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Building Construction 1: project 1

Construction site visit report

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Building Construction 1: project 1

  2. 2. Content 1.0 Introduction and Group members detail. (SI*) 1.1 Introduction to site 2.0 Site and Safety (MM*) 2.1 Plants and Machinery 3.0 External Work (SV*) 4.0 Foundation (MNA*) 4.1 Foundation type and construction process (from site visit) 5.0 Superstructure (from site visit and reference) 5.1 Beam and Column (SI*) 5.2 Slab (MNA*) 5.3 Wall (PZ*) 5.4 Staircase (JE*) 6.0 Doors and Windows (PZ*) 7.0 Roof (LZH*) 7.1 Roof type and construction process (from site visit) 8.0 Summary 8.1 References (SI*) Saurabha Iyer (MM*) Muhammad Mubarak (SV*) Saravanan Vytelingum (MNA*) Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun (PZ*) Prisha Zenia (JE*) Jonathan Edwards (LZH*) Lim Zhi Hong Page 1 2-6 7-8 9-16 17-24 25 26-30 31 32-34 35-40 41 42-46 47 48
  3. 3. Introduction to site • Location – Megan Salak park, Jalan 1/125E , Desa Pedaling ,57100 Kuala Lumpur • date of approval- 11 July 2013 • Date of completion – January 2016 • Developer- Chico Development Sdn Bhd • Architect- Akitek Akiprima SDN BHD • Landscape architect- Primeclass Landscaping SDN BDH • Contractor- Suncity Trading and Construction SDN BHD • House type- 3story semi d • Land tenure – freehold • 115 units Introduction to the group members Saravanan Vytelingum 0320563 Muhammad Nabeel Ali Joomun 0320583 Muhammad Mubarak 0319984 Saurabha Iyer 0320569 Prisha Zenia 0320762 Jonathan Edwards Woe 0320458 Lim Zhi Hong 0304547 4
  4. 4. Site and Safety 5
  5. 5. Importance of following safety site rules Accident rates are higher in construction sites because people doesn’t pay much attention to the surrounding and the warning signboards that is placed outside of the construction site. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • All refers to protective clothing, helmet, goggles or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury. • Staffs and workers must wear and use PPE as appropriate. • Sub-con and their workers must not wear short pants/slipper to work. 6
  6. 6. Site safety rules: • To prevent any injuries on the head as it is the most dangerous part. • To prevent dust particals from the construction site to draw on the head. • To prevent from any ear damage due to drilling and construction work Foot protection should be worn in this area Safety helmets must be worn: Hearing protection must be worn • To prevent danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects or objects piercing the sole and where such employee’s feet are exposed to electrical hazards No person who is under the influence of alcohol or drugs are allowed in the site • as a drunk person may not be conscious , it may be dangerous as they could walk to buildings which are not complete which are full of metal bars therefore it will be dangerous • To reduce electrical shock hazard when near exposed electrical conductors which could contact the head. No unauthorized entry • All visitors must report to the office • Management or workers may not be responsible for any accidents. 7
  7. 7. High visibility clothing must be worn in this area • So that when to construction work is going on’ it will be easier to be noticed by the bright color of the clothing to prevent any accidents from happening Safety googles must be worn. • The dust particles at the site may be harmful to the eye therefore by wearing a safety google it can prevent the dust from entering the eye. Eg flying particles, molten metals, liquid chemicals or acids. First aid box • First aid equipment is kept in the site managers office as it is easier and faster access in case of emergency Children must not play in the site • When the construction activity is going on, it will be dangerous for the children as any accidents might happen such as getting hit by vehicles or falling object Hand glove must be worn • to protect the employee hand from bruise • To protect hands from hazardous substance Scaffolding platform • Helps to minimize the risk of fall when a worker is doing the construction work high up the building 8
  8. 8. Reasons for using construction plant. • High output - Complete work volume in time. • Quality work - Accuracy and consistency. • Economy - Cost effectiveness. • Nature of work - Dangerous if do the task manually. TYPES OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 1. Excavating and earth- moving equipment: • Backhoe-loaders • Excavators • Loaders • Trucks and hauling equipment • Vacuum excavators 2. Lifting and vertical transportation equipment • Mobile cranes • Tower cranes • Goods hoists • Passengers hoists 3) Bulldozers 4) Scrapers 5) Concrete plant and equipment • Concrete trucks • Concrete mixing plant • Concrete pumps Plants and Machinery 9
