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One Hundred Aspects of the Moon

This ebook is a collection of large, moon-themed nishiki-e (multicolored woodblock prints) by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839?92). The 100 prints were published in batches by Akiyama Buemon between 1885 and 1892.

They depict various aspects of the moon, drawing upon Japanese and Chinese anecdotes, historical events, and mythology, and relate to a wide range of subjects, including famous warriors, notable women, birds and animals, and goblins and ghosts.

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One Hundred Aspects of the Moon

  1. 1. books de anima By Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ONE HUNDRED ASPECTS OF THE MOON
  2. 2. Copyright: De Anima Graphics & Books ISBN-13: 978-1532914287 ISBN-10: 1532914288 Cover: Claudio Hideki Kurahayashi Oshi-e art: Kiyomi Hatai Kurahayashi 2016 De Anima Graphics & Books São Paulo, SP - Brazil
  3. 3. By Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ONE HUNDRED ASPECTS OF THE MOON
  4. 4. 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 19 About The Work 8 Tsukioka Yoshitoshi’s Life and Career 9 1885 1886
  5. 5. 54 62 69 77 78 79 80 88 89 90 91 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 63 64 65 66 67 68 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 1887 1888 1889
  6. 6. 92 100 109 99 107 108 93 101 110 94 102 111 95 103 96 104 97 105 98 106 1890 1891 1892
  7. 7. books de anima By Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ONE HUNDRED ASPECTS OF THE MOON
  8. 8. Tsuki Hyakushi (One Hundred Aspects of the Moon) is a collection of large, moon-themed nishiki-e (multicolored woodblock prints) by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi. This series is generally re- garded today as Yoshitoshi’s greatest achievment. Many of the prints are masterpieces as good as anything ever done by any ukiyo-e artist. The 100 prints were published in batches by Akiya- ma Buemon between 1885 and 1892. They depict various aspects of the moon, drawing upon Japa- nese and Chinese anecdotes, historical events, and mythology, and relate to a wide range of subjects, including famous warriors, notable women, birds and animals, and goblins and ghosts. The sixth picture, for example, depicts the warlord Cao Cao (155–220), famous as the main character in Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi (Romance of the Three Kingdoms), gazing at a full moon on the night be- fore the Battle of Red Cliffs. The fifty-seventh pic- ture shows Murasaki Shikibu (born circa 978) at a mountain temple, deep in thought while look- ing at the moon. It is said that the idea for Genji Monogatari (The tale of Genji), came to Murasaki while she was looking at a full moon from a temple. This document is a folding book consisting of all 100 prints from Tsuki Hyakushi and two indexes that were created after the series was completed. It is believed to have been bound by its former own- er. A preface that was written at the same time as the indexes were compiled is not included in the book. Scholars believe that the order of the pic- tures in the album does not follow the order in which they were published, but instead their order in the indexes, although there are some variations. 8
  9. 9. Tsukioka Yoshitoshi was an ukiyo-e artist from the school of Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797–1861), active from the Bakumatsu (final years of the Sho- gunate) into the Meiji Period. He created a wide range of works, including bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women), fuzoku-ga (pictures of manners and customs), and pictures of historical and liter- ary characters. He was born in old Edo, in 1839. His father was a rich merchant who had bought his way into samu- rai status, but Yoshitoshi left home at the age of 3 to live with his uncle, a son-less