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Introduction to computation history

My lecture at UCU@Computer science

Introduction to computation history

  1. 1. Introduction to Computation History Michael Kramarenko, PhD, CSO
  2. 2. Agenda ❏ Science & Technological drivers ❏ Hardware & Peripherals ❏ Software ❏ Domestic computing ❏ Remarkable people & Inventions
  3. 3. Hardware
  4. 4. Classification Digital Analog Hybrid Information representation Mechanical Electro Mechanical ElectronicTechnology Purpose General Purpose Special Purpose
  5. 5. Computation History Periods Before Mechanical Mechanical Electro Mechanical Electronical before 30 000 BC - V cent. BC end XIX - 40 of XX cent. 40 of XX cent. - nowadays V cent. BC - end of XIX cent. AD
  6. 6. “When computers were people” "I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." The Yong Mans Gleanings. Richard Brathwait. 1613 1588–1673Information InformationHardware
  7. 7. Prehistory When computers were people ... Before Mechanical Аrithmetic Primitive tools
  8. 8. Prehistory -By fingers -By stones, conches, etc -Věstonice bone 30 000 BC Quipu: level, form,color
  9. 9. Ancient history When computers were people and more Mechanical Period Math Tools Mechanics
  10. 10. Ancient history Abacus: Mesopotamian, Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Chinese, Roman, Indian, Japanese, Korean (V cent. BC) Antikythera mechanism: calculates astronomical positions and eclipses for calendricaland astrological purposes (150–100 BC) Digital Analog Special purpose
  11. 11. Middle Ages history When computers were people and more Mechanical Period Math Mechanics Navigation Physics Astronomy
  12. 12. Middle Ages The Banu Musa’s automatic flute player: ● programmable machine ● pins on a rotating drum ● The drum is driven by a water wheel ● 9th century AD Digital
  13. 13. Leonardo da Vinchi ● Proposition of 13-digit summing device (1492) ● Reconstituted by IBM (1969) 1452–1519
  14. 14. John Napier ● Natural logarithms ● Multiplication and division to addition & subtraction ● Constant e ● Exponential notation ● Decimal point notation ● Napier's bones 1550–1617
  15. 15. Napier’s Bones + + 1 (6+4) (0+7) 2 20728
  16. 16. William Oughtred ● Logarithmic ruler - 1622 ● “X” - multiplication symbol ● “/” - division symbol ● “||” -symbol of parallelism ● Abbreviations sin, cos 1574-1660
  17. 17. Logarithmic ruler ● Addition ● Subtraction ● Division ● MultiplicationAnalog
  18. 18. Modern history When computers were people and more Mechanical Period Math Textile Industry Probability Theory I Industrial Revolution Discrete Math
  19. 19. Pascaline. Model 1642 The first calculator (addition & subtraction) which: ● is gearwheels based ● has a controlled carry mechanism ● can used in an office ● was commercialized (20 exemplars) ● was patented (Royal patent, 1649) ● was describedin an Encyclopaedia 1623-1662
  20. 20. Stepped Reckoner by Gottfried Leibniz ● "Explanation of the Binary Arithmetic, which uses only the characters 1 and 0, with some remarks on its usefulness, and on the light it throws on the ancient Chinese figures of Fu Xi" (Leibniz 1703) ● "The history of the modern computing machine goes back to Leibniz and Pascal. Indeed, the general idea of a computing machine is nothing but a mechanization of Leibniz's calculus ratiocinator. (Wiener 1948)" 1646-1716
  21. 21. Instrumentum Arithmeticum S- stepped drum M- four-side axis E- gearwheel D- input disk F- 10-teeth disk R- digital disk P- output window Functions: ● add or subtract an 8 digit number to / from a 16 digit number ● multiply two 8 digit numbers to get a 16 digit result ● divide a 16 digit number by an 8 digit divisor
  22. 22. Jacquard Loom ● Punch cards for programmable loom ● Programmable textile design ● Invented 1800-1804 Joseph Marie Jacquard 1752-1834
  23. 23. The Division of Intellectual Labor Conveyer for producing logarithmic and trigonometric tables for the French Cadastre. 1791-1801 Gaspard Clair François Marie Riche de Prony 1755-1839 Math Programmers Computers