  9. 9. Backhoe-loader Backhoe loader is engineering vehicle, which consist of a tractor, fitted with a shovel or bucket on the front and a small backhoe on the back. Uses: • Digging shallow excavations • Digging trenches • General grading • Lifting loads • Loading and carrying materials Excavators Uses of excavators: • Excavating below or above natural surface of ground on which machine rests. • Digging bigger trenches. • Digging pits for basements, • General grading work. • Loading onto haul units (dumper trucks) • Lifting Other uses: Excavator bucket can be replaced with a breaker or hammer turning the unit into a demolition machine. Construction equipment found on site 10
  10. 10. Mobile crane • A full revolving superstructure mounted on a truck with multi section- telescoping boom. • These cranes can travel on public roads between projects under own power with minimum or no dismantling and reassembling. • Therefore very suitable if a job requires crane utilization for a few hours to a couple of days. Uses: To hoist materials and machineries. Vibrating smooth wheel roller Vibratory road roller can be equipped with single drum or double drum. Uses: • Rolling aggregates • Compaction of clay and sand • Proof rolling of subgrades and in compacting asphalt pavements. 11
  11. 11. 3.0 External work 12
  12. 12. • External works on our construction site are mainly: • Setting out • Signage • Site boundary • Temporary shelters • Earthworks • Drainage • Sloping 13
  13. 13. Setting Out Starting period : Semptember 2013 Construction start : March 2014 Handing Over : January 2016 Site Area : 18 Hectares Functional external features may take the form of access requirements where security may be an issue. To enhance security on any project fencing could be used to separate the site from adjacent properties and land. Any from of fencing, whether it be full permimeter fencing or partial fencing installed at key areas of the site, can stop or cut down any unwanted pedestrian or vehicular access. The primary form of fencing present on our site is mainly metal hoardings placed moslty around the whole site boundary except around the hillside.Another form of protection at our site boundary would be the retaining wall (R.E Wall) or Retaining Concrete Wall (R.C Wall). Site boundary Retaining wall R.C wall Metal hoarding 14
  14. 14. Storage of material and temporary shelters They are actually small housing shelters for storing site equipments and for construction workers to rest. 15
  15. 15. Earthworks Earthworks are engineering works created through the moving or processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock. The earth may be moved to another location and formed into a desired shape for a purpose. Much of earthworks involves machine excavation and fill or backfill. Excavation may be classified by type of material: • Topsoil excavation • Earth excavation • Rock excavation • Muck excavation - this usually contains excess water and unsuitable soil • Unclassified excavation - this is any combination of material types Excavation may be classified by the purpose: Stripping • Roadway excavation • Drainage or structure excavation • Bridge excavation • Channel excavation • Footing excavation • Borrow excavation • Dredge excavation • Underground Excavation Typical earthworks include roads, railway beds, causeways, dams, levees, canals, and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes. Earth-moving machines such as the loader, production trucks, the grader, the bulldozer, the backhoe, and the dragline excavator. 16
  16. 16. Sloping One unique and very ingenios way of using waste concrete to prevent soil erosion and provide slope protection is by graniting.This method is implemeted by fitting pipes into the slopes to carry accumulated water from the top away while the face of the slope is sprayed with waste concrete from construction also helping to save on material cost. This method of sloping is aesthetically pleasing, economical and prevents materials wastage. 17
  17. 17. Drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from an area. The drainage system on the site is essential as it carries away waste water from the site to its respective destination. Civil engineers and construction managers work alongside architects and supervisors, planners, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. Drainage options for the construction industry include: • Point drainage It intercepts water at gullies (points). Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. Support for deep trenches is required in the shape of planking, strutting or shoring. • Channel drainage It intercepts water along the entire run of the channel. Channel drainage is typically manufactured from concrete, steel, polymer or composites. The interception rate of channel drainage is greater than point drainage and the excavation required is usually much less deep. The surface opening of channel drainage usually comes in the form of gratings (polymer, plastic, steel or iron) or a single slot (slot drain) that runs along the ground surface (typically manufactured from steel or iron). 18
