4. Delegation is the
responsibility to another
person for the purpose of
carrying out specific job-
Delegation is a shift of
decision- making authority
from one organizational
level to another.
WHAT IS DELEGATION?
8. Management is the art of getting things done through others
which is possible when you delegate the authority and
responsibility. Delegation is an important skill that managers
must have to effectively manage in an organization.
“How well a manager delegates determines how well they can
Organizations judge managerial leadership by how effectively
they get the work done through delegation.
“An individual is only one manpower. Single-handed, he can accomplish only so
much in a day. The only way he can achieve more is through delegation
through dividing his load and sharing his responsibilities with others.” —
10. WHY WE DO NOT
Ego – I can do it better myself.
Time – Takes too long to explain.
Accountability – I’m accountable
if it goes wrong.
Skills Gaps – My staff don’t
possess the technical skills.
Authority Threat – Delegation
reduces my own authority.
11. SYMPTOMS OF POOR
Working Long hours
No lunch / coffee breaks
Taking work home
Spending time on mundane
Direct Reports seeking advice
all the time
Obsession with trivia
No time for pleasure
Making decisions by yourself
13. FORMS OF DELEGATION
Top to Bottom Delegation - The process of delegation where
managers delegate workload to direct reports (most common).
Bottom to Top Delegation – The process of delegation where
direct reports can delegate tasks to managers (sometimes
called escalation. But can work in informal work structures)
Lateral Delegation - When managers delegate authority to
direct reports; the direct report can further delegate the task
informally to peers at the same level in other units or even
14. THE THREE ELEMENTS OF
Responsibility is the obligation of a direct report to properly
perform the assigned duty. When a manager assigns a job to
his/her direct report, it becomes the responsibility of the direct
report to complete that job.
Responsibility comes into play only after the job has been
The direct report assumes only the operating responsibility for
the task. The manager retains ultimate responsibility for getting
the job done.
15. THE THREE ELEMENTS OF
Authority means the power to take decisions. Decision can be
related to the use of resources, and to do or not to do something.
Authority can be assigned (delegated) to some other person.
It is related to the position (with the change of position, even
authority granted may change).
It makes implementation of decisions possible.
16. THE THREE ELEMENTS OF
Accountability means the answerability of the direct report to
his manager for work performance. In other words, when a
manager assigns job / work or the responsibility to his/her direct
report, simultaneously he/she gives authority to them which
makes the direct report accountable to their manager for the
Note: Only authority can be delegated and not the accountability
“Accountability is, by the act which creates it, of the same quality and
weight as the accompanying responsibility and authority”.
17. EFFECTIVE DELEGATION
Objective – The objective of delegation must be very clear. Before
delegating, one must answer – Is there need to delegate?
Authority & Responsibility – The authority must accompany the
responsibility to the next level. Authority delegation without
responsibility may lead to ineffective use of authority. Authority
must be delegated to the responsible positions only.
Manager / Direct Report Relationship - If the direct report does
not have a good relationship with the manager then it will affect
the delegation process and bring ineffectiveness.
Leadership Style – The leadership style does matter in delegation
very much. For example: The Democratic or Free rein style of
leadership believes in more delegation while Autocratic style
believes less in delegation. Thus, leadership style is one of the
elements contributing to delegation.
Environment – The environment or business climate is important
for effective delegation.
19. THE DELEGATION PROCESS
The delegator assigns duties, i.e., the manager indicates what
the direct report has to do (SMART goal / objective).
The delegator grants authority, i.e., gives the direct report the
permission to do the delegated part of the work and also certain
rights which are necessary for him / her to perform the part of
The delegator creates an obligation, i.e., the direct report takes
on an obligation to his /her boss to complete the job.
20. THE PROCESS OF DELEGATION
Step # 1. Determine the Goals:
The first step of delegation is to establish the goal or objective
so that the manager determines the need for delegation.
Step # 2. Define Responsibility:
Once requirement of the job / task is defined, responsibility is
determined in terms of tasks assigned.
Step # 3. Define Authority:
The job having been assigned, authority is given so that
delegated to can discharge responsibilities related to that job.
21. THE PROCESS OF DELEGATION
Step # 4. Motivate Direct Reports:
The duty of the manager does not end by delegating authority and
responsibility to the direct report. They must make sure the direct
report willingly contributes to the job assigned so that
organizational goals can be achieved. Motivation may be financial
and non-financial (participative decision-making, recognition etc.)
incentives to motivate.
Step # 5. Hold Accountability:
Whatever the nature and extent of delegation, managers
continuously monitor the activities of the direct report to review
their progress and provide guidance, whenever necessary. They
hold them accountable for the work assigned but remain
ultimately accountable to their managers for successful
completion of the task and its coordination with the overall
22. THE PROCESS OF DELEGATION
Step # 6. Train Direct Reports:
Despite the authority commensurate with responsibility, direct
reports may not be able to effectively carry out the delegated
tasks. Managers, therefore, organize training programs to
enhance their knowledge on the tasks assigned.
Step # 7. Establish Control:
Specific standards of performance are framed so that direct
reports can assess their performance against standards,
control their activities and coordinate them with goals of the
24. 5 DEGREES OF DELEGATION
Authority to which no prior notice, no approval, and no
Authority to act, with reporting required, but no prior notice or
Authority to act only with prior notice;
Authority to act only after consulting an appropriate staff
Authority to act only with prior approval.