notice a problem. Wireless Central Unit : Central Unit is responsible to establish communication between sensors, actuators and cellular phone in wireless fashion Wireless Personal Device : Also known as Body Control Unit (BCU), body gateway or a sink, can be dedicated unit or in some implementations Personal Digital Assistant(PDA) or smartphone can be used. The main purpose of this unit is t collect all the information attained by the sensors and actuators and communicate to the user via an external gateway
  11. 11. Body Area Networks WSN Vs. WBAN
  12. 12. Body Area Networks Applications of WBAN Medical Treatment & Diagnosis • Initial applications of WBANs are expected to appear primarily in the healthcare domain, especially for continuous monitoring and logging vital parameters of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma and heart attacks. Public safety & preventing medical accidents • Sensor Network can maintain a log of previous medical accidents and can notify the occurrence of the same accident Safeguarding uniformed personnel • WBAN can be used by firefighters, policemen or in a military environment. The WBAN monitors the level of toxics in the air and warn the firefighters or soldiers if a life-threatening level is detected. Consumer Electronics • A WBAN can include appliances such as an MP3-player,headmounted displays, Microphone etc.
  13. 13. Body Area Networks Applications of WBAN
  14. 14. Body Area Networks Applications of WBAN
  15. 15. Body Area Networks Sensors used in BAN Piezoelectric disk generates a voltage when deformed (change in shape is greatly exaggerated) Temporary temperature sensor catheter probe : A pair of matched thermistors at the tip of a catheter can be guided to different locations of the heart to measure blood flow. Micro-Thermocouple sensors are flexible fine gage thermocouples used whenever fast, accurate temperature measurements are required. Disposable blood pressure sensor (DPS): There are several disposable sensors where the sensor is located externally from the body although body fluids come in contact with it.
  16. 16. Body Area Networks Devices & External Applications Medical devices use sensors for external applications in which neither medication nor body fluids come in contact with the sensors. In most cases, these are nondisposables. They can be used in either hospital or homecare applications. Examples include: Force load cells for infusion pumps that detect occlusion (tube blockage) Magneto-resistive sensors in syringe pumps to detect flow rate, empty syringe and occlusion String pot position sensors used for remote surgical tool positioning and patient bed positioning for x-rays/CT scans Extremely small MEMS-based accelerometers to measure tremors in patients with Parkinson’s disease
  17. 17. Body Area Networks Devices & External Applications Piezoelectric (and also pyroelectric) sensors for sleep apnea study Piezo film transmitter/receiver detects presence of bubbles in infusion pumps/syringe pumps MEMS and load cell-based sensors for the conservation of oxygen and monitor oxygen tank levels NTC temperature sensors to measure skin/body temperature MEMS-based pressure sensors for cuff blood pressure sensor kits
  18. 18. Body Area Networks Challenges of WBAN Interoperability Scalability System devices System and devicelevel security • WBAN systems would have to ensure seamless data transfer across standards such as Bluetooth, Zigbee etc. to promote information exchange. • The systems would have to scalable, ensure efficient migration across networks and offer uninterrupted connectivity. • The sensors used in WBAN would have to be low on complexity, small in form factor, light in weight, power efficient, easy to use and reconfigurable. • Considerable effort would be required to make BAN transmission secure and accurate.
  19. 19. Body Area Networks Challenges of WBAN Invasion of privacy: Sensor validation: Data consistency: Interference: • People might consider the WBAN technology as a potential threat to freedom, if the applications go beyond “secure” medical usage. • Pervasive sensing devices are subject to inherent communication and hardware constraints including unreliable wired/wireless networks links interference and limited power reserves. This may result in erroneous datasets being transmitted back to the end user. • If medical practitioner’s mobile device does not contain all the information then the quality of patient care may degrade. • The wireless link used for body sensors should reduce the interference and increase the coexistence of sensor node devices with other network devices available in the environment.
  20. 20. Body Area Networks Objectives • The mobility pattern of on-body sensor nodes be effectively designed to assist in designing a mobility pattern-based communication protocol. • An effective communication protocol will be proposed taking in to consideration the network partitioning with postural mobility. • Routing protocol will be proposed keeping in mind constraints of wireless channels and power constraints of sensor nodes. • For performance viewpoint, developed Protocols will be compared with some existing Protocols.
  21. 21. Proposed Model Tier-2: Personal Server Tier-3: Medical Server Tier-1: WBAN
  22. 22. Body Area Networks My Specific Area of Research Since mobility happens to be a major factor which leads to problems like signal attenuation as well as signal distortion, my specific area of research would be to find out the best possible methods so that effective communication could be carried and the purpose of constant monitoring of human physiology as well as keeping the medical server updated with the current situation of any ailment which the patient is facing. Here we are particularly dealing with the medical and health monitoring application of Body area networks and my objective would be to provide the most effective methodology or protocol which helps provide uninterrupted communications between the monitoring nodes and the personal device assistant(PDA). Specific layer to deal with :Data Link Layer
  23. 23. Body Area Networks Major Reasons for signal Attenuations, Fading and Distortion At channel bandwidths typical of narrowband BAN systems, the radio channel has been shown to be essentially slow and flat-fading, with an insignificant amount of intersymbol interference from multipath. Consequently, the received signal strength is a good measure of the channel at any point in time. That said, the movement of the human body has a dramatic effect on the strength of the received signal; hence, static measurements of the BAN channel at a single point in time provide limited useful information to those designing BAN systems; long-term measurements, which are characterized statistically and capture a wide variety of “everyday activities,” are far more relevant.
  24. 24. Body Area Networks Some Reference protocols functioning at the MAC Layer There are a number of existing standards, such as: Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless Body area networks (WBANs) • Bluetooth: Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994,[2] it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
  25. 25. Body Area Networks Some Reference protocols functioning at the MAC Layer • IEEE 802.15.4 standard: IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). It is maintained by the IEEE 802.15 working group. It is the basis for the ZigBee,[1] ISA100.11a,[2] WirelessHART, and MiWi specifications, each of which further extends the standard by developing the upper layers which are not defined in IEEE 802.15.4.
  26. 26. Body Area Networks Some Reference protocols functioning at the MAC Layer • Zigbee: ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols used to create personal area networks built from small, low-power digital radios. ZigBee is based on an IEEE 802.15 standard. Though low-powered, ZigBee devices often transmit data over longer distances by passing data through intermediate devices to reach more distant ones, creating a mesh network; i.e., a network with no centralized control or high-power transmitter/receiver able to reach all of the networked devices. The decentralized nature of such wireless ad hoc networks make them suitable for applications where a central node can't be relied upon.
  27. 27. Body Area Networks Some Reference protocols functioning at the MAC Layer • IEEE 802.15.6 MAC : The IEEE 802.15.6 MAC also offers a great deal of flexibility by offering a number of different access modes. As do other lowpower standards, 802.15.6 employs a network coordinator, which sends out beacons to organize time into superframes (i.e., intervals between beacons) and slots (i.e., small intervals within a superframe allocated using a multiple access mode). Using IEEE 802.15.4 as a baseline for comparison, IEEE 802.15.6 adds polling/posting, also known as “improvised access,” whereby the hub/coordinator can inform sensor nodes that they have been granted one-off exclusive time slots to transmit or receive information.
  28. 28. Body Area Networks Improvised techniques for better communications: • Dynamic slot allocation: This technique increases reliability without increasing energy consumption. • Scheduling the retransmissions: The third technique concerns outages that last too long to be remedied with retransmissions by employing relay nodes. • Controlling the transmit power :This technique explores the potential of transmission power control and can be applied concurrently with the previously mentioned techniques.
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