Introduction to Social Psychology
I used local and foreign books. Some concepts are not mentioned here in my slides but will be discussed during our session.
If you want to know the resources feel free to comment below.
4. What is social
• It is the scientific study of how
people’s thoughts, feelings, and
behaviors are influenced by other
• In lined with the four major goals
of Psychology: Describe,
explain, predict, control, and
5. To be
A good scientific explanation
can connect many thousands of
observations, converting long
lists of unconnected “facts” into
an interconnected, coherent
and meaningful pattern.
6. Jules Henri
“Science is built up with
facts, as a house is with
stones, but a collection of
facts is no more a science
than a heap of stones is a
7. To be
a set of related
assumptions that allows
scientists to use logical
deductive reasoning to
• Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by
natural selection implied that animals
could transmit unique characteristics
(such as long necks on giraffes or
flippers on seals) to their offspring.
• Copernicus’s radical theory that the
planets revolved around the sun, not
the earth, simplified and organized
thousands of prior heavenly
• Sociocultural perspective. The theoretical viewpoint that
searches for the causes of social behavior in influences from larger
• Evolutionary perspective. A theoretical viewpoint that searches
for the causes of social behavior in the physical and psychological
dispositions that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce.
• Social learning perspective. A theoretical viewpoint that focuses
on past learning experiences as determinants of a person’s social
• Phenomenological perspective. The view that social behavior is
driven by a person’s subjective interpretations of events in the
• Social cognitive perspective. A theoretical viewpoint that focuses
on the mental processes involved in paying attention to,
interpreting, judging, and remembering social experiences.
10. In short,
Perspective What drives social behavior?
Sociocultural Forces in larger social groups.
Evolutionary Inherited tendencies to respond to
the social environment in ways that
would have helped our ancestors
survive and reproduce.
Social Learning Rewards and punishments. Observing
how other people are rewarded and
punished for their social behaviors.
Phenomenological The person’s subjective interpretation
of a social situation.
Social Cognitive What we pay attention to in a social
situation, how we interpret it, and
how we connect the current situation
to related experiences in memory.
1. Social behavior is goal
oriented. People interact with
one another to achieve some
goal or satisfy some inner
2. Social behavior represents a
continual interaction between
the person and the situation.
• To establish social ties.
• To understand ourselves and
• To gain and maintain status.
• To defend ourselves and those we
• To attract and retain mates.
15. A taste of an
women and men differ in
some fascinating ways
16. Let’s talk
> A person has features or
characteristics that individuals
carry into social situations.
> It refers to environmental events
or circumstances outside the
1. Different situations activate different parts of
2. Each situation has different facets, and the
social motive active in that situation depends on
which facet one is paying attention to.
3. Not everyone responds in the same way to the
4. People change their situations.
5. People choose their situations.
6. Situations change people.
7. Situations choose people.
• Naturalistic observation. Recording everyday
behaviors as they unfold in their natural settings.
• Hypothesis. A researcher’s prediction about what
he or she will find.
• Observer bias. Error introduced into
measurement when an observer overemphasizes
behaviors he or she expects to find and fails to
notice behaviors he or she does not expect.
• Case study. An intensive examination of an
individual or group.
• Generalizability. The extent to which the findings of a
particular research study extend to other similar
circumstances or cases.
• Archival method. Examination of systematic data
originally collected for other purposes (such as
marriage licenses or arrest records).
• Survey method. A technique in which the researcher
asks people to report on their beliefs, feelings, or
• Social desirability bias. The tendency for people to
say what they believe is appropriate or acceptable.
• Representative sample. A group of respondents
having characteristics that match those of the
larger population the researcher wants to describe.
• Psychological tests. Instruments for assessing a
person’s abilities, cognitions, motivations, or
• Reliability. The consistency of the score yielded by
a psychological test.
• Validity. The extent to which a test measures what
it is designed to measure.
• Correlation. The extent to which two or more
variables are associated with one another.
• Correlation coefficient A mathematical
expression of the relationship between two
• Experiment. A research method in which
the researcher sets out to systematically
manipulate one source of influence while
holding others constant.
• Independent variable. The variable
manipulated by the experimenter.
• Dependent variable. The variable
measured by the experimenter.
• Random assignment. The practice of
assigning subjects to treatments so each
subject has an equal chance of being in any
• Internal validity. The extent to which an experiment
allows confident statements about cause and effect.
• Confound. A variable that systematically changes along
with the independent variable, potentially leading to a
mistaken conclusion about the effect of the independent
• External validity. The extent to which the results of an
experiment can be generalized to other circumstances.
• Demand characteristics. Cues that make subjects
aware of how the experimenter expects them to behave.
25. Ethical safeguards in
• Obtaining informed consent from
• Fully debriefing subjects after the
research is completed.
• Evaluating the costs and benefits of
the research procedures.
• Developmental psychology consider how lifetime
experiences combine with predispositions and early
biological influences to produce the adult’s feelings,
thoughts, and behaviors.
• Personality psychology addresses differences between
people and how individual psychological components add
up to a whole person.
• Environmental psychology is the study of people’s
interactions with the physical and social environment.
• Clinical psychology is the study of behavioral dysfunction
• Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes.
• physiological psychology is studying the relation of
biochemistry and neural structures to behavior.
27. WE ARE NOT BOXED TO
OURSELVES TO THE
WE TRY TO
Cunningham accounted for these differences in terms of an evolved biological
difference between the sexes: Women, more than men, face the physical costs of bearing
and rearing offspring and therefore have more to lose from an indiscriminate response
to flirtation. Men, on the other hand, risk less by responding to any woman’s
approach, whether it is straightforward or artificial.
norms of U.S. society require women to be more discriminating in reacting to
men’s flirtatious advances. Perhaps evolutionary and sociocultural factors interact
with one another in determining these differences, because cultural norms are made
up by people who share certain preferences and inclinations as a function of being
human (Janicki & Krebs, 1998).
A good person can become a different person when a particular situation activated some part of himself.
You may like an attractive person and act flirtatiously to that person. However, if you happen to see that the partner of that attractive person jealously looked at you, you may act defensively.
Other people view death as something as an horrifying event while others look at it as the beginning, a chance to fully accept that life is going to end and that we have to cherish every moment.
We have the power to change situations. We just don’t simply sit it and let things to happen right before our eyes.
Some people would love to try extreme sports because of its thrill while others would like to prevent it.
It has been shown that most cadets in the Military Academy changed over time.
People will never be in the situation if the situation per se didn’t allow them to happen. A person will never become a psychologist if the person didn’t satisfy the standards for that position.
A research subject’s agreement to participate after being informed of any potential risks and of his or
her right to withdraw at any time without penalty.
A discussion of procedures, hypotheses, and subject reactions at the completion of the study.