  18. 18. Street Furniture Street furniture represents a large and diverse subcategory of external works. It can be used to create subtle themes within city centres, whether it be a traditional or contemporary theme. Elements of street furniture may comprise seating, lighting, signage and litter management. The layout of street furniture can be used to create strong visual effects within a city environment. Examples: • Benches and seats • Cast iron seating Paving They can be obtained in a wide variety of colours and finishes. Types: • Concrete paving stones They are seen as a cost effective alternative to traditional clay block pavers, especially if large numbers are required for driveway and access road construction. In industrial environments reinforced concrete is favoured for access roads and loading bays to take the strain of heavy goods vehicles. • Tarmac It can also be used to cover large areas, such as car parks, as it has the ability to accommodate small settlements without cracking. Specialist road surfacing contractors will be able to advise on specifications to withstand intended usage. Hardstanding areas within residential garden areas may need to be more aesthetically pleasing. To fulfil this requirement products such as timber decking have been developed to provide eye catching functional features within gardens. Wooden decking can be constructed to suit most situations with anti slip surfaces available, along with accompanying handrails and balustrades. Patios, also suited to garden locations, may typically be constructed from concrete or concrete paving slabs. Landscaping 19
  19. 19. 4.0 Foundation 20
  20. 20. The foundation is the substructure constructed below or partly below the surface of the ground. It anchors the superstructure by distributing the load safely into the ground. Settlement is the downward compression of the soil due to the load of the building on the foundation. Therefore the foundation is designed so as to limit the settlement and make it uniform. 4.0 Introduction to Foundation Uniform settlement Tipping settlement Differential settlement Foundation system Ground Foundation Building Factors considered when choosing foundation types: 1. Load of building 2. Ground conditions 3. Types of soil 4. Types of structure in neighbourhood 21
  21. 21. 4.0 Types of Foundation Pile foundation This one takes the load of the building through made-up ground or weak soil to load bearing strata. Building loads is transferred to the beam through ground beams. Raft foundation This reinforced foundation distributes the load over the whole building area reducing the load per unit area. Raft foundations are used where building loads are high or when ground conditions are poor Reasons for using this foundation. - The ground is quite weak and in poor condition - The buildings are 3 storey high which makes it heavy, therefore requiring a raft foundation to distribute the load uniformly on the weak ground. Reasons for using this foundation. - This is used in sloppy areas of the site - Best foundation to hold the load of the whole building on the slope having a ground which is also weak. 22
  22. 22. Pile foundation 4.1 Pile Foundation (from site visit) Pile foundation is used at the slopes of the hill. It is more suitable for this terrain because the soil here is quite soft and weak. The load is also well distributed and thus keeping the building stable and well balanced. 65 cm 65 cm 160 cm 160 cm 130 cm 111 cm 130 cm Pile cap Column Pile 23
  23. 23. 4.1 Pile Foundation construction process (from site visit) 1. The area where the foundation will be is excavated. 2. Borehole is drilled using an auger 3. The reinforcement cage is placed inside the borehole and then filled with concrete 4. The reinforcement of the pile cap is then placed inside. There is also the reinforcement for the column attached to it 5. Formworks are placed around, and it is then filled with concrete 6. The column is also finished using the same way and then the pile cap is covered with soil Auger Borehole 24
  24. 24. 4.1 Solid Slab Raft Foundation (from site visit) Raft foundation Raft foundation is used on the flat surface. Upper reinforcement Upper reinforcement Hairpin bar Plastic spacer 25
  25. 25. 4.1 Raft Foundation construction process (from site visit) The ground is excavated 40 cm deep and then levelled Wood is used as the formwork to hold the concrete in shape Concrete is then poured into the formwork, levelled and then left to dry. 15 cm 40 cm A compacted hardcore layer (Used as solid working base) and a blinding layer (Used to prevent wet concrete from running down the hardcore) is added inside Reinforcements are added. This will give more strength to the foundation Compacted hardcore 15 cm thick Sand blinding Steel mesh Steel bar Concrete Brace Vertical Wood formwork Reinforcement Then the soil is added to fil the gap between the foundation and the soil 40 cm Levelled ground Ground beam Wood formwork 26
