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Earthquake Natural Tsunami Cyclone etc.Disaster Sociological Man Made Technological Hazardous
A. Natural Disasters B. Manmade DisastersNatural Disasters:- Which are caused by or because of natural phenomena.(geological, biological).Manmade Disasters:- Which occurs due to human negligence. ( toxic waste, civil strifes etc.)
Geological:- Earth Quack, Tsunami, Land Slide, Volcanic Irruption. Water and Climatic :- Tornado, Hurricane, Floods, Drought, Hailstorm. Environmental:- Pollutions, Deforestation, Pest Infection.
Biological:- Pest attacks, food poisoning, weapon of mass destruction. Chemical, Industrial and Nuclear Accident:- Chemical disaster, Industrial disasters, Nuclear. Accident related:- Boat/Road/Train/plane Accident, Building collapse, electric accident, Festival related disasters for example Bull festival in SPAIN,
Most Destructive Natural hazards. Sudden occurrence and Unpredictable. More effects arises mainly from land movement, fracture or slippage. Widespread loss or damage to infrastructure, essential services and life support system.
Tsunami derived from a Japanese term, where Tsu means “Harbour” and Nami means “Waves”. Originated by rapid displacement of water from the lake or sea, either by seismic activity, landslides, volcanic eruptions. Waves depend on depth of water. Speed varies. Wave height can be as high as 30 meters.
1524 – Near Dhabol Maharashtra 2 April 1762 – Arakan Costa Myanmar. 26 December 2004- Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Malaysia; Kenya; Tanzania ~ The East cost of India was affected. The waves measured around 10 m high killing more than 10,000 precious lives.
A State of high water level along a river channel or on the cost that leads to inundation of Land. May occur gradually, or may take hours, may be or not be without warning. Speed may be sudden or gradually. There may be seasonal patterns to flooding.
Region of low atmospheric pressure, surrounded by high atmospheric pressure resulting in swirling atmospheric disturbance accompanied by powerful winds around it in anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in southern hemisphere.
Strong Winds Exceptional Rain Storm Surge Rise in sea level cause in severe flood conditions.
1971- Eastern Coast- 9658 people died 1972- Andhra Pradesh and Orissa- 100 died. 1990- Orissa- 250 people died 1999- Orissa- 8913 died
Drought is either absence or deficiency of rainfall from its normal pattern in a region for an extended period of time leading to general suffering in the society. It is a slow on-set disaster and difficult to demarcate the time of its onset and the end. The Types of draughts:- 1. Meterological 2.Hedrological 3.Agricultural
Public Awareness and education Drought Monitoring Expansion of irrigation
The landslides includes all varieties of mass movements of hill slopes, forming material composed of rocks, soil etc or combinations of all these materials by falling, sliding or flowing from one place to another. Can be fast or can be slow. Major causes, erosion, intense rainfall, human excavation like deforestation, mining irrigation etc. Other factors are earthquake, volcanic eruption etc.
October 1990- Nilgris- 36 people died and several injured. Several buildings and communication network damaged. 18,August 1998- Malpa,- 205 people killed. Road network to MansarovarKali river disrupted. August 2003 Uttarkashi Heavy loss of infrastructure
Manmade hazards are those hazards which lead to the manmade disaster. Manmade disaster are sometimes referred to as anthropogenic. TYPES:- Sociological Hazards Technological Hazards Hazardous Materials
The disaster/hazards which cause bad affect on society or the one which is created by society. List of sociological hazards:- Crime Arson Terrorism War
The hazards which cause due to the reluctant use of technology/ies. Forms of Technological Hazards:- Industrial hazards Structural Collapse Power Outage Fire
All the materials which can cause or help in causing disaster comes under this topic. Radiation contamination. CBRN i.e. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear. Transportation:- Aviation, Road, Train.
During World War II (1939 to 1945), United States troops dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first on August 6, 1945 and the second on August 9, 1945. The Chernobyl disaster that occurred on 26 April 1986, 01:23 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, Japan following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 ,14:46.
Aviation Accidents from a helicopter, airlines. The worlds worst airliner disaster is the Tenerife crash of 1977 Rail One of the most devastating rail disasters occurred in 26 December 2004 in Sri Lanka when 1,700 people died. Space The worst space disaster to date occurred on February 15, 1996 in Sichuan, China.
1.> Disaster Management is thediscipline of dealing with andavoiding risk.2.> It is a continuous process.3.> It involves preparing fordisaster before it happens.
The disaster managementincludes sum total of allactivities, programmesand measure which can betaken up before, duringand after a disaster toreduce it’s impact orrecover from it’s losses.
Mitigation:- Efforts to reduce the efforts of disasters when they occur. It is a Long Term measure Preparedness:- Phase where emergency managers develop plans of action for when the disasters strikes. Training, proper communication process, maintenance of supplies and equipments. CONT…
Response:- It includes mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area. Recovery:- The aim is to restore the affected area to it’s previous state. For e.g. rebuilding destroy property.
Early warning systems. Provide basic Need. Proper food distribution. Emergency Facilities. Manage casualties. Forecasting and monitoring setup.
The structure is hierarchical and functions at four levels – centre, state, district and local. It is a multi-stakeholder setup i.e. the structure draws involvement of various relevant ministries, government departments and administrative bodies. Legal Institutional framework.
National disaster management authority (NDMA). State disaster management authority (SDMA). District disaster management authority(DDMA). State disaster response force. NGO’s
GoI-UNDP Disaster Risk Reduction Programme (2009-2012) Disaster Risk Management Programme Ministry of Home Affairs with UNDP Country Office support Additional US$20,000,000 to meet the requirements of the programme will be mobilized by the Government from non- core sources. Project Coverage: National level and in selected states: Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Sikkim, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamilnadu
National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) Calamity Relief Fund (CRF) The Times Foundation Relief Fund