pharmacist, who was very fond of his nephew. Yoshitoshi was originally named Owariya Yone- jiro, and was given the name Yoshitoshi by his master Kuniyoshi, one of great masters of the Jap- anese woodblock print, to whom he was appren- ticed at 11, in 1850. Although he was not seen as Kuniyoshi’s successor in his lifetime, he is now recognized as the chief pupil of Kuniyoshi. His career spanned two eras - the last years of the old feudal Japan, and the first years of the new modern Japan. Like many Japanese, while inter- ested in the new things from the rest of the world, over time he became increasingly concerned with the loss of many outstanding things from the tra- ditional Japan, among them the traditional wood- block print. His early work is full of extremely graphic violence and death, perhaps mirroring the lawlessness and violence of the Japan around him, which was si- multaneously going through the breakdown of the feudal system imposed by the Tokugawa shoguns, as well as the impact of the West. During this peri- od his fame grew, and by 1869 he was regarded as one of the best woodblock artists in Japan. Shortly thereafter, he ceased to receive comissions, perhaps because the public were tired of scenes of violence. By 1871, he became severely depressed, and his personal life became one of great turmoil, which was to continue sporadically until his death.Yoshitoshi’s memorial portrait by Kanaki Toshikage 9
  10. 10. He lived in appalling conditions with his devoted mistress, Okoto, who sold off her clothes and pos- sessions to support him. At one point they were re- duced to burning the floor-boards from the house for warmth. His fortunes started to turn by 1873, when his mood improved, and he started to produce more prints. Newspapers sprung up in the moderniza- tion drive, and Yoshitoshi was hired to produced prints for one. His financial condition was still precarious, though, and in 1876, his mistress Okoto, in a ges- ture of devotion which is typically Japanese, but hard for us to understand, sold herself to a brothel to help him. With the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, in which the old feudal order made one last attempt to stop the new Japan, newspaper circulation soared, and woodblock artists were in demand, with Yoshi- toshi most of all. The prints he did gave him public recognition, and the money was a help, but it was not until 1882 that he was secure. In late 1877, he took up with a new mistress, the geisha Oraku; like Okotu, she sold her clothes and possessions to support him, and when they sep- arated after a year, she too hired herself out to a brothel. By this point, the woodblock industry was in se- vere straits. All the great woodblock artists of the early part of the century, Hiroshige, Kunisada, and Kuniyoshi, had all died, and the wooblock print as an art form was dying in the confusion of modern- izing Japan. Yoshitoshi insisted on high standards of production, and helped save it temporarily from degeneracy. In 1880, he met another woman, a former Geisha with two children, Sakamaki Taiko. They were married in 1884, and while he continued to phi- lander, her gentle and patient manner seems to have helped stabilize him. His last years were among his most productive, with his great series “One Hundred Aspects of the Moon” (1885-1892), and “New Forms of Thirty-Six Ghosts” (often called simply “Thirty-Six Ghosts”) (1889-1892), as well as some masterful triptychs of kabuki theatre actors and scenes. During this period he also cooperated with his friend, the actor Danjuro, and others, in an at- tempt to save some of the traditional Japanese arts. In his last years, his mental problems started to recur. In early 1891 he invited friends to a gath- ering of artists that turned out to be a delusion. After more symptoms, he was admitted to mental hospital. He eventually left, in May 1892, but did not return home, instead renting rooms. He died there three weeks later, on June 9, 1892, from a cerebral hemorrhage. He was only 53 years old. During his life, he produced a large number of triptychs, and many series of prints, many of great merit, including his two best-known, “Thir- ty-Six Ghosts” and the “One Hundred Aspects of 10