  26. 26. Original slope 4.1 Stepped Raft Foundation construction process (from site visit) Hard core layer Levelled groundThe slope is excavated into steps which are then levelled. This is done so as to get flat surfaces instead of a slope The surface is then covered with compacted hardcore and a blinding layer The reinforcements which consists of steel meshes and steel bars are added. The wood formworks are placed and concrete is poured inside. Blinding layer Steel mesh Steel bar Wood formwork Concrete 50 cm 27
  27. 27. 5.0 Superstructure 28
  28. 28. SUPERSTRUCTURE • Superstructure of a building is the portion of the structure above the foundation. It provides the necessary utility of the building with comfort, structural safety, ventilation, etc. SUPERSTRUCTURES IN OUR SITE • Beam 1. Simply supported beam 2. Fixed beam 3. Cantilever beam 4. Continuous beam • Columns • Slab • walls • staircase 29
  29. 29. BEAM • Beam is the horizontal member of a structure, carrying transverse loads. Beam is rectangular in cross-section. Beam carry the floor slab or the roof slab. Beam transfer all the loads including its self-weight to the columns or walls. 1. Fix the reinforcement bar of the beam 2.Fix the wooden framework for the concrete beam and pour the concrete 3.Let it dry up and remove the formwork and you have your rcc beam CONSTRUCTION OF A RCC BEAM • The beam in the basement of our building is attached to the foundation slab. • For the ground floor, 1ST and 2nd floor they cast the beam with the slab since it was not possible to cast the slab later. • The ground, 1st and 2nd floor beam rest on the various collumns on the basement, ground and 1st floor respectively. • The 2nd floor beam is cast with the roof slab at our site. 30
  31. 31. COLUMNS• Columns is a vertical structural member. It transmits the load from ceiling/roof slab and beam, including its self-weight to the foundation. • Columns may be subjected to a pure compressive load. R.C.C columns are the most widely used now days. Fix the reinforceme nt bars for the columns Built the wooden form work around the reinforcement and pour concrete and leave it to dry Remove the wooden form work after the mixture dries and there we get our column CONSTRUCTION OF A RCC COLUMN Section of a RCC column 32
  32. 32. The columns of the basement has its reinforcements coming from the foundation The reinforcements of the columns of the ground floor run from the columns of the basement they are smaller in dimensions compared to the columns in the basement yet have the same center. The reinforcements of the columns of the first floor run from the columns of the ground floor, they are smaller in dimensions compared to the ground floor yet have the same center The reinforcements of the columns of the second floor run from the columns of the first floor, they are smaller in dimensions compared to the first floor with the same center. We even see that in this floor the numbers of columns also reduce since it is the last floor and has no load of further floors 33
  33. 33. 5.2 Slab Type of slab used in our site: Two way slab (with beam) This type of slab is supported on four sides by beams and columns. This is because the ratio of length to width is less than two. The load is carried in two directions. The reinforcement is arranged to support the slab in two directions. Advantage: • Framing of beams with column • Versatile Disadvantage: • Beams dropping from ceiling are visible The formwork is assembled over the columns and is supported by scaffoldings. More wood is added to the formwork so as to look like this. Then the reinforcement cage for the beam is placed inside the gaps Steel meshes are inserted, this will give strength to the slab. Concrete is then poured inside and left to dry. Section cut 45 cm 15 cm Construction process: 34
  34. 34. 5.3 Walls Wall is the vertical plane of a building, it defines an enclosed space or acts as a division. Walls are made to provide shelter from weathering, safety and privacy. It can be either load bearing or non-load bearing. The types of structural walls found on the building are: building wall, partition wall, party wall, and retaining wall. Types of building materials used : Masonry bricks and Reinforced concrete. Clay brick sand brick R.C wall Concrete retaining wallR.C wall Clay brick 35
  35. 35. 36
  36. 36. Reinforced concrete wood formwork 37
  37. 37. 5.4 Staircase 38
  38. 38. 5.4 Staircase 39
  39. 39. Staircase A staircase is a construction designed to link a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances which is called steps. It allows easy movement between the different levels of design. Aspect that should be considered when designing a staircase is the placement of stairs, ease to travel and most importantly the safety. Also, the design of a staircase should take proper consideration of the width, landings, handrail, guardrails, treads, rises, and nosing which are the requirements of a staircase. Concrete staircase Concrete staircase are often specified for their strength, durability, the protection, food resistance and sound reduction properties Concrete Quarter landing staircase Quarter Landing Stairs represent a variety of straight stairs, which also include a landing. But here the landing is needed to change a direction of the flight by 90 degrees and at the same time it serves as a place for rest when moving. The landing may change its position in the flight from its beginning and up to its end. Staircases of this type are more convenient and safe than straight staircases 37
