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Ch8 nonexperimental research (i) (2)

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Ch8 nonexperimental research (i) (2)

  1. 1. Research Methods, 9th Edition Theresa L. White and Donald H. McBurney Chapter 8 NonExperimental Research, Part 1: Observational, Archival, and Case Study Research
  2. 2. 2 Theory Development and Testing in observational and archival research  一般研究方法  提出假說  實驗收集資料  統計分析  假說檢定
  3. 3. 3 Theory Development and Testing in observational and archival research  觀察研究  有時甚至研究之初,還無明確之研究問題  Process is more flexible with non-experimental designs but still involves hypothesis testing ( 命題 , proposition).  Two approaches:  Mathematical approach toward combating threats to internal validity  Inductive process of hypothesis generation and modification
  4. 4. 4 Theory Development and Testing in observational and archival research  觀察研究  根據過去研究 / 觀察,建立假設  收集資料  透過觀察,持續收集新資料,修訂假設、理論
  5. 5. 5 Recording Methods Field Notes  Be systematic  Categories of behavior  Length of observation period  Checklists  Be selective  Take samples of behavior  Make use of recording devices  評分者信度 (rater reliability)  Use at least two coders to increase reliability
  6. 6. 6 Content Analysis  Evaluation of a hypothesis using publicly available pictures and language  Manifest Content  Measures the frequency of some word, image, phrase, or action  Latent Content  Measures the appearance of themes, as determined by the researcher  評分者信度 (rater reliability)  Use at least two coders to increase reliability
  7. 7. 6 Content Analysis  Evaluation of a hypothesis using publicly available pictures and language  Manifest Content  Measures the frequency of some word, image, phrase, or action  Latent Content  Measures the appearance of themes, as determined by the researcher  評分者信度 (rater reliability)  Use at least two coders to increase reliability

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