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Unit 2-Research Design and Methods.pptx

  1. Unit-2-Research Design and Methods
  2.  Research require planning & detailed strategy.  A good research depends on two aspects of its designing-  Specifying what one wants to find out.  Determine how to do it.
  3.  Research proceeds in six phases-  Selection and formulation of the problem.  Framing research design.  Planning a sample.  Collecting and analyzing the data.  Report writing.
  4.  It specify the objectives of study, methodology & techniques.  It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.  The term design refers to draw an outline with respect to certain decisions.  It plans as to what the study is and types of data that are needed.
  5.  Why the study is being made?  Where the needed data can be found or in what areas the study will be carried on?  What periods of time the study will include?  How much material or how many cases will be needed?  What techniques of gathering data will be adopted?
  6.  Generally the research design involves the following ten major steps-  Identification & selection of research problem.  Framing the conceptual model.  Formulation of research problem, specification of its objectives, its scope.
  7.  Framing Hypothesis.  Sampling procedure.  Tools and techniques used for gathering data.  Collection of data.  Analysis of data.  Report writing.
  8.  Research is the study of materials, source & data in order to get conclusion.A research design is not just a work plan. A work plan details what has to be done to complete the project but the work plan will flow from the project’s research design. The function of research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enable us to answer the initial question as unambiguously as possible.
  9.  A research design is a procedural plan that is adopted by the researcher to answer questions validity,objectivity,accuracy & economically. It is for fulfilling research objectives & answering plan specifying the methods & procedures for collecting & analyzing the needed information. A research design constitutes a research planning of the proposed research project to conduct the empirical test of the hypothesis or to test the veracity of it.
  10.  A research design must contain-  A clear statement of the research problem. Review of previously published literature dealing with the problem.  Clearly and explicitly specifying hypothesis.  Clear description of the data.  The methods of analysis.  The first step requires the researcher to state the problem and reasons for selecting it.
  11.  Choice of the topic depends on an investigator’s interest and values.  The second step is that the researcher should familiarize with the work that has already been done in the area, so that the research project can built on extend the finding of those who preceded the researcher.  A summary of the review of literature should be inclined in the research design.
  12.  The identification, selection and formulation of a research problem are the vital and foremost part of research process. The problem selected for research may initially be vague, the question to be studied or the problem to be solved may not be known. A problem well conceived is half solved. Formulation gives a direction and a specific focus to the research efforts.
  13.  Transmission of Knowledge  Presentation of findings  Examining the validity of design and focus  Report must be prepared & presented in an organized form  Inspiration for further research
  14.  Logical analysis of the subject matter  Preparation of the rough draft  Rewriting & Polishing of the rough draft  Preparation of the final bibliography  Writing the final draft
  15.  Exploration & Description-  Introductory Part  Main Body  Reference Part  Title Page  Preface(Introduction)  Acknowledgement  Table of contents
  16.  Diagnosis-  Introduction  Review of Literature  Method of Study  Result of findings  Description of Sample  Discussion  Summary, Conclusion & Suggestion
  17.  Experimentation-  Process of finding out new data  Based on facts collected in ways  Kind of the problem involved  Kind of questions being asked  Idea of a design  Selecting and properly defining a research problem
  18.  Review of previously published literature dealing with the problem area  Clearly and explicitly specifying the hypothesis  Clear description of the data  Method of analysis  In relation to the previous findings
  19.  The researcher has no idea as to how accurate the results. The researcher has to determine how much inaccuracy may be tolerated. Accuracy can be obtained with little trouble with great difficulty. Researcher is in a position to consider how he will try to solve it. The use of statistics and sampling becomes necessary for research design.
  20.  Maximum information  Planning of the methods  Collection of relevant evidence with less expenditure  Objective of research & the availability of staff, time and money
  21.  Dependent and independent variables  Extraneous(external) variables(progressive)  Prediction and Explanation  Development of Models  Experimental & non experimental Hypothesis  Testing Research with law and theory  Induction, Deduction-Treatments & Experiments
  22.  Identify the research problem & justify its selection. Review and synthesize(To make artificial product)previously published literature associated with the research problem. Clearly and explicitly specify hypothesis. Effectively describe the data which will be necessary for an adequate testing of the hypothesis and explain how such data will be obtained. Describe the methods of analysis to be applied to the data in determining whether or not the hypothesis are true or false.
  23.  Non Sampling Error-Factors of faulty design of questions or in interview method.  Non Response Error-Respondents do not respond.  Response Error-Inaccurate answer.
  24.  Respondent Selection Error-A non reader is selected for interview.  Questioning Error-Ambiguity in questions.  Cheating Error-Interviewer fills the questionnaire without interviewing anybody.
  25.  A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.  Scope-The problem chapter provides an overview of the study.  Statement of the purpose.  Problem to be addressed.  Title & Introduction.  Limitations & Significance of the study.
  26.  Classification-  Empirically Testable  Simple and Clear  Specific & relevant  Predictable and Manageable
  27.  Hypothesis is a testable prediction which is expected to occur. It can be a false or a true statement that is tested in the research to check its authenticity. It is very difficult to start a research without having a valid foundation. Logical relationship between various phenomena is called as hypothesis. It helps in framing research techniques.
  28.  Simple Hypothesis(Independent and Dependent Variables)  Complex Hypothesis(Relationship among more than two variables)  Working or Research Hypothesis(To explain certain facts)  Null Hypothesis( No relationship between variables)
  29.  Alternative Hypothesis (To replace the working Hypothesis)  Logical Hypothesis(A Hypothesis that can be verified logically is known as a logical Hypothesis)  Statistical Hypothesis(Can be verified statistically)
  30.  Observation  Reflection  Deduction or Induction  Verification
  31.  Absence of clear theoretical frame work.  Lack of ability to utilize that theoretical frame work logically.  Failure to be acquainted with available research techniques so as to be able to phrase the hypothesis properly.
  32.  Judiciary one of the Institution for rule of law.  Simple, Transparent & efficient procedures.  The Right to Information Act,2005 a tool of data collection.  Primary Sources-Information obtained from living person directly or through observation.  Secondary Sources-Information from published source or from some one else who has already worked.
  33.  Observation  Questionnaires  Case Study Method  Sampling Method  Interview
  34.  Information as any material in any form.  Awareness for carrying out of research.  Data from electronic form which can be accessed by Public Authority.  Need to review and collect huge volumes of data for effectual exploration.