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GRB Strategies and Tools

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GRB Strategies and Tools

  1. 1. Gender Responsive Budgeting Strategies andTools SOUTH ASIA CONVERGENCE ON TAX AND FISCAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SPENDING SOUTH ASIA ALLIANCE FOR POVERTY ERADICATION 27-30 MARCH 2019 IN KATHMANDU, NEPAL Dr. Paramita Majumdar Independent Consultant New Delhi 29 March, 2019
  2. 2. The Context :Twin Track Approach 04/05/19 2 Dr. Paramita Majumdar What is the focus of GRB?
  3. 3. Questions that each Department mustmust address • What are the Goals and Objectives that my Department seeks to achieve? • How do they contribute to the National Goal of achieving Gender Equality? • What are the needs and priorities of women, especially those who are poor, in my Department’s domain of work? • Are these presently included and addressed in the Department’s Policies, Plans, Programmes and Schemes? • What activities will the Department undertake this year that will reduce gender gaps? • What difficulties does the Department face in enabling its services to reach women and girls? How can these challenges be addressed?  Source: MWCD Handbook 2015 3 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  4. 4. Following issues must be kept in mindmust be kept in mind before deciding upon the strategies/ entry points for GRB in a given situation • Actors/Key Players/Stakeholders and their roles and related activities • Scope of Gender Responsive Budgeting • Stages of Gender Responsive Budgeting – at the budget preparation stage, when the budget is tabled, at the budget implementation stage and post- implementation stage • Basic Pre-requisites for GRB – Understanding of Gender and GRB and Gender relevant data-base 4 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  5. 5. 5 process product process product process product policy formulation policy statement budget compilation budget expenditure on activities outcomes revenue collection GRB - A Process : From Policy To Outcomes Policy appraisal (Gender appraisal) Audit (Gender Audit) Budget appraisal (Gender budgeting) Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) is a process that entails incorporating a gender perspective at various stages - planning/ policy/ programme formulation, assessment of needs of target groups, allocation of resources, implementation, impact assessment, reprioritization of resources Dr. Paramita Majumdar
  6. 6. Key GRB Strategy 04/05/19 6 Dr. Paramita Majumdar Tools & Methodology Tools & Methodology Financial ReformFinancial Reform Awareness Raising Process Documentation Public Policy Intervention Awareness Raising Process Documentation Public Policy Intervention
  7. 7. Strategy- Performance Based Budgeting PBB is a progress card on what various ministries have done with the budgeted outlay. It recognizes the need to ask what is ACHIEVED with the money i.e., Outcome Helps in better service delivery, decision making, evaluating performance & improving effectiveness Stress on sex-disaggregated presentation of information Provides additional opportunities for addressing gender gaps 04/05/19 7 Dr. Paramita Majumdar
  8. 8. PERFORMANCE BASED BUDGETING PBB & GRB – The Link Gender equality is not a major priority for PBB Gender equality is not a major priority for PBB 04/05/19 8 Dr. Paramita Majumdar GRB
  9. 9. Types of Performance Indicators 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 6 March 2019 9 Levels Performance Indicators provide evidence and are an integral part of a results- based accountability system.
  10. 10. Types of Performance Indicators 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 6 March 2019 10  Risk/enabling indicators measures the influence of external factors on the project or program. Risk/enabling indicators include socio-economic and environmental factors, as well as the operation and functioning of institutions, the legal system, and socio-cultural practices.  Input indicators are resources devoted to the project or program.When project funding begins and input indicators are used, it is also crucial to collect base-line data from which results can be measured. An example of base-line data in an education project might be literacy and enrolment rates, disaggregated by sex, ethnic and socio-economic grouping.  Process indicators measure delivery activities of the resources devoted to a program or project. They monitor achievement during implementation, serving primarily to track progress towards the intended results. In an education project, process indicators may include views of the community as to facilities being built; number of facilities in operating condition; enrolment rates of girls and boys; or amount of stipend disbursements.
  11. 11. Types of Performance Indicators 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 6 March 2019 11  Output indicators are often used in project evaluations, but are less useful than outcome indicators as they do not track distal results. One of the most important tasks in use of indicators is to carry out evaluation at the outcome as well as the output level. In an education project output indicators might include: number of girls trained; opinions of teachers on training facilities provided; or number of facilities in operating condition.  Outcome indicators concern the effectiveness, often long-term, of a program or project as judged by the measurable change achieved in improving the quality of life of beneficiaries.They are also known as "impact" indicators. Examples of outcome indicators in an education project are: views of parents on the benefits of schooling; number of girls and boys employed from project schools; type of employment; or impact of employment on women's empowerment.
