Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Pidgin and creole language

28 436 vues

Publié le

Pidgin and creole language

  1. 1. PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGEABSTRACT One of some factors in sociolinguistics that makes language becomesinteresting to be investigated is the contact of the people in certain community. Theoutcome of this contact result new languages, those are Pidgin and Creole language.These languages are spoken between people who do not speak each other’s language.When they meet for different aims (trade, plantation work, business) theyimmediately look for a quick means of communication. These two languages havetheir own characteristics that are able to be used to distinguish between them. Apidgin is a reduced language resulting from contact between groups with no commonlanguage, while a Creole is a pidgin or jargon that has become the native language ofan entire speech community, often as a result of slavery or other populationdisplacements. In,Keywords: language contact, Pidgin, CreoleINTRODUCTION Primarily, Pidgins and creoles are used in third world nation, occurred inresponse to changes in the political and social environment of the community wherethey are spoken in. Today, over one hundred pidgins and creoles are spoken aroundthe world. Actually, most pidgins and creoles are based on European languages,primarily on English, Spanish and French.Pidgin Pidgins often serve as the means of communication between two languagegroups. For example, they are often used between immigrants and locals ormissionaries and natives in order to be understood by each other without having tolearn the language of the other group. The language on which the majority of the lexicon is based is called the base(usually the European language). The language on which the grammatical structure isbased is called the substrate. In a pidgin, gender and case as well as other elements oflanguage are often dropped from the base European language. The phonology is
  2. 2. extremely unstable and changes often. Characteristics of a pidgin vary tremendouslyfrom speaker to speaker. Anything can be said in pidgin that can be said in any otherlanguage, but at a great disadvantage, because the pidgin language lacks the buildingblocks provided in other native languages for successful communication. Forexample, articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, and subordinate clauses are oftenabsent or sporadic in pidgin. Pidgin sentences are often little more than strings ofnouns, verbs and adjectives. Although the substance of the idea gets across, many ofthe details and contextual information gets lost in the pidgin version. From the introduction above, we can say that Pidgin is a new language whichdevelops in situations where the speakers of different languages need to communicatebut don’t share a common language. Pidgin has the following seven qualities: a. No native speakers – no one’s native language. Yet spoken by millions as means of communication b. A product of multilingual – 3 languages – one is dominant. The dominant language  superior (economical or social factor). Two languages involved  a power struggle for dominance c. Combined effort of speakers (different language)  contribute to a new variety  phonology, morphology and syntax) d. The dominant group –more vocabulary (lexifier –superstrate) while the less dominant languages –grammar (substrate) e. Reduced grammatical structure, limited vocabulary and a narrow range of functions –does not have inflections to mark plural.tenses, - does not contain any affixes f. Main function –trading g. Not used as a means of group identification
  3. 3. The pidgin language that spoken by a certain people in a certain place or area,has it life span to be indicated: - Short –limited function - Exists for several years – rarely more than a century - Remains if the need exists For example In Vietnam: Pidgin French disappeared – French left; used for trading – disappear when trading between the group members comes to an endHere is the example of Pidgin: • Nigerian Pidgin in Nigeria • Bislama in Vanuatu • Tok Pisin in PNG • Chinese Pidgin English in China • Solomon Island pidgin English in Solomon IslandCreole It is from Latin creare, meaning "to beget" or "create". The term was coinedin the sixteenth century during the great expansion in European maritime power andtrade and the establishment of European colonies in the Americas, Africa, and alongthe coast of South and Southeast Asia up to the Philippines, China, India, and inOceania . Originally, therefore, "Creole language" meant the speech of those Creolepeoples. A stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. Whenchildren start learning a pidgin as their first language and it becomes the mothertongue of a community, it is called a Creole. Like a pidgin, a Creole is a distinctlanguage which has taken most of its vocabulary from another language, the lexifier,but has its own unique grammatical rules. Presumably, between six and twelve million people still using pidginlanguages and between ten and seventeen using descendents from pidgins. Unlike a
