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Ch8 nonexperimental research (i) (1)

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Ch8 nonexperimental research (i) (1)

  1. 1. Research Methods, 9th Edition Theresa L. White and Donald H. McBurney Chapter 8 NonExperimental Research, Part 1: Observational, Archival, and Case Study Research
  2. 2. 2 前言  實驗法 : 研究行為科學之因果關係最佳之方法  但並不是每個情境都可採用實驗法  非實驗方法 nonexperimental research
  3. 3. 3 Non-Experimental Research  Research in which the experimenter does not manipulate the variables or assign subjects to conditions.  Also called qualitative research or correlational research  Hermeneutic Approach  Asks what the behavior means rather than why it happened.
  4. 4. 4 nonexperimental research  實驗方法  研究者可操控自變數  研究者對研究情就具有控制力  決定受試者在甚麼時間,接受到甚麼條件  Manipulation  In an experiment, conditions or variables assigned or presented to a participant  Assignment  In an experiment, pairing a subject with a condition or variable, according to the experimenter’s plan
  5. 5. 5 nonexperimental research  Observation  The record of a behavior  特徵  1. 研究者無法對受試者、研究條件進行控制與 操控  2. 又稱質性研究 qualitative study, correlation research  質性研究較少研究因果關係,較常研究 : 人們如何 瞭解自己 ( 或某標的 ) 、對某標的的看法與見解  相關研究 : 只能找出變數間連動關係,無法有效證 明因果
  6. 6. 6 nonexperimental research  種類  1. observational research  study method in which the researcher observed and records ongoing behavior but does not attempt to change it  2. archival research  Study method that examines existing records to obtain data and test hypotheses  3. case study  Exploratory study of an existing situation as a means of creating and testing a hypothesis  4. survey
  7. 7. 7 Observational Research  Watching and recording behavior, but not trying to change it.  Also called unobtrusive or nonreactive research  Naturalistic Observation  Subjects watched in natural environment  Subjects disturbed as little as possible.  Laboratory Observation  Subjects watched in the laboratory  Physical trace( 物理性痕跡 ) method examines evidence left behind by behavior
  8. 8. 8 Participant Observer Research  Observer joins a group in order to record behavior.  Most useful when studied group is small or remote  侵犯 participants’ privacy  Potential experimenter objectivity difficulties  Changing results simply by being a member of the group.
  9. 9. 9 Archival Research  Attempting to answer research questions from data that already exists - archival data  Archival Data  factual information in existing records or archives Limitations of Archival Research  Data collected for some other purpose  Ruling out alternative hypotheses may be difficult  檔案資料可能無法包含所有研究變數
  10. 10. 10 Case Studies  Observation of a distinctive situation, usually involving a single individual (person, animal, institution, or group).  Characterized by the uniqueness of the individual.  檢視某個組織、個人、現象  可能包含多種研究方法,觀察、問卷、檔案…
  11. 11. 11 Case Studies  Narrative Case Study  Story told first hand that reflects meaning  常用於探索性問題,研究者剛好可分析此研究 情境,一旦錯過,可能無法再研究。  埔里作礁  柯達效應

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