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Coaching For Optimal Performance

Slides about the practice of performance coaching

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Coaching For Optimal Performance

  1. 1. Coaching for Optimal Performance
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Characteristics of Good Coach </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of Good Coaching Session </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills for Effective Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Five Steps of Coaching for Optimal Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching Strategies for Different Behavioral Style </li></ul>
  3. 3. www.exploreHR.org You can download this presentation at: Please visit www.exploreHR.org for more presentations on leadership, personal development, and HR management.
  4. 4. Characteristics of Good Coach If you find this presentation useful, please consider telling others about our site www.exploreHR.org )
  5. 5. Benefits of Good Coaching Improve employee performance Help develop employee’s competence Help diagnose performance problems Help correct unsatisfactory performance Foster productive working relationship
  6. 6. Characteristics of Good Coach Positive Goal Oriented Supportive Focused Observant
  7. 7. Positive <ul><li>Your job is not correcting mistakes, finding fault, and assessing blame </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, your function is achieving productivity goals by coaching your staff to peak performance </li></ul>Characteristics of Good Coach
  8. 8. Supportive <ul><li>Your job as coach is to get workers what they need to do their job well, including tools, time, instruction, answers to questions, and protection from outside interference </li></ul>Characteristics of Good Coach
  9. 9. Goal Oriented <ul><li>Base your assignments on clear, definable goals </li></ul><ul><li>Tie specific tasks to those goals </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate those goals to the people who actually have to do the work </li></ul>Characteristics of Good Coach
  10. 10. Focused <ul><li>Effective communication is specific and focused </li></ul><ul><li>You are far more likely to get action if that employee leaves your office focused on resolving the issue at hand </li></ul>Characteristics of Good Coach
  11. 11. Observant <ul><li>Being observant means more than just keeping your eyes and ears open </li></ul><ul><li>You need to be aware of what isn’t said as well as what is. If you are paying attention, you won’t have to wait for somebody to tell you about a problem </li></ul>Characteristics of Good Coach
  12. 12. Boss vs. Coach Boss <ul><li>Talks a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Tells </li></ul><ul><li>Presume </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks control </li></ul><ul><li>Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Works on </li></ul><ul><li>Assign blame </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps distant </li></ul><ul><li>Listens a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Asks </li></ul><ul><li>Explores </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Work with </li></ul><ul><li>Takes responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Makes contact </li></ul>Coach
  13. 13. Elements of Good Coaching Session
  14. 14. Elements of Good Coaching Session Establish a purpose Establish ground rules Keep focused Develop dialogue Speak clearly Discuss one specific issue
  15. 15. Elements of Good Coaching Session Establish a purpose <ul><li>Having a clear purpose at the beginning of coaching session will enable you to conduct focused and productive discussion </li></ul>
  16. 16. Elements of Good Coaching Session Establish ground rules <ul><li>As with any meeting, you and the employee need to have a common understanding of certain factors </li></ul><ul><li>The most important are time and roles </li></ul>
  17. 17. Elements of Good Coaching Session Keep focused <ul><li>A few guidelines to keep focused : </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid making “noise” – anything that distracts from the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t look at your desktop or PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t touch your papers </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t answer the telephone </li></ul>
  18. 18. Elements of Good Coaching Session Develop dialogue <ul><li>A Don’t launch into a monolog </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re coaching effectively, your employee should probably do most of the talking </li></ul>
  19. 19. Elements of Good Coaching Session Speak clearly <ul><li>These tips will help you communicate more effectively: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the simplest, most common terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the jargon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the known to explain the unknown </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Elements of Good Coaching Session Discuss one specific issue <ul><li>Define the issue and limit the discussion to something manageable </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll get other chances to discuss other concerns – but only if you resolve this specific concern right now </li></ul>
  21. 21. Communication Skills for Effective Coaching
  22. 22. Seven Communication Principles for Coaching <ul><li>Soften the ‘you’s or change the into “I” to avoid sounding pushy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of : ‘You’ll have to….’, say ‘Could you….’ Or ‘Would you be able to….’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on the solution , not the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of ‘We’re out of mild….’, say ‘We will pop down the shop for some milk’. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>3. Turn can’ts into cans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of ‘We can’t do that until next week’, say ‘We’ll be able to do that next week’. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take responsibility – don’t lay blame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead if ‘It’s not my fault’, say ‘Here’s what I can do to fox that’. </li></ul></ul>Seven Communication Principles for Coaching