  40. 40. Advantages of quarter landing stairs shaped Stairs: 1. Quarter landing stairs can be more visually interesting. 2. They provide a visual barrier between floors so they can add some privacy. 3. Also quarter landing stairs can help somewhat with sound transmission between floors if the stairs are contained within walls. 4. Some believe they are safer than straight stairs as the central landing reduces the number of treads one could fall in a given flight. 5. The landing can provide a place to stop and rest while ascending. 6. They can be located in a corner of a room if this works better for your design. Disadvantages of quarter landing stairs shaped Stairs: 1. Quarter landing stairs are a bit more difficult to build. 2. A support is typically required for the landing in a quarter landing stairs. Often this is built into the surrounding walls so it goes unnoticed. In modern dwellings however it is usually desirable to open up the space leaving the stair structure visible. In these cases the supporting structure can be visually minimized by taking advantage of the strength of steel to create slim supporting members. Through careful engineering,it is possible to eliminate the landing support all together. 3. Handrails for these types of stairs require more skill and planning to construct. 4. In climates where basements are used, stairs are typically stacked over each other for efficient use of space. Since basements are often used for storage, large items can be difficult to move in and out of the basement. 38
  41. 41. procedure of constructing concrete staircase step 1 : calculate the stairs dimension measure the height of one floor to the other. Divide the height with 7 inches (standard measurement of rise) to get the number of steps. measure the horizontal distance the staircase will span and me sure the width of staircase from left to right. step 2 : determine the foundation dimension the dimension of the staircase’s foundation are the total length of run and total width of staircase as measured in step 1 step 3 : build the formwork around the reinforcement using either plywood or framing lumber to build the form. Cut the side forms according to the tread and riser calculations. step 4 : prepare the concrete produce sufficient and well-mixed mortar with a portable cement mixer. step 5 : pour the mortar start at the bottom and pour one step at a time. make sure the mortars are spread evenly. use a spade to remove the trapped air bubbles. step 6 : add finishing touches use a simple wood float to clean and smooth the surface of the mortars. step 7 : leave and wait spray the stairs with cur in compound and cover it with burlap. after a week, remove from the lumber. 39
  42. 42. Rectangle stainless steel handrails 50 x 25mm and 50 x 10mm rectangle stainless steel tube and fittings can be used to create a modern stainless steel rail which is suitable for both internal and external use. Advantages of stainless steel handrail 1. Easy to clean 2. The finishing (satin or mirror) look valuable 3. Not easy rusty 4. Not easy contaminated 5. Very strong in structure 6. Stainless steel look simple but luxury 7 .Stainless steel easy match to some other material such as glass and wood 8. Stainless steel have more accessories to fit with 9. Stainless steel is majority part fabricating onsite, instead of fabricating offsite at the factories then go onsite to install. Therefore, the job done is more precisely. 10. handrail using stainless steel material to fabricate always look better than other materials as no requirement of painting or powder coating as steel or aluminium. Fabricator can polish onsite when install the job. Even some balustrades need to fit or re-fabricated, then the fabricator can easily re-polish the finishing. 1. higher cost compare to other material. 2. require higher skill to weld and must have proper skill of polishing the stainless steel. 3. need properly maintain when it install at outside. 4. it is not easy to distinguish the material of stainless steel. Disadvantages of stainless steel handrail 40
  43. 43. 6.0 Windows and doors Hinged: side hung Types of windows Fixed window Installation of windows: The above picture shows the frame fixed onto the walls after being plastered and skim coated. Then the aluminium window frames are fixed onto it. Installation of doors: The frame of the door is fitted The opening made into the wall. Then the door is fixed on This frame using a hinge. Type of door on site Side hung timber flush door 44
  44. 44. 7.0 Roofs 45