  12. 12. Gender Marker 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 6 March 2019 12 Gender Marker is a statistical tool that codes, on a 0-3 scale, whether or not a policy or a programme/ scheme is designed well enough to ensure that they benefit women and men equally and that disparities between them are reduced. Code Definition Code ‘0’ No Gender focus. These schemes/programmes are considered gender blind Code ‘1’ Isolated gender focus - There are gender dimensions in only one or two components of the scheme/programme Code ‘2’ Significant gender focus - The primary focus of schemes/programmes under this code is not gender equality, but gender equality is integrated as a major component. At least 50% of the activities under this output promote gender equality and/or empowerment of women. Code ‘3’ Complete gender focus – The primary focus of schemes/programmes under this code is to contribute towards gender equality and/or empowerment of women. Gender is targeted in all activities and outcome of the scheme/programme. And the baseline/target/output indicators are all disaggregated by sex /gender.
  13. 13. We need to remember that… 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 13 If a policy or programme objective mentions gender equality, without corresponding indicators measuring progress in addressing gender inequality/disparities related to the objective, policy statement, it would be rated as Code 0. Gender Marker is not based on/dependent on the financial allocations, but can lead to prioritisation/allocation of resources. For Codes 2 and 3 indicators must measure progress towards gender equality. Gender equality has to do with girls/women and boys/men. Results targeting women and girls do not necessarily promote gender equality
  14. 14. Strategy - Engaging with Parliamentarians 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 14 Reviews and approves budget Reviews and approves budgetApproves policies impacting women Oversight role -Questions inconsistencies between policies and proposed expenditures Requests gender disaggregated data to assess the impact of budgetary allocation Monitoring the budget & ensuring accountabilityROLE
  15. 15. Engaging with Parliamentarians LIMITATIONS Generally insufficient time available for budget scrutiny and meaningful debate particularly with regard to gender equality Debates are more concerned with policy than with the money Lack of understanding and engagement with financial figures /political will No technical support received for scrutinizing the budget /No access to research facility Lack of information e.g. special information packages (as in Tanzania), sectoral reports (as in Uganda) Limited power to amend or reject the budget 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 15
  16. 16. GRB Tools proposed by Diane Elson 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 16 https://www.ndi.org/sites/default/files/Manual%20for%20Training%20on%20Gender%20Resp 1. Gender-Aware Policy Appraisals: means looking at policies and programmes funded through budget from a gender perspective and asking the question, ‘in what ways are policies and their associated resource allocations likely to reduce or increase gender inequalities? Analysis involves scrutinising the explicit and implicit gender implications of national and sectoral policies, and examining the ways in which priorities and choices are likely to reduce or increase gender inequality. 1. Gender-Aware Policy Appraisals: means looking at policies and programmes funded through budget from a gender perspective and asking the question, ‘in what ways are policies and their associated resource allocations likely to reduce or increase gender inequalities? Analysis involves scrutinising the explicit and implicit gender implications of national and sectoral policies, and examining the ways in which priorities and choices are likely to reduce or increase gender inequality. 2. Sex-disaggregated Public Expenditure Benefit Incidence Analyses: How are women and men benefiting from expenditure on public services, e.g. education, health units or agricultural extension services? This is more participatory approach to policy analysis. It involves asking actual or potential beneficiaries the extent to which government policies/programmes match their own priorities. 2. Sex-disaggregated Public Expenditure Benefit Incidence Analyses: How are women and men benefiting from expenditure on public services, e.g. education, health units or agricultural extension services? This is more participatory approach to policy analysis. It involves asking actual or potential beneficiaries the extent to which government policies/programmes match their own priorities.
  17. 17. Tools proposed by Diane Elson 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 17 4. Gender-Aware Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys: How do allocated funds reach female and male beneficiaries differently? This tool also suggests the gender impact of supposedly gender neutral budget cuts. 4. Gender-Aware Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys: How do allocated funds reach female and male beneficiaries differently? This tool also suggests the gender impact of supposedly gender neutral budget cuts. 5. Sex-disaggregated Analyses of Budget Impact on Time Use: How do expenditures impact differently on women´s and men’s time use? The tool draws attention to the ways in which the time spent by women in unpaid work is accounted for in policy analysis 5. Sex-disaggregated Analyses of Budget Impact on Time Use: How do expenditures impact differently on women´s and men’s time use? The tool draws attention to the ways in which the time spent by women in unpaid work is accounted for in policy analysis 3. Sex-disaggregated Beneficiary Assessments of Public Service Delivery and Budget Priorities: How do public investments in infrastructure and the provision of public services address women´s and men’s different needs and priorities?
