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Review of literature on performance appraisal

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Review of literature on performance appraisal

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Review of literature on performance appraisal

  1. 1. Review of literatureon performance appraisal In this file, you can ref useful information about review of literature on performance appraisal such as review of literature on performance appraisal rates, small review of literature on performance appraisal, review of literature on performance appraisal calculator … If you need more assistant for review of literature on performance appraisal, please leave your comment at the end of file. Other useful material for you: • performanceappraisal123.com/1125-free-performance-review-phrases • performanceappraisal123.com/free-28-performance-appraisal-forms • performanceappraisal123.com/free-ebook-11-methods-for-performance-appraisal I. Contents of getting review of literature on performance appraisal ================== We found that when officers felt that in their performance review they had been treated respectfully by their superiors, they tended to behave more ethically. In co-operation with the German Police University (the single training centre within the German police where senior police officers from all states as well as from the federal police forces receive training to qualify them for promotion to higher ranks), we drew the respondents for our study from a representative sample of two German police forces. Our survey found that police officers evaluated their performance appraisals in terms of how fair it seemed to them, and that their perceptions had strong implications for their subsequent behaviour, as observed by a colleague of the respondent’s choosing. Although a performance appraisal is at most 30 to 60 minutes of a full working year, it has a very strong symbolic effect on the employee. In line with the existing literature, we discovered that the extent to which employees perceived their performance appraisal as fair correlated with the degree of support they felt they received from their supervisor, and to a lesser extent, from their organisation. If employees felt supported by their supervisor and their organisation, they tended to behave more ethically at work. If the officers felt they had been treated shabbily, they tended to cut more corners afterwards – showing up late, taking over-long breaks – and continued to hold that grudge for the entire year.
  2. 2. More surprisingly, we discovered that the performance of the messenger tended to matter more than the message. Many officers who received negative reviews said what bothered them most was not the review but how the news was delivered. The police officers told us, ‘I don’t mind, I understand… but just be honest and open about it. Don’t try to treat me like a little child.’ But even positive reviews delivered badly could also have a negative effect: officers who had received positive reviews that they felt were disrespectful were also less inclined toward ethical behaviour. The results suggest to us that employees see their own performance appraisal as a key test of the trustworthiness of their superior and of the organisation toward themselves. Fair or unfair behaviour by managers in a performance appraisal is likely to affect their perception of the degree of supportiveness they receive from their supervisor and translate ultimately into ethical or unethical behaviour by the employee. To me, this study shows that you don’t always have to do something big to make a difference to a culture. Sometimes even a seemingly minor act, such as just being respectful to a co-worker and demonstrating that you realise how important a particular moment is to that person, can have quite an impact. ================== III. Performance appraisal methods 1.Ranking Method The ranking system requires the rater to rank his subordinates on overall performance. This consists in simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method, the ranking of an employee in a work group is done against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against another member of the competitive group. Advantages of Ranking Method i. Employees are ranked according to their performance levels. ii. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee. Limitations of Ranking Method i. The “whole man” is compared with another “whole man” in this method. In practice, it is very difficult to compare individuals possessing various individual traits.
  3. 3. ii. This method speaks only of the position where an employee stands in his group. It does not test anything about how much better or how much worse an employee is when compared to another employee. iii. When a large number of employees are working, ranking of individuals become a difficult issue. iv. There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals in the organization. The ranking system does not eliminate the possibility of snap judgements. 2. Rating Scale Rating scales consists of several numerical scales representing job related performance criterions such as dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are derived. Advantages – Adaptability, easy to use, low cost, every type of job can be evaluated, large number of employees covered, no formal training required. Disadvantages – Rater’s biases 3. Checklist method Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or checking and HR department does the actual evaluation. Advantages – economy, ease of administration, limited training required, standardization. Disadvantages – Raters biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow rater to give relative ratings
  4. 4. 4. Critical Incidents Method The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of employee that makes all the difference in the performance. Supervisors as and when they occur record such incidents. Advantages – Evaluations are based on actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases, chances of subordinate improvement are high. Disadvantages – Negative incidents can be prioritized, forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback may be too much and may appear to be punishment. 5. Essay Method In this method the rater writes down the employee description in detail within a number of broad categories like, overall impression of performance, promoteability of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of performing jobs, strengths and weaknesses and training needs of the employee. Advantage – It is extremely useful in filing information gaps about the employees that often occur in a better-structured checklist. Disadvantages – It its highly dependent upon the writing skills of rater and most of them are not good writers. They may get confused success depends on the memory power of raters. 6. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales statements of effective and ineffective behaviors determine the points. They are said to be behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to say, which behavior describes the employee performance. Advantages – helps overcome rating errors. Disadvantages – Suffers from distortions inherent in most rating techniques.
  5. 5. III. Other topics related to Review of literature on performance appraisal (pdf download) • Top 28 performance appraisal forms • performance appraisal comments • 11 performance appraisal methods • 25 performance appraisal examples • performance appraisal phrases • performance appraisal process • performance appraisal template • performance appraisal system • performance appraisal answers • performance appraisal questions • performance appraisal techniques • performance appraisal format • performance appraisal templates • performance appraisal questionnaire • performance appraisal software • performance appraisal tools • performance appraisal interview • performance appraisal phrases examples • performance appraisal objectives • performance appraisal policy • performance appraisal letter • performance appraisal types • performance appraisal quotes • performance appraisal articles

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