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COMENIUS School Water Zeynep Can Sayın Selin Volkan Ezgi Lima
Our Purpose <ul><li>In our project we chose to examine the creeds and other water sources in our school campus. Our aim was to observe the water samples in both chemical and biological aspects and to compare them with each other. </li></ul>
Our Purpose <ul><li>We identified the different organisms living in the water and also did some tests on the chemical properties of the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Since we spend loads of time in our school campus, we thought that it would be interesting to find out more about the freshwater sources in it. </li></ul>
About the Campus <ul><li>The Koc School is in countryside in Tuzla, forty five minutes away from the city center. The campus is surrounded with many trees. Since the region has not yet become a residential area, the air and the nature are well preserved, without any contemination. </li></ul>
About the Campus <ul><li>Because Istanbul is a big city, Tuzla is one of the few places that was not affected by the pollution. Therefore in our observations we came across many types of organisms which only live in clean freshwater. </li></ul>
Biology <ul><li>While doing the biology part of our project, we took water samples from two different water sources in the campus, one from a flowing creed, the other from puddle water. We came across more crowded populations in the samples from the still water. For each sample of water, we observed them twice under the light microscope; first on the day we got the samples, second the day after to check whether there were any new organisms reproduced. Here are the organisms we came across: </li></ul>
Chemistry <ul><li>In the chemical part of our project, we looked for some of the elements, if they were present or not and in what ratios, then used the data to relate with the living organisms in the water. Here are the results of the tests we have made: </li></ul>
Chemical Tests of the water 5 5 Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) 7 7 Total Hardness (ppm) 125 125 Ca hardness (ppm) 0 0 S -2 (ppm) 0 0 NO 3 - (ppm) Puddle Water Flowing Water CHEMICAL Purple (-) Purple (-) Coliform Puddle Water Flowing water Biology
What are the effects of these test results? - Chemical <ul><li>Nitrate: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>In natural, drinking and waste waters normally nitrates are present. Nitrates enter water from the breakdown of natural vegetation, the use of chemical fertilisers in modern agriculture and from the oxidation of nitrogen compounds in sewage effluents and industrial wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>So that the environment of our campus does not contain any waste products or things like chemical fertilizers, the nitrate test results of our school creed water is 0; safe to drink. </li></ul><ul><li>The reason nitrate test is important is that drinking water containing excessive amounts of nitrates can cause methaemoglobinaemia in bottle-fed infants (blue babies). </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfide: 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural waters containing dissolved hydrogen sulphide and other sulphides are found in certain parts of the world, particularly in areas having hot springs. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial wastes such as those tanneries, gas plants and chemical works contain sulfide. Sulphides can be toxic to fish and aquatic life but our school water again has no sulfide just like it doesn’t contain any nitrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Their presence in water supplies forces the water to have undesirable tastes and odours. The muddy dirty looking color and the bad smell can warn people about the water being harmful but still it has worst effects as being respiratory depressant. </li></ul>
What are the effects of these test results? - Chemical <ul><li>Ca Hardness: 125 </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium Hardness is caused by the presence of calcium ions in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>The school water’s calcium hardness test results are 125 mg/I (ppm), and this means the water is “hard”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hard water” contains calcium, carbonate, magnesium, and many other ions. </li></ul><ul><li>So that in these kinds of waters there are so many nutrients, they have good primary production such as plants making their own food and producing oxygen by this process and by this fact we can say that our school water is opportune for animals to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen: 5 </li></ul><ul><li>The oxygen saturation is measured by the percentage of dissolved oxygen in water which varies by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of the water. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in well-aerated water (in free interchange with the air) will usually be 100% saturated. In general, the colder the water the more O2 it can dissolve, the more saline the water the less O2 it can dissolve, and the lower the atmospheric pressure (e.g., the higher the elevation), the less oxygen it can dissolve. </li></ul><ul><li>Our school pond water’s test result for dissolved oxygen is 5 ppm, which is a middle result. The water is not completely hard for organisms to survive neither a very good condition. </li></ul>
What are the effects of these test results? -Biological <ul><li>Coliform: </li></ul><ul><li>Coliform bacteria are used often as a sign to show how hygienic foods and water are. </li></ul><ul><li>These Coliform bacteria are negative organisms which ferment lactose with the production of gas when incubated at 35 C. For instance, Escherichia coli, a member of the coliform group can ferment lactose at 44 C as well and if it is found in water or food, it indicates fecal contamination, and an imminent health danger. </li></ul><ul><li>These organisms are normally found in the aquatic environment and on vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>In our school water we found that there were no coliform in our water and it was a relief. We understood this result by the water sample not changing it’s color to purple as it should have been if it contained coliform in it. </li></ul>