  24. 24. Finite Difference Method N-degree polynomial function has constant n difference n N=n^4 Dif.1 Dif.2 Dif.3 Dif.4 1 1 15 50 60 24 2 16 65 110 84 24 3 81 175 194 108 24 4 256 369 302 132 24 5 625 571 434 156 24 6 1296 1105 590 180 7 2401 1695 770 8 4096 2465 9 656 1642-1726 Sir Isaac Newton
  25. 25. Charles Babbage's Engines 1791 –1871 Differential Engine 1 ● 2-degree polynomial ● 96 gearwheels ● Control unit with bell ● Printing on a copper plate Digital Special Purpose
  26. 26. Analytical Engine Control unit Store Mill Output Input Digital General Purpose ● 1,000 numbers of 40 decimal digits ● Arithmetical operation & square root, internal operations ● Loops, conditional branches
  27. 27. Analytical Engine Programme (a*b+c)d Card types: ● Number ● Variable ● Operation ● Combinatorial
  28. 28. Differential Engines ● Idea - 1819 ● 1820 - 1822 Engine 1 ● 1823 - Gold Medal Royal Astronomical Society ● 1823 - first budget 1500 £ ● 1833 - Engine 2 ● 1834 - Analytical Engine ● 1842 - stop of budgeting (17000£) ● 1854 - Swedish engine. Per Georg Scheutz
  29. 29. George Boolean Algebra ● The Mathematical Analysis of Logic (1847) ● An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854) 1815–1864
  30. 30. New History When computers were mechanic and more Electro Mechanical Period Statistics Electrical Engineering Telecommu nication II Industrial Revolution Electromag netism
  31. 31. ON-OFF device or Electromechanical Relay ● Invented by US scientist Joseph Henry in 1835-1837 ● Was included in the original 1840 telegraph patent of Samuel Morse 1797–1878
  32. 32. Charles Sanders Pierce’s Arrow ● Logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits (1886) ● NOR operator ↓is completely expressible 1839–1914
  33. 33. Herman Hollerith Tabulating Machine 1889: U.S. Patent 395,782 1896: The Tabulating Machine Company 1911: consolidated into the Computing- Tabulating-Recording Company 1924: renamed to International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) 1860–1929 ● Personal citizen punch card 12x24 ● Keypunch ● Calculation device: ○ 10 rows of 4 or 12 relay based counters (capacity 10000) ○ Press: needles and cups of mercury
  34. 34. Z(V) series from Konrad Zuse 1910–1995 Z3 specification: ● Binary system ● Arithmetic unit: Binary floating point, 22 bit, add, subtract, multiply, divide, square root ● Data memory: 64 words with a length of 22 bits ● Program memory: Punched celluloid tape ● Input: Decimal floating point numbers ● Output: Decimal floating point numbers ● Elements: Around 2,000 relays Z1 - floating point binary mechanical calculator with limited programmability , Germany, 1938
  35. 35. Alan Turing Bombe 1912 –1954 Enigma decryptor - 18 March,Letchworth,UK, 1940
  36. 36. Mark I from Howard Hathaway Aiken ● The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), 1944 ● Parallel synchronous calculator with a word length of 24 ● 72 registers called accumulators ● accumulator - complete addition and subtraction machine (and functions as a storage or memory device) ● Multiplication (division) = multiple addition (subtraction) ● 2200 counter wheels ● 3300-3500 relay. Punched tape ● 8 feet high, 51 feet long and three feet deep. It weighed 5 tons 1900 –1973
  37. 37. The Newest History When computers have become computers Electronical Period Information Theory Theory of Algorithms Coding Theory Electronics
  38. 38. Fleming Valve ● The first practical application of thermionic emission, discovered in 1873 by Frederick Guthrie ● was invented in 1904 by John Ambrose Fleming ● The first thermionic diode 1849 –1945
  39. 39. Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) 1939 ● The first automatic electronic digital computer ● Not Turing complete ● Key ideas: ○ Binary digits ○ Electronical calculation components ○ Separation computation & memory
  40. 40. John von Neumann Architecture ● Separation memory and control ● Instruction set ● A program as a set of instructions ● Memory-stored program ● Self-modifying code ● Codegeneration 1903 –1957
  41. 41. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) ● The first Turing-complete electronic computer of John Mauchly and John Eckert (1943-1946) ● complex set of instructions, including loops, branches, and subroutines ● 17,468 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors
  42. 42. The First Fault-Tolerant Computer SAPO (short for Samočinný počítač), Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1950 - 1956, led by Antonin Svoboda 1907 –1980 ● triple redundancy ● voting ● electromechanical design: ○ 7,000 relays ○ 400 vacuum tubes ○ magnetic drum (1024 32-bit words)
  43. 43. Early computers summary Name Programming Memory Difference Engine Not programmable; initial numerical constants of polynomial differences set physically Physical state of wheels in axes Analytical Engine Program-controlled by punch card Physical state of wheels in axes Zuse Z series Program-controlled by punch tape Relays Atanasoff–Berry Computer Not programmable; linear system coefficients input using punched cards Regenerative capacitor memory Harvard Mark I Program-controlled by punch tape Relays ENIAC Program-controlled by patch cables and switches Vacuum tube triode
  44. 44. Transistor 1925 - first patent by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld 23 December 1947- the birth date of the transistor 1956 - Nobel Prize in Physics - John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, William Bradford Shockley
  45. 45. Harwell CADET ● The first fully transistorized computer in Europe ● Built at the Atomic Energy Research Laboratory, Harwell, Oxfordshire from about 1953 The first commercial - Philco Transac models: S- 1000 scientific computer, 1950s S-2000 data processing computer, 1957
  46. 46. Integrated Circuit (IC) 1952 - The basis of idea of the integrated circuit by Geoffrey W.A. Dummer (1909–2002), a radar scientist, Royal Radar Establishment 1958 - Jack Kilby’s the first working example, Texas Instrument. Nobel Prize in Physics 2000 1923 –2005
  47. 47. Usage of IC The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) - one of the first integrated circuit-based computers (end of 1960s) PDP-8 - the first commercial minicomputer, DEC (1965) Intel 4004 - the first commercial microprocessor (1971)
  48. 48. Peripherals
  49. 49. Keyboard ● Machine for Transcribing Letters - patent for Henry Mill, England, 1714 ● First commercial typewriter by Danish pastor Rasmus Malling-Hansen, 1865. Electromagnetic “Writing Ball” ● ENIAC console, 1946 1683–1771
  50. 50. Monitor ● Braun Tube - Karl Ferdinand Braun CRT, German Nobel Laureate, 1897 ● Kinescope-Vladimir Zworykin, 1929 ● Williams-Kilburn tube, 1946, 128 40-bits words, Manchester Mark I computer ● US military SAGE computer, 1950s ● PDP-1 commercial computer, 1959 1850 –1918
  51. 51. Touch Screen ● Eric Arthur Johnson-Touch screen technology for air traffic control, US patent 3482241, 1969 ● Bent Stumpe - Proposal (CERN) to build a touch screen with a fixed number of programmable buttons, 1972
  52. 52. Mouse ● First trackball by Ralph Benjamin for radar plotting Comprehensive Display System (CDS), Royal Navy, 1941 ● Trackball for DATAR, battlefield information system, Royal Canadian Navy ● The first mouse by Douglas Engelbart, 1963 1939
  53. 53. Magnetic Tape Telegraphone - the first practical apparatus for magnetic sound recording and reproduction by Valdemar Poulsen, Denmark, 1898 1869 –1942 ● Germany patent 1928 ● Magnetophone based on Dr. Fritz Pfleumer principles, 1935, Germany, AEG
  54. 54. Magnetic Drum ● Gustav Tauschek patent, Austria, 1932 ● Prototype 62.5 KB ● widely used in the 1950s-1960s ● Unix /dev/drum device 1899 –1945
  55. 55. Magnetic Domains
  56. 56. Hard Disk ● 1953 - "Proposal – Random Access File," A. J. Critchlow, IBM ● 1954 - Patent US3503060, A, William A Goddard, John J Lynott ● 1956 - IBM 305 RAMAC Disk File, Reynold B. Johnson, IBM West Coast Laboratory, San Jose, California, 5 MB Hard disk (1956) at $10,000 a megabyte
  57. 57. Software
  58. 58. Ancient Roots & Origins ● Sieve of Eratosthenes ● Euclidean algorithm
  59. 59. Sieve of Eratosthenes 276 BC – 195/194 BC Algorithm for finding all prime numbers Input: an integer n > 1 Let A be an array of Boolean values, indexed by integers 2 to n, initially all set to true. for i = 2, 3, 4, ..., not exceeding √n: if A[i] is true: for j = i2 , i2 +i, i2 +2i, i2 +3i, ..., not exceeding n : A[j] := false Output: all i such that A[i] is true.
