Research require planning & detailed
A good research depends on two aspects of
Specifying what one wants to find out.
Determine how to do it.
Research proceeds in six phases-
Selection and formulation of the problem.
Framing research design.
Planning a sample.
Collecting and analyzing the data.
It specify the objectives of study,
methodology & techniques.
It constitutes the blue print for the collection,
measurement and analysis of data.
The term design refers to draw an outline
with respect to certain decisions.
It plans as to what the study is and types of
data that are needed.
Why the study is being made?
Where the needed data can be found or in what
areas the study will be carried on?
What periods of time the study will include?
How much material or how many cases will be
What techniques of gathering data will be
Generally the research design involves the
following ten major steps-
Identification & selection of research
Framing the conceptual model.
Formulation of research problem,
specification of its objectives, its scope.
Tools and techniques used for gathering data.
Collection of data.
Analysis of data.
Research is the study of materials, source &
data in order to get conclusion.A research
design is not just a work plan. A work plan
details what has to be done to complete the
project but the work plan will flow from the
project’s research design. The function of
research design is to ensure that the evidence
obtained enable us to answer the initial
question as unambiguously as possible.
A research design is a procedural plan that is
adopted by the researcher to answer
questions validity,objectivity,accuracy &
economically. It is for fulfilling research
objectives & answering plan specifying the
methods & procedures for collecting &
analyzing the needed information. A research
design constitutes a research planning of the
proposed research project to conduct the
empirical test of the hypothesis or to test the
veracity of it.
A research design must contain-
A clear statement of the research problem.
Review of previously published literature
dealing with the problem.
Clearly and explicitly specifying hypothesis.
Clear description of the data.
The methods of analysis.
The first step requires the researcher to state
the problem and reasons for selecting it.
Choice of the topic depends on an
investigator’s interest and values.
The second step is that the researcher should
familiarize with the work that has already
been done in the area, so that the research
project can built on extend the finding of
those who preceded the researcher.
A summary of the review of literature should
be inclined in the research design.
The identification, selection and formulation
of a research problem are the vital and
foremost part of research process. The
problem selected for research may initially be
vague, the question to be studied or the
problem to be solved may not be known. A
problem well conceived is half solved.
Formulation gives a direction and a specific
focus to the research efforts.
Transmission of Knowledge
Presentation of findings
Examining the validity of design and focus
Report must be prepared & presented in an
Inspiration for further research
Logical analysis of the subject matter
Preparation of the rough draft
Rewriting & Polishing of the rough draft
Preparation of the final bibliography
Writing the final draft
Exploration & Description-
Table of contents
Review of Literature
Method of Study
Result of findings
Description of Sample
Summary, Conclusion & Suggestion
Process of finding out new data
Based on facts collected in ways
Kind of the problem involved
Kind of questions being asked
Idea of a design
Selecting and properly defining a research problem
Review of previously published literature dealing
with the problem area
Clearly and explicitly specifying the hypothesis
Clear description of the data
Method of analysis
In relation to the previous findings
The researcher has no idea as to how
accurate the results. The researcher has to
determine how much inaccuracy may be
tolerated. Accuracy can be obtained with little
trouble with great difficulty. Researcher is in a
position to consider how he will try to solve
it. The use of statistics and sampling
becomes necessary for research design.
Planning of the methods
Collection of relevant evidence with less
Objective of research & the availability of
staff, time and money
Dependent and independent variables
Prediction and Explanation
Development of Models
Experimental & non experimental Hypothesis
Testing Research with law and theory
Induction, Deduction-Treatments & Experiments
Identify the research problem & justify its
selection. Review and synthesize(To make
artificial product)previously published literature
associated with the research problem. Clearly
and explicitly specify hypothesis. Effectively
describe the data which will be necessary for an
adequate testing of the hypothesis and explain
how such data will be obtained. Describe the
methods of analysis to be applied to the data in
determining whether or not the hypothesis are
true or false.
Non Sampling Error-Factors of faulty design
of questions or in interview method.
Non Response Error-Respondents do not
Response Error-Inaccurate answer.
Respondent Selection Error-A non reader is
selected for interview.
Questioning Error-Ambiguity in questions.
Cheating Error-Interviewer fills the
questionnaire without interviewing anybody.
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the
basis of limited evidence as a starting point for
Scope-The problem chapter provides an overview of
Statement of the purpose.
Problem to be addressed.
Title & Introduction.
Limitations & Significance of the study.
Hypothesis is a testable prediction which is
expected to occur. It can be a false or a true
statement that is tested in the research to
check its authenticity. It is very difficult to
start a research without having a valid
foundation. Logical relationship between
various phenomena is called as hypothesis. It
helps in framing research techniques.
Simple Hypothesis(Independent and
Complex Hypothesis(Relationship among
more than two variables)
Working or Research Hypothesis(To explain
Null Hypothesis( No relationship between
Alternative Hypothesis (To replace the
Logical Hypothesis(A Hypothesis that can be
verified logically is known as a logical
Statistical Hypothesis(Can be verified
Absence of clear theoretical frame work.
Lack of ability to utilize that theoretical frame
Failure to be acquainted with available
research techniques so as to be able to
phrase the hypothesis properly.
Judiciary one of the Institution for rule of law.
Simple, Transparent & efficient procedures.
The Right to Information Act,2005 a tool of
Primary Sources-Information obtained from
living person directly or through observation.
Secondary Sources-Information from
published source or from some one else who
has already worked.
Information as any material in any form.
Awareness for carrying out of research.
Data from electronic form which can be
accessed by Public Authority.
Need to review and collect huge volumes of
data for effectual exploration.