  18. 18. Tools proposed by Diane Elson 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 18 7. Gender-Aware MTEFs: How do MTEFs incorporate macroeconomic models with sex-disaggregated variables and the care economy? This tool enables governments to incorporate gender variables into models on which medium term public expenditure planning is based. 7. Gender-Aware MTEFs: How do MTEFs incorporate macroeconomic models with sex-disaggregated variables and the care economy? This tool enables governments to incorporate gender variables into models on which medium term public expenditure planning is based. 8. Gender-Aware Budget Statements: an accountability tool - How do governments provide information on their actions to reduce gender inequalities in their annual budget statements? 8. Gender-Aware Budget Statements: an accountability tool - How do governments provide information on their actions to reduce gender inequalities in their annual budget statements? 6. Sex-disaggregated Revenue Incidence Analyses: How are women and men affected differently by the kind of revenues raised by governments such as direct (income, corporate taxes) and indirect taxes (value added tax) or user fees?
  19. 19. Integrating the Tools in the Budget Cycle 1. Gender Aware Policy Appraisal 2. Gender aware Medium Term Economic Framework 1. Gender-aware public expenditure tracking surveys 2. Gender-disaggregated beneficiary assessments of public service delivery and budget priorities Sex-disaggregated analysis & dev. of budget templates 1.public expenditure benefit incidence 2.impact of the budget on time use 3.revenue incidence Budget Cycle (ii) Budget Decision making (i) Budget Planning 19 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019 1. Influencing Parliamentary Questions & Debates
  20. 20. Budget Preparation Stage Debbie Budlendar’s 5 Step Framework for Deepening GRB  Step 1: Analysis of the situation for women & men and girls & boys (and the different sub-groups) in a given sector.  Step 2: An assessment of the extent to which the sector’s policy addresses the gender issues and gaps described in the first step.  Step 3: An assessment of the adequacy of budget allocations to implement the gender sensitive policies and programmes identified in step 2.  Step 4: Monitoring whether the money was spent as planned, what was delivered and to whom.  Step 5: An assessment of the impact of the policy / programme / scheme and the extent to which the situation described in Step-1 has changed. 5 Step5 Step FrameworkFramework Part. Plng Spatial Mapping 20 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  21. 21. Steps Involved 1. Identify a ‘Problem’‘Problem’ 2. List out the ‘Causes’‘Causes’ that have led to the ‘Problem’ 3. Describe the ‘Consequences’‘Consequences’ which the ‘Problem’ may lead to if not addressed appropriately or effectively 4. List out the ‘Solutions’‘Solutions’ to the ‘Problem’ and determine who are responsible for the task of Implementation Example 1 Example 2 21 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  22. 22. Methods andTools available for gender sensitive monitoring  Monitoring can be based on quantitative measures, such as data issued by Administrative Departments, statistics Depts or specifically collected by project staff.  Qualitative monitoring can be done through tools such as interviews, observation, and focus groups.  Participation of intended beneficiaries in monitoring is a means to ensure ownership and to ensure that an activity is truly benefiting the participants.  Participatory monitoring, on the other hand, is a means of involving stakeholders from the start in such activities as identifying activities and indicators that should be monitored, carrying out the monitoring itself, and analyzing the results for improving future processes. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGENAGRLIVSOUBOOK/Resources/Module16.pdf 04/05/19 22 Dr. Paramita Majumdar
  23. 23. Methods And Tools…  External monitoring or evaluation provides independent, external feedback on progress and outcomes.  Impact evaluations determine whether a program had the desired effects and whether there were any unanticipated effects.  Gender audits are distinct from regular evaluations in that they are based on self-assessments by a project, organization, or ministry of how gender issues are addressed in program guidelines and internal organizational processes. Gender audits facilitate change and develops action plans and monitoring systems. A gender audit of the budget involves examining how each tax or item of expenditure differentially impacts men and women. A tool to assess the extent of gender mainstreaming accomplished 04/05/19 23 Dr. Paramita Majumdar Facilitates 1. Sex-disaggregated Public Expenditure Benefit Incidence Analyses 2. Gender-Aware Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys Facilitates 1. Sex-disaggregated Public Expenditure Benefit Incidence Analyses 2. Gender-Aware Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys
  24. 24. Dimensions of Gender Audit Programmatic Dimensions Organisational Dimensions 1. Situational Analysis 2. Policy Analysis including program design, guidelines and framework of implementation 3. Budgetary Allocations & Expenditure 4. Monitoring 5. Impact Analysis / Evaluation 1. Organisational Culture – (Mechanisms/Practices/Attitudes ) 2. Gender Policy & Staffing 3. Resources spent on gender mainstreaming e.g. Capacity Building 4. Gender sensitive products and services (infrastructure) 5. Advocacy, and communication strategy 04/05/19 24 Dr. Paramita Majumdar
  25. 25. UNGA Resolution - A/RES/69/313 27th July, 2015  Para 30 of Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda) “ We will strengthen national control mechanisms, such as supreme audit institutions, along with other independent oversight institutions, as appropriate. We will increase transparency and equal participation in the budgeting process and promote gender responsive budgeting and tracking. We will establish transparent public procurement frameworks as a strategic tool to reinforce sustainable development.We take note of the work of the Open Government Partnership, which promotes the transparency, accountability and responsiveness of Governments to their citizens, with the goal of improving the quality of governance and government services.” 04/05/19 25 Dr. Paramita Majumdar