  11. 11. the Moon”. Other less-common ones are almost equally good, including “Yoshitoshi’s Finest War- riors”, “A Collection of Desires”, “Eight Elements of Honor” and “Thirty-Two Aspects of Customs and Manners” (the latter all series of bijin). While demand for his prints continued for a few years, eventually interest in him waned, both in Japan, and around the world. The canonical view in this period was that the generation of Hiroshige was really the last of the great woodblock artists, and more traditional collectors stopped even ear- lier, at the generation of Utamaro and Toyokuni. However, starting in the 1970’s, interest in him resumed, and reappraisal of his work has shown the quality, originality and genius of the best of it, and the degree to which he succeeded in keep- ing the best of the old Japanese woodblock print, while pushing the field forward by incorporating both new ideas from the West, as well as his own innovations. Sources: J. Noel Chiappa Library of Congress 11
  12. 12. 12 Cooling off at Shijō
  13. 13. 13 “Full moon on the tatami mats Shadows of the pine branches” Kikaku
  14. 14. 14 Inaba Mountain Moon
  15. 15. 15 The village of the Shi Clan on a moonlit night Nine-Dragon Tattoo from “The Water Margin”
  16. 16. 16 Moonlight patrol Saitō Toshimitsu
  17. 17. 17 Rising moon over Mount Nanping Cao Cao
  18. 18. 18 “By now you must be near Komakata A cuckoo calls” Takao
  19. 19. 19 The Gion District
  20. 20. 20 Winter moon at Asano river
  21. 21. 21 Chang’e flies to the moon
  22. 22. 22 Mountain moon after rain Tokimune
  23. 23. 23 A glimpse of the moon Kaoyo
  24. 24. 24 Cassia-Tree Moon Wu Gang
  25. 25. 25 Moon at Chikubu Island Tsunemasa
  26. 26. 26 “On the coast at Kiyomi even the sky bars the Way The moon is blocked by the Miho pine groves”
  27. 27. 27 Dawn moon of the Shinto rites Festival on a hill
  28. 28. 28 Inamura promontory moon at daybreak
  29. 29. 29 Moon of Itsukushima A Muro courtesan
  30. 30. 30 An iron cauldron and the moon at night Kobuna no Gengo and Shimaya Hanzō
  31. 31. 31 Mount Yoshino midnight moon Iga no Tsubone
  32. 32. 32 Moon above the sea at Daimotsu bay Benkei
  33. 33. 33 The Moon of the Milky Way
  34. 34. 34 Moon of the pleasure quarters
  35. 35. 35 Shujaku Gate Moon Hakuga Sammi
  36. 36. 36 Takakura Moon Hasebe Nobutsura
  37. 37. 37 Moon of the enemy’s lair Prince Ousu
  38. 38. 38 Mount Jiming Moon Zi Fang
  39. 39. 39 Moon over theater district at dawn
  40. 40. 40 Moon and Smoke
  41. 41. 41 Mount Otowa Moon Bright God Tamura
  42. 42. 42 “How hopeless it is It would be better for me to sink beneath the waves Perhaps then I could see my man from moon capital” Ariko
  43. 43. 43 The moon’s inner vision Te no Yubai
  44. 44. 44 The cry of the fox
  45. 45. 45 Gravemaker Moon
  46. 46. 46 The moon at Ogurusu in Yamashiro
  47. 47. 47 Moon at Yamaki mansion Kagekado
  48. 48. 48 The moon through a crumbling window
  49. 49. 49 Kitayama Moon Toyohara Sumiaki
  50. 50. 50 “I listen to the sound of the cloth being pounded As the moon shines serenely And believe that there is someone else Who has not yet gone to sleep” Tsunenobu
  51. 51. 51 The Yūgao Chapter from “The Tale of Genji”
  52. 52. 52 Faith in the third-day moon Yukimori
  53. 53. 53 “Glimmers like bright snow and plum blossoms appear like reflected stars Ah! The golden mirror of the moon passes overhead as fragrance from the Jade Chamber fills the garden” Sugawara no Michizane
  54. 54. 54 “Usually I dislike a cloud sky Tonight I realize that a cloud sky makes me appreciate the light of the moon” Gen’i
