1. Writing Basics
grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other
2. Six Comma Rules - 1
1. Put a comma before these connecting words known
as FANBOYS when they connect two independent
• For- And-Nor- But-Or- Yet- So
• We may leave Friday, or we may wait until Monday.
2. Put a comma between items in a series.
• She put down the phone, picked up her purse, and left.
3. Use a comma to set off introductory words, phrases,
• Fortunately, Mrs. Smith had brought her credit card.
• If the response is good, we’ll repeat the advertisement.
3. Six Comma Rules - 2
4. Put commas around the name of a person spoken
• I think, Sylvia, that you are absolutely right.
• Kim, how about a game of tennis?
5. Put commas around an interrupter, like however,
• We knew, of course, that we were late.
• We didn’t expect, therefore, to get seats.
6. Use commas around nonessential material and
• The passage of related measures, Hamilton believed, would
enable the United States to realize its destiny as a great industrial
4. Semicolon and Its Use with Adverbs
A semicolon separates two complete ideas whose
contents are closely related.
̶ The project was finally completed; we had done a
good week’s work.
Semicolons used with conjunctive adverbs
(however, therefore, in fact, consequently) and other
̶ Incorrect: The job is filled, however, we will keep your
résumé on file.
̶ Correct: The job is filled; however, we will keep your
résumé on file.
5. Run-on Sentence, Comma Splice
The run-on sentence crams too many ideas together with no
adequate sign given to mark the break or pause.
̶ Run-on sentence: Sarah did a great job she was promoted to GM.
A comma splice is a run-on sentence with a comma. (That is, two
complete ideas, which should be separated by a period or a semicolon, are
incorrectly joined by a comma.)
̶ Comma splice: Sara did a great job, she was promoted to GM.
̶ You may correct this run-on sentence comma splice in several ways:
Correct: Sarah did a great job. She was promoted to General Manager.
Correct: Sarah did a great job, and she was promoted to GM.
Correct: Sarah did a great job; she was promoted to General Manager.
• Substitute period with semicolon to signal a relationship).
Correct: Sarah did a great job; consequently, she was promoted to GM.
6. Sentence Clarity
Why do we need to be concerned with sentence
To communicate effectively to the reader
To make writing persuasive
To show credibility and authority as a writer