  24. 24. <ul><li>Say what do you want , not what you don’t want </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of ‘Don’t drive too fast’, say ‘Drive carefully’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on the future , not the past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of “I’ve told you before not to……, say ‘From now on…….” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share information rather than argue or accuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of ‘No, you’re wrong’, say ‘I see it like this….’ </li></ul></ul>Seven Communication Principles for Coaching
  25. 25. Gather Good Information with your EARs E – explore by asking questions A – affirm to show you’re listening R – reflect your understanding S – silence, listen some more
  26. 26. To listen more effectively….. Attend physically – the right body language helps us to focus on the speaker and encourages the speaker to give us more information. Attend mentally – follow the speaker’s flow of thought, listen to understand, not evaluate; listen first, then assess Check it verbally – paraphrase, clarify, probe further, summarize your understanding
  27. 27. Good Habits of Effective Listeners <ul><li>Looking at the speaker in order to observe body language and pick up subtle nuances of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Giving speakers time to articulate their thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Letting people finish what they are saying before giving their opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining poised, calm, and emotionally controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Looking alert and interested </li></ul><ul><li>Responding with nods and ‘uh-uhms’ </li></ul>
  28. 28. Asking Questions in Coaching Session An effective question is brief An effective question is focused An effective question is relevant An effective question is constructive
  29. 29. Asking Questions in Coaching Session An effective question is BRIEF <ul><li>The longer the question, the more likely you are to louse it up </li></ul><ul><li>Short sentences aren’t just easier to understand, they are also easier to say. </li></ul><ul><li>To keep you question brief, think about two things : 1) what do you want to learn from then answer? 2) what words will best elicit this information? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Asking Questions in Coaching Session An effective question is FOCUSED <ul><li>Target a single and a particular aspect of that subject per question </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t, you may render any answer meaningless </li></ul>
  31. 31. Asking Questions in Coaching Session An effective question is RELEVANT <ul><li>Keep you questions on subject and on target </li></ul><ul><li>If an answer strays off the point, tactfully refocus </li></ul>
  32. 32. Asking Questions in Coaching Session An effective question is CONSTRUCTIVE <ul><li>You need to accentuate the positive in you approach to questioning, not because it make you seem nicer, but because your questions will be more effective </li></ul>
  33. 33. Exploring Questions Open Questions Open questions yield lots of information because they allow a person to explain what is most important or interesting and encourage elaboration. Probing Questions Probing questions are those that relate to the topic we want to explore further. They encourage the speaker to flesh out the details.
  34. 34. Closed vs. Open Questions When did that happen? What led up to that? Was your trip successful? What did you manage to accomplish on your trip? Did you like the candidate? In what ways do you think that candidate meets our need? Did you have a good meeting? What happened at the meeting?
  35. 35. Some Probing Questions <ul><li>Can you be more specifics? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give me an example of that? </li></ul><ul><li>What happened then? </li></ul><ul><li>For instance? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this affect you? </li></ul><ul><li>What might cause that, do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you fill me in on the details? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Five Steps for Effective Coaching
  37. 37. Five Steps of Coaching Describe performance issue a professional manner Discuss the causes of the problem Identify and write down possible solutions Develop specific action plan Conduct follow up session
  38. 38. Describe Performance Issue Describe performance issue a professional manner <ul><li>As you describe the problem, be specific. Point out the acceptable levels (quantity or quality) of performance and show the employee exactly where his/her output doesn't meet those levels </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to any available data that will help you indicate to the employee that there is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>It's important to open this discussion in a positive, non-threatening way </li></ul>
  39. 39. Discuss the causes of the problem <ul><li>Remain relaxed and friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Gather all the information you can about the problem by asking open-ended questions (general questions beginning with words like &quot;How,&quot; &quot;What,&quot; &quot;Who,&quot; and &quot;When&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>These questions will bring you closer to the source of the problem </li></ul>Discuss the Causes of the Problem
  40. 40. Discuss the causes of the problem <ul><li>You may find it appropriate to ask some specific questions designed to clarify and pinpoint causes </li></ul><ul><li>This is a good time to listen and respond with empathy, since the employee may express concern or frustration over factors which he/she feels cannot be controlled </li></ul>Discuss the Causes of the Problem
  41. 41. Diagnosing Performance Problem Role Expectations Ability (skills and knowledge) Job Design Work Environment Personal/Motivational Problem Most performance problems are due to one (or more) of five factors :
