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Mini Curso de Fotografia - Aula 2

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PPT utilizado no primeiro dia do mini curso de verão da faculdade Anhanguera Joinville pelo Prof. Thiago Araujo

Publié dans : Art & Photos
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Mini Curso de Fotografia - Aula 2

  1. 1. Fotografia Conceitos Básicos Thiago Araujo Dia 14/02/14
  2. 2. Proposta de conteúdo Dia 1 Dia 2  Introdução teórica  Gêneros fotográficos  Tipos de câmeras e lentes  Variáveis de controle  Técnicas de composição,  Software e tipos de arquivos
  3. 3. A luz...
  4. 4. Viaja a: 299.792.458 m/s.
  5. 5. A luz é uma onda eletromagnética, cujo comprimento de onda se inclui num determinado intervalo dentro do qual o olho humano é a ela sensível
  6. 6. Pode ser emitida: Incandescência: emissão de luz por aquecimento Luminescência: emissão de luz por corpos frios. Bioluminescência: Emissão de luz por seres vivos. Triboluminescência: Emissão de luz por compressão de cristais.
  7. 7. E pode ser medida por: 1. 2. 3. 4. brilho, medida em watts/cm² iluminância ou iluminação (Unidade SI: lux) fluxo luminoso (Unidade SI: lúmen) intensidade luminosa (Unidade SI: candela)
  8. 8. Temperatura de cor
  9. 9. Temperatura de cor Escala que exprime a qualidade da cor e o conteúdo de uma fonte de luz. Esta escala é calibrada em graus Kelvin
  10. 10. Temperatura de cor Quente Sol Frio
  11. 11. Temperatura de cor
  12. 12. Balanço do Branco White Balance
  13. 13. O balanço de branco (WB) é o processo de remoção de cores não reais, de modo a tornar brancos os objetos que aparentam ser brancos para os nossos olhos.
  14. 14. Cartão cinza 18% Lado interno do lacre
  15. 15. Variáveis de controle
  16. 16. São três: • Tempo Exposição/Obturador • Abertura entrada de luz/diafragma • ISO Sensibilidade
  17. 17. Variáveis de controle Exposição
  18. 18. Tempo de exposição • É normalmente dado no formato 1/x , em que X representa uma fracção de tempo em segundos. Os valores comuns são:
  19. 19. • • • • • • • • 1/8000 s 1/4000 s 1/2000 s 1/1000 s 1/500 s 1/250 s 1/125 s 1/60 s • • • • • • • 1/30 s 1/15 s 1/8 s 1/4 s 1/2 s 1s B (de bulb)
  20. 20. Tempo de exposição • Um tempo de exposição curto causa um efeito "congelado" em todos os sujeitos em movimento. • Um tempo de exposição longo provoca desfoques (borrão, panning).
  21. 21. Variáveis de controle Abertura
  22. 22. Abertura do diafragma • O valor do diafragma se dá através de números, conhecidos como números f ou f-stop, e seguem um padrão numérico universal.
  23. 23. Abertura do diafragma • Sendo que, quanto menor for o número f, maior a quantidade que luz que ele permite passar e, quanto maior o número f, menor a quantidade de luz que passará pelo diafragma.
  24. 24. f/1 f/1.1 f/1.3 f/1.4 f/1.6 f/1.8 f/2 f/2.2 f/2.5 f/3.5 f/4 f/4.5 f/5 f/5.6 f/6.3 f/7.1 f/8 f/13 f/14 f/16 f/18 f/20 f/22 f/25 f/28 f/45 f/50 f/55 f/64 f/90 f/125 f/180 f/2.8 f/3.2 f/9 f/10 f/11 f/32 f/36 f/39
  25. 25. Fotografia Tecnologia em Produção Multimídia
  26. 26. Variáveis de controle ISO
  27. 27. ISO • Em fotografia analógica, ISO (ou ASA) é a indicação do quão sensível é o filme para a luz, sendo representado por números (100, 200, 400, 800...).
  28. 28. ISO • Altos valores de ISO são geralmente usados em situações de pouquíssima luz, para se usar tempos de exposição menores, e assim, não obter fotos borradas ou tremidas. • Mas o custo será a obtenção de fotos com mais ruído.
  29. 29. ISO • Quanto menor o número, menor a sensibilidade do filme para a luz, e menos granulada sua imagem será
  30. 30. Fotometro
  31. 31. Fotografia Tecnologia em Produção Multimídia
  32. 32. Fotografia Tecnologia em Produção Multimídia
  33. 33. Calculando a exposição
  34. 34. Fotografia Tecnologia em Produção Multimídia f 1.0 1.4 2.0 2.8 4.0 5.6 8.0 11 1.4 é o fator para dobrar a área é o um circulo (v2 = 1.4) 1x1.4 = 1.4 1.4x1.4 = +/- 2 2x1.4 = 2.8 16
  35. 35. Fotografia Tecnologia em Produção Multimídia f 1.0 1.4 2.0 2.8 4.0 5.6 8.0 11 16 t 2s 1s ½ ¼ 1/8 1/16 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 ISO 50 100 200 400 800 1600 3200
  36. 36. Processo de composição
  37. 37. RAW JPG
  38. 38. RAW | CRU É o negativo digital. Formato de arquivo digital que contém a totalidade dos dados da imagem, não processados e não compactados tal como foi captada pelo sensor da câmera fotográfica. RAW é específico de cada fabricante. Canon: CR2 / Nikon: NEF
  39. 39. Quando você faz ajustes no arquivo Câmera RAW as informações são guardadas em um arquivo com extensão XMP, que é gravado na mesma pasta em que se encontra o arquivo Camera RAW.
  40. 40. Vantagens: • Qualidade • Alto grau de edição • Controle de informações (correção)
  41. 41. Desvantagens: • • • • Tamanho (Pesado) Velocidade, lento! Necessidade de pós-produção Processo demorado
  42. 42. JPG Joint Photographic Experts Group Arquivo de imagem compactado. JPEG é um formato independente de plataforma que oferece suporte para os mais altos níveis de compactação; No entanto, essa compactação é com perdas.
  43. 43. Vantagens: • Compactação superior para o trabalho artístico fotográfico ou realista • Compactação variável permite o controle de tamanho de arquivo • Padrão de Internet com amplo suporte • Tamanho (Pequeno) • Velocidade (rápido)
  44. 44. Desvantagens: • Compactação com perdas degrada dados da imagem original. • Quando você editar e salvar novamente os arquivos JPEG, JPEG aumenta ainda mais a degradação dos dados de imagem originais; Essa redução é cumulativa. • JPEG não é adequado para imagens mais simples que contêm poucas cores, amplas áreas de cores semelhantes ou perfeitas diferenças de brilho. • Arquivo processado sem chance de pós-produção.
  45. 45. Dicas:      Leia o manual da câmera Ouse, não copie tendências Assista filmes Pesquise Pratique!
  46. 46. Acabô! :(

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