  4. 4. pidgin, however, a Creole is not restricted in use, and is like any other language in itsfull range of functions. Creoles have certain grammatical similarities to each otherand, arguably, not languages that they are derived from. Creoles exhibit moreinternal variability than other languages. Creoles are simpler than other languages. Creole languages have generally been regarded as degenerate, or at best asrudimentary dialects of one of their parent languages. "Creole" has come to be usedin opposition to "language" rather than a qualifier for it, for example, Gullah,Jamaican Creole and Hawai`i Creole English. Pidgin and Creole are technicalterms used by linguists, and not necessarily by speakers of the language. Forexample, speakers of Jamaican Creole call their language Patwa (from patois) andspeakers of Hawai’i Creole English call theirs Pidgin.There are some Creole Languages around the words: • Aku in Gambia, • Krio in Siera Leone, • Kru Englsih in Liberia • Kamtok in Cameroon • Bajan in Barbados • Creolese in Guyana • Miskito Coast Creole in Nicaragua • Sranan in Surinam • Trinbagonia in Trinidad and Tobago • Bislama in Vanutu • Broken in Torres Straits • Hawaii Creole English in HawaiiTheories to describe Creole phenomenon:1. The monogenetic theory of pidgins and creoles A single origin for these languages, deriving them through relexification from a West African Pidgin
  5. 5. Portuguese of the 17th century and ultimately from the Lingua franca of the Mediterranean. Originally formulated by Hugo Schuchardt in the late 19th century and popularized in the late 1950s and early 1960s by Douglas Taylor as well as in Whinnom (1956), Thompson (1961) and Stewart (1962).2. European dialect origin hypotheses The French creoles are the foremost candidates to being the outcome of "normal" linguistic change creoleness to be sociohistoric in nature and relative to their colonial origin though.3. The Domestic Origin Hypothesis Proposed by Hancock (1985) for the development of a local form of English in West Africa. Towards the end of the 16th century, English-speaking traders began to settle in the Gambia and Sierra Leone rivers as well as in neighboring areas such as the Bullom and Sherbro coasts. These settlers intermarried with the local population leading to mixed populations and as a result of this intermarriage, an English pidgin was created, which in turn was learned by slaves in slave depots, who later on took it to the West Indies and formed one component of the emerging English Creoles.4. Foreigner talk or baby talk A pidgin or Creole language forms when native speakers attempt to simplify their language in order to address speakers who do not know their language at all. Because of the similarities found in this type of speech and the speech which is usually directed at children. One class of creoles might start as pidgins, rudimentary second languagesimprovised for use between speakers of two or more non-intelligible nativelanguages. Keith Whinnom (in Hymes (1971)) suggests that pidgins need threelanguages to form, with one (the superstrate) being clearly dominant over the others.The lexicon of a pidgin is usually small and drawn from the vocabularies of itsspeakers, in varying proportions. Morphological details like word inflections, whichusually take years to learn, are omitted; the syntax is kept very simple, usually basedon strict word order. In this initial stage, all aspects of the speech — syntax, lexicon,and pronunciation —tend to be quite variable, especially with regard to the speakersbackground. If a pidgin manages to be learned by the children of a community as a
  6. 6. native language, it may become fixed and acquire a more complex grammar, withfixed phonology, syntax, morphology, and syntactic embedding. Pidgins can becomefull languages in only a single generation. "Creolization" is this second stage wherethe pidgin language develops into a fully developed native language. Thevocabulary, too, will contain more and more words according to a rational and stablesystem. Universalist models stress the intervention of specific general processesduring the transmission of language from generation to generation and from speakerto speaker. The process invoked varies: a general tendency towards semantictransparency, first language learning driven by universal process, or general processof discourse organization. Creoles are inventions of the children growing up onnewly founded plantations. Around them, they only heard pidgins spoken, withoutenough structure to function as natural languages. The children used their own innatelinguistic capacities to transform the pidgin input into a full-fledged language.CONCLUSION Those languages, Pidgin and Creole, are often considered simplifiedlanguages uncounciously born from a practical situation of interlinguistiscommunication. They have their own characteristics that make them to be unique tobe investigated and learnt. By comparing them, we will perhaps finds someinformation that useful for language development.
  7. 7. PIDGIN CREOLE 1. Have no native speakers 1. Have native speakers 2. Are the results of extended contact 2. develop from pidgins, they are learnt as a between groups with no language in first language by a large number of common, they are used mostly for speakers trade 3. Are more complex in structure, they also 3. Have simple grammatical structures have a wider range of vocabulary to express a wide range of meanings 4. Are not used for group identification 4. may take on national and official functionsREFERENCESKnapik, Aleksandra.2009.On the Origin of Pidgin and Creole: An Outline. Taken www.journals.univ.danubius.ro.pdfSebba, Mark. 2010. Review of Deconstructing Creole Edited by Umberto Ansaldo, Stephen Matthews, and Lisa Lim. John Benjamins Publishing Company 2007 taken from www.hku.hk.pdfWinford, Donald.2007.Some Issues in the Study of Language Contact. Taken from JLC_THEMA_1_2007_01Winford.Pdf