  42. 42. Diagnosing Performance Problem Role Expectations Ability (skills and knowledge) <ul><li>Does the employee know what is expected? Does s/he even know there is a problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the employee have the requisite skills, abilities and aptitudes to perform the job? Has s/he received training to do the job? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Diagnosing Performance Problem Job Design Work Environment <ul><li>Does the employee have the necessary tools and resources to perform the job? Does the system support good performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Is good performance rewarded ... or punished? Is poor performance rewarded? Is the employee being treated fairly? Do working conditions support good performance? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Diagnosing Performance Problem Personal/ Motivational Problem <ul><li>Does an issue or a problem exist in the employee's personal life that may contribute to poor performance? Is the employee's attitude or morale preventing the employee from successfully applying his/her skills and abilities? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Identify possible solutions <ul><li>After you have identified the likely causes of the performance problem, you will want to decide how to correct it </li></ul><ul><li>The employee is closest to the problem - so ask for his/her ideas and write them down </li></ul><ul><li>This not only enhances the employee's self-esteem, but it provides a written record of possible solutions </li></ul><ul><li>The employee will be more committed to solving the problem if he/she has had a say in the solution </li></ul>Identify Possible Solutions
  46. 46. Conduct follow up session <ul><li>Setting a date to meet again sends a message to the employee that solving the performance problem is important to you </li></ul><ul><li>It also tells the employee that you want to know how well he/she is handling the actions agreed upon </li></ul><ul><li>A follow-up meeting enables you and the employee to get together to discuss any progress or problems and plan further action </li></ul>Conduct Follow Up Session
  47. 47. Coaching Strategies for Different Behavioral Style
  48. 48. Four Styles of Behavior Dominance Influencing Steadiness Compliance
  49. 49. Dominance <ul><li>They like to control their environment by overcoming opposition to accomplish their desired results </li></ul><ul><li>They are direct, forceful, impatient, and can be extremely demanding </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy being in charge and getting things done </li></ul><ul><li>When they are negatively motivated, they can be defiant </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t like being told what to do </li></ul><ul><li>They are reluctant with tasks that involve dealing with lots of detail </li></ul><ul><li>They would quickly become bored with a routine task </li></ul>
  50. 50. Influencing <ul><li>They like to shape the environment by influencing or persuading others to see things their way </li></ul><ul><li>They dislike for handling complex details or working as lone rangers </li></ul><ul><li>They prefer to deal with people rather than things </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy making a favorable impression, a good motivational environment, and viewing people and environment optimistically </li></ul><ul><li>They will chat with you about anything on their minds </li></ul><ul><li>They motivate their people and love to generate enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>When negatively motivated, they can be indiscriminately impulsive </li></ul>
  51. 51. Steadiness <ul><li>They like to cooperate with others to carry out a task </li></ul><ul><li>They are team player and prefer dealing with things, one thing at a time </li></ul><ul><li>They are patient, reliable, loyal and resistant to sudden changes in their environment </li></ul><ul><li>They appreciate an orderly step-by-step approach </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to perform in a consistent, predictable manner and prefer a stable, harmonious work environment </li></ul><ul><li>When they get demotivated they can become stubborn or stern, moods usually expressed in the form of passive resistance </li></ul>
  52. 52. Compliance <ul><li>They are cautious and demands quality and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>They appreciate opportunities for thorough, careful planning </li></ul><ul><li>They are critical thinkers who are sticklers for detail </li></ul><ul><li>They prefer to spend time analyzing a situation and like the steadiness, are slow to accept sudden changes </li></ul><ul><li>They like following procedures and standards – preferably their own </li></ul><ul><li>They respond favorably to logical, well-thought-out, planned options </li></ul><ul><li>When they are negatively motivated, they become cynical or overly critical </li></ul>
  53. 53. Coaching Strategies for Dominance Dominance <ul><li>Be clear, direct, and to the point when you interact and communicate with them </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid being too personal or talking too much about non work items </li></ul><ul><li>Let them know what you expect from them. If you must direct them, provide choices that give them the opportunity to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Accept their need for variety and change. When possible, provide new challenges, as well as opportunities to direct the efforts of others </li></ul>
  54. 54. Coaching Strategies for Influencing Influencing <ul><li>Ask about things going on in their lives outside of work </li></ul><ul><li>Let them share with you their goals at work and elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Tie your objectives to their dreams and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Create democratic atmosphere and interaction with them </li></ul>
  55. 55. Coaching Strategies for Steadiness Steadiness <ul><li>Provide specific direction and offer assurances when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>When implementing change, be sure to lay out a systematic, step-by-step procedure and draw out their concerns and worries about the situation. They need to feel secure </li></ul><ul><li>Assure them that you’ve thought things through before initiating changes. Give them a plan to deal with problem when they occur </li></ul>
  56. 56. Coaching Strategies for Compliance Compliance <ul><li>Opportunities to demonstrate their expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of details </li></ul><ul><li>Enough time to prepare for meetings properly – especially if they have an item on the agenda to present </li></ul><ul><li>Situations where their systematic approach will contribute to long term success </li></ul>
  57. 57. Recommended Further Readings <ul><li>Marshal J. Cook, Effective Coaching , McGraw Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Cullen and Len D’Innocenzo, Coaching to Maximize Performance , Velocity Business Publishing </li></ul>
  58. 58. End of Material