  55. 55. 55 Mount Tobinosu dawn moon Toda Hanbei Shigeyuki
  56. 56. 56 “In the midst of glimmering whiteness among the night’s moon-shadows I part the snow and pluck plum blossoms” Fujiwara no Kinto
  57. 57. 57 “The full moon coming with a challenge to flaunt its beautiful brow” Fukami Jikyū
  58. 58. 58 Hazy-Night Moon Kumasaka
  59. 59. 59 “The night is still and a hundred flowers are fragrant in the Western Palace She orders the screen to be rolled up, regretting the passing of spring with the Yunhe across her lap she gazes at the moon The colors of the trees are hazy in the indistinct moonlight.” Wang Changling
  60. 60. 60 “I wish I had gone to bed immediately but now the night has passed and I watch the moon descend.” Akazome Emon
  61. 61. 61 Lady Gosechi
  62. 62. 62 Huai River Moon Wu Zixu
  63. 63. 63 Obon Festival Moon
  64. 64. 64 “Like reflections in the rice-paddies The faces of streetwalkers in the darkness are exposed by the autumn moonlight” Hitotose
  65. 65. 65 Sumiyoshi Full moon Lord Teika
  66. 66. 66 Moon at the helm of a boat Taira no Kiyotsune
  67. 67. 67 Seson Temple Moon Captain Yoshitaka
  68. 68. 68 Ishiyama Moon
  69. 69. 69 “In the moonlight under the trees a beautiful woman comes”
  70. 70. 70 Moon of enlightenment
  71. 71. 71 Joganden Moon Minamoto no Tsunemoto
  72. 72. 72 “Does the cuckoo also announce its name from above the clouds? Yorimasa Extemporizes I only bent my bow and the arrow shot itself”
  73. 73. 73 Gojō Bridge Moon
  74. 74. 74 Moon at Katada Bay Saitō Kuranosuke
  75. 75. 75 Shizu Peak Moon Hideyoshi
  76. 76. 76 “As I look out into the vast expanse can this be the same moon that I saw rise in Kasuga behind Mount Mikasa?”
  77. 77. 77 The moon over the moor Yasumasa
  78. 78. 78 Received back into Moon Palace Bamboo cutter from “Tale of the Bamboo Cutter”
  79. 79. 79 Reading in moonlight Zi Lu
  80. 80. 80 Shinobugaoka Moon Gyokuensai
  81. 81. 81 “Did I ever imagine that as the clouds of the high autumn sky cleared I would view the moon through a bamboo lattice window” Hidetsugu
  82. 82. 82 “The bottom of the bucket which Lady Chiyo filled has fallen out The moon has no home in the water”
  83. 83. 83 Lunacy Unrolling letters
  84. 84. 84 Jade Rabbit Sun Wukong from “Journey to the West”
  85. 85. 85 Mount Miyaji Moon Moronaga
  86. 86. 86 Rainy Moon Kojima Takanori
  87. 87. 87 Moon of the filial son Ono no Takamura
  88. 88. 88 Moon at the Red Cliffs
  89. 89. 89 Moon of the Southern Sea
  90. 90. 90 Dawn moon and tumbling snow Kobayashi Heihachirō
  91. 91. 91 Mount Ashigara Moon Yoshimitsu
  92. 92. 92 Cloth-Beating Moon Yugiri
  93. 93. 93 Hōrin Temple Moon Yokobue
  94. 94. 94 Moon of lonely house
  95. 95. 95 Kazan Temple Moon
  96. 96. 96 Moon of Kintoki Mountain
  97. 97. 97 “Pleasure is this To lie cool under the moonflower bower The man in his undershirt, the woman in her slip”
  98. 98. 98 “How noisy, the sound of insects calling in the meadow As for me, I make no sound but think of love”
  99. 99. 99 “Frost fills the camp and the autumn air is still lines of returning geese cross the moon of the third hour” Kenshin
  100. 100. 100 The Moon’s Four Strings Semimaru
  101. 101. 101 “Cherry blossom by the Sumida River boats fade from view in the gathering dusk at Sekiya as I view the moon” Mizuki Tatsunosuke
  102. 102. 102 Akechi Gidayu prepares himself for suicide
  103. 103. 103 A Buddhist monk receives Cassia seeds on a moonlit night
  104. 104. 104 Moon over Chōfu Village
  105. 105. 105 “Since the crescent moon I have been waiting for tonight” Old Man
  106. 106. 106 The moon and the abandoned old woman
  107. 107. 107 Saga Moor Moon
  108. 108. 108 The Moon’s invention Hōzō Temple
  109. 109. 109 Musashi Plain Moon
  110. 110. 110 Monkey-Music Moon
  111. 111. 111 The Moon at High Tide
  112. 112. “Holding back the night with its increasing brilliance the summer moon” Tsukioka Yoshitoshi’s death poem