  45. 45. Roof Roofing Introduction Flat roof has a pitch of less than 5’. However, flat roof structures are suitable for shallow pitched roof (up to 25’), although the building materials must be adequately protected against slippage. The top section of the flat roof is the roof covering, known as the roof weatherproofing or waterproofing. Layers of structural elements Flat roofs can have various functional layers, which must be matched to each other. It is essential that the layers sequence provide adequate insulation against heat and noise. Building materials must be compatible with each other. -under course -bonding course -leveling course -separating course -vapor barrier -thermal insulation -vapor pressure compensation course -roof waterproofing -filter course -surface protection -accessible coverings Structural element courses according to the guidelines laid down by the Zentrolverband des Deutshen Dachdeckerhandwerks: Flat roof guidelines. 46
  46. 46. Roof edging Flat roof can be finished as projecting flat roofs at the point they meet the façade, or with an upstand. Current practice is to finish the roof with a parapet or an edge trim but we are focusing on roof edge with parapet as we can see in our site Roof Structure: roof waterproofing, single course, vapor pressure, compensation course, thermal insulation, vapor barrier, leveling course preliminary coating, reinforced concrete slab Wall structure: façade slabs, air space, thermal insulation calcium silicate mansonary 47
  47. 47. Components for roof edge with parapet 48
  48. 48. Flat roof is not perfectly flat , the rafters are laid at slight angle to allow the rain water to flow. Sheathing and roofing are applied to the top of the rafters The hip roof slopes at all sides, results in an even overhang all around the building. This roof is popular due to its low maintenance Curved roof is known for their aesthetic appeal. A curved roof also may help to reduce resistance to wind Most of the roofs in Malaysia are flat roof and it is slowly becoming popular compared to hip roof Famous for its low maintenance but users think that it is too old fashioned This kind of roof is not suitable or housing or commercial Flat roofs are quicker to apply thus saves time and money Hip roof takes more time to apply thus cost more money but the maintenance is low Even more time consuming to build curved panel roof Comparison between flat roofs and other types of roof 49
  49. 49. Summary To conclude throughout all these site visit we have definitely learnt a lot from this experience. From basic structure theories to being able to indentify construction flaws. We visited one site in Kuala Lumpur (Desa Petaling , Desa hill villa ) it had 165 unit at different construction levels we saw houses at extraction level, foundation level, basic framework level, super structures level, completion level and with the final touches. Through this project we understood how one should go about contracting a three storey house. We learnt that to start any project we first need to do external works that is setting out boundaries surveying the land setting out earth works. The next stage is site safety and security. After all this on the basis of land survey we excavate the land for the foundation. We learnt about two different kinds of foundation at our site i.e. pile foundation and raft foundation. After setting out the foundation we studied the placing and construction of the various superstructures i.e. the columns, beams, slabs, staircase and wall. Later followed by the construction of the roof. After this the building is checked for water proofing . After that we set up the services and the electrical work and fill up the walls . The stage after this is the placing and installation of the doors and windows. We studied the different kinds of windows and doors at our site. After all this we see a final wall finishing that consists of plastering followed by smoothing and leveling which is followed by painting. After this we need to add up the final touches to the house that is the final paint coat the doors and window knobs furniture and that is how we construct or house. 507
  50. 50. Reference • Engineering intro. Rollers. http://www.engineeringintro.com/all-about-construction-equipments/rollers-types-of-roller-characteristics/ • BuildingHow. Raft foundation. http://www.buildinghow.com/en-us/Products/Books/Volume-A/The-reinforcement-II/Foundation/Raft-foundation • King Saud University. Two way slabs. http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/charif/Documents/Two%20way%20slabs.pdf • External wall construction. http://www.bca.gov.sg/professionals/iquas/..%5CIquas%5Cgpgs%5CWEWall%5CWEWChpt5.pdf • http://www.buildingscience.com/documents/digests/bsd-102-understanding-attic-ventilation • http://constructionstudiesq1.weebly.com/uploads/1/6/4/9/16490624/1364418771.jpg • http://www.greenspec.co.uk/images/web/refurb/timflatroof/warmtimbflatroof.png • Tanja Brotruck, 2007 Birkhauser, Roof Construction, Publishers for Architecture, P.O. Box133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland. • Barry’s introduction to building construction. Stephen Emmitt, Christopher A. Gorse. Jan 2010 • Different types of beams. http://www.slideshare.net/mbrsalman/civil-engineering-beamscolumns • Construction of columns and beams from site Everything else from site information 48