  60. 60. Euclidean algorithm Mid-4rd century - Mid-3rd century BC function gcd(a, b) while b ≠ 0 t := b; b := a mod b; a := t; return a; Greatest common divisor
  61. 61. Middle Ages ● Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi ● Gerbert of Aurillac (Pope Sylvester II)
  62. 62. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi ● Algebra - solving quadratic equations ● Algorithm - Latin form of his name 780 –  850 AD
  63. 63. Pope Sylvester II “Я — специалист по черной магии. …Тут в государственной библиотеке обнаружены подлинные рукописи чернокнижника Герберта Аврилакского, десятого века. Так вот требуется, чтобы я их разобрал.“ Михаил Булгаков. Мастер и Маргарита 946 – 1003 ● Abacus calculation rules ● 9-digit numeral system
  64. 64. Ada, Countess of Lovelace ● Daughter of Byron ● Charles Babbage supporter: “the Enchantress of Numbers” ● Method for calculating a sequence of Bernoulli numbers with the Engine ● The romantic image of the first programmer 1815 – 1852
  65. 65. “Plan Calculus” from Konrad Zuse Plankalkül - the first high-level programming language to be designed for engineering purposes 1943-1945 It includes: assignment statements, subroutines, conditional statements, iteration, floating point arithmetic, arrays, hierarchical record structures, assertions, exception handling, P1 max3 (V0[:8.0],V1[:8.0],V2[: 8.0]) → R0[:8.0] max(V0[:8.0],V1[:8.0]) → Z1[:8.0] max(Z1[:8.0],V2[:8.0]) → R0[:8.0] END P2 max (V0[:8.0],V1[:8.0]) → R0[: 8.0] V0[:8.0] → Z1[:8.0] (Z1[:8.0] < V1[:8.0]) → V1[:8.0] → Z1[:8.0] Z1[:8.0] → R0[:8.0] END
  66. 66. Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper One of the primary programmers for the Mark I by Harvard University ● Popularisation the term “computer bug” ● idea of machine-independent programming languages ● A-0 - predecessor of COBOL compiler for UNIVAC, 1952 ● U.S. Navy destroyer USS Hopper (DDG-70) ● Supercomputer Cray XE6 “Hopper” 1906 – 1992
  67. 67. Programming Languages Generations 1-st 1950’s nowadays 2-d 3-d 4-h 5-h 1950’s 1980’s 1990’s1950’s AI? Machine Assembler Enterprize Application High Level 1957 FORTRAN 1959 COBOL 1964 BASIC 1972 C 1979 C++ 1991 Java 2001 Scala
  68. 68. The first Assemblers ● 1949 - assembler for Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) ● 1954 - assembler for IBM 701 by Nathaniel Rochester ● 1955 - SOAP (Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program) IBM 650 by Stan Poley.
  69. 69. Operating systems 1956, GM-NAA I/O: Job control for IBM 704 mainframe by Robert L. Patrick of General Motors. 1961, MCP (Master Control Program): Burroughs Corporations for their B5000 mainframe. 1966, DOS/360: IBM as the driver seat for both the hardware and OS industries. 1969, Unix: Developed by AT&T Bell Labs programmers Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna, written in C 1973, CP/M (Control Program/Monitor (later re-purposed as “Control Program for Microcomputers”): Developed by Greg Kildall as a side project for his company Digital Research. 1981, MS-DOS: Developed by Microsoft for the IBM PC’s. 1984, Mac OS: Developed by Apple Computer, Inc for their new product, the Macintosh home PC. 1985,Windows: Developed by Microsoft, as GUI for MS-DOS 1991, Linux: Developed by Linus Torvalds as a free Unix variant.
  70. 70. Domestic Computers
  71. 71. Dnepr (1961) by Victor Glushkov ● Instruction set 88 - instructions ● Word - 26 bits ● Memory - 1 - 8 blocks of 512 words ● Fully transistorized 1923 –1982 1975- Apollo–Soyuz Test Project
  72. 72. MIR-1 (1968) ● Machine for Engineering Calculations ● High-level programming language ALMIR/ANALITIC for symbolic manipulations with fractions, polynomials, derivatives and integrals ● Monitor & light pen (MIR-2, 1969)
  73. 73. IC Generations Name Signification Year Transistors number Logic gates number SSI small-scale integration 1964 1 to 10 1 to 12 MSI medium-scale integration 1968 10 to 500 13 to 99 LSI large-scale integration 1971 500 to 20,000 100 to 9,999 VLSI very large-scale integration 1980 20,000 to 1,000,000 10,000 to 99,999 ULSI ultra-large-scale integration 1984 1,000,000 and more 100,000 and more
  74. 74. Integrated circuit (1962)
  75. 75. Cloning Period 1968 - EC-1020 1972 - DOS ES operating system 1973 - OS ES operating system 1974 - SM-1, SM-2 1978 - SM-3 1979 - SM-4 Bulgaria as Soviet “Silicon Value”
  76. 76. Beyond the History
  77. 77. Virtual museums & Useful Links 1. http://history-computer.com 2. http://www.computerhope.com 3. http://explorepahistory.com 4. http://www.computerhistory.org 5. http://inventors.about.com 6. http://www.thocp.net 7. http://www.randomhistory.com 8. http://theinventors.org 9. http://www.computinghistory.org.uk/ 10. http://www.icfcst.kiev.ua/MUSEUM/museum-map_r.html
  78. 78. Thank you! Q&A

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