  26. 26. Using Gender Sensitive Checklists MWCD, GOI has formulated guidelines in the form of Checklists I and II.Checklists I and II.  These guidelines help in reviewing public expenditure and policy from a gender perspective  to enable identification of constraints in outreach of programmes and policies and  to facilitate suitable corrective action. 26 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  27. 27. Checklist I - Beneficiary oriented sectors: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 27Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  28. 28. Checklist II - Mainstream Sectors For example, Transport.Transport. Suggested Steps: List all programmes entailing public expenditure with a brief description of activities entailed. Identify target group of beneficiaries/users. Are users/beneficiaries being categorised by sex (male/female). If not, can this be done? e.g. Metro Feeder Services Identify possibility of undertaking special measures to facilitate access of services for women- either through affirmative action or through expansion of services that are women specific - e.g. separate services, or surveillance for security Are women being recruited in this sector. 28Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  29. 29. Challenges 29 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  30. 30. Easy to identify targeted programmes for women from the budgets, which is a miniscule per cent. The real challenge lies in the analysis of the remaining 99% budget through a gender lens. Easy to identify targeted programmes for women from the budgets, which is a miniscule per cent. The real challenge lies in the analysis of the remaining 99% budget through a gender lens. Limitations of GBS 30 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  31. 31. Issues in Buy-In - Attitude of the top bureaucracy - as they have not yet recognised an employee who has picked up the gender analysis skills through GRB trainings Problem in mobilization of officials to get trained due to traditional mindset and low willingness to act upon Lack of direction and pro-active involvement of the Finance and Planning Departments in the GRB skill training structures Leadership of the Department of Finance is critical. But, limited capacity of Finance Dept. to carry out gender equality research and analysis of the budget is a constraint Issues in Buy-In - Attitude of the top bureaucracy - as they have not yet recognised an employee who has picked up the gender analysis skills through GRB trainings Problem in mobilization of officials to get trained due to traditional mindset and low willingness to act upon Lack of direction and pro-active involvement of the Finance and Planning Departments in the GRB skill training structures Leadership of the Department of Finance is critical. But, limited capacity of Finance Dept. to carry out gender equality research and analysis of the budget is a constraint Capacity Building remains a challenge 31 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  32. 32. A high turnover of bureaucrats, and concerned stakeholders has acted as a significant constraint on strengthening the institutions and deepening accountability. In spite of training new sets of players every time in various spheres, the institutionalisation process of GRB in terms of planning, budgeting, and auditing practices has not deepened. Problems in scalability and implementation – How to implement and scale up the training / learnings with the right kind of training partners? Design of training materials to accommodate sector specific requirements A high turnover of bureaucrats, and concerned stakeholders has acted as a significant constraint on strengthening the institutions and deepening accountability. In spite of training new sets of players every time in various spheres, the institutionalisation process of GRB in terms of planning, budgeting, and auditing practices has not deepened. Problems in scalability and implementation – How to implement and scale up the training / learnings with the right kind of training partners? Design of training materials to accommodate sector specific requirements Capacity Building remains a challenge 32 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  33. 33. GRB Cells/Desks/Nodal Points 33 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  34. 34. GRB Cells/Desks/Nodal Points 34 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  35. 35. Performance Budget /Outcome Budget Gender equality is not a major priority for OB/PB….. still evolving Gender equality is not a major priority for OB/PB….. still evolving  Impact is hardly noticeable, partly because … most government officials do not understand the difference between a gender responsive budget and a non gender-responsive budget.  Performance information contained in the individual outcome budgets does not play any role in programme formulation and resource allocation, leave aside gender.  Collection of appropriate data and use in supporting analysis is critical to formulation of policies and programs and evaluation of outcomes.  GRB Not institutionalised as part of the standard budget process.  Regular UC formats used are not Outcome based  Impact is hardly noticeable, partly because … most government officials do not understand the difference between a gender responsive budget and a non gender-responsive budget.  Performance information contained in the individual outcome budgets does not play any role in programme formulation and resource allocation, leave aside gender.  Collection of appropriate data and use in supporting analysis is critical to formulation of policies and programs and evaluation of outcomes.  GRB Not institutionalised as part of the standard budget process.  Regular UC formats used are not Outcome based 35 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  36. 36. Approach GRB differently….  GRB is grounded in gender analysis, evidence-based decisions which is overlooked in our budget making and policy analyses. Integrating a GRB methodology into the ordinary budgetary processes would have been useful  The approach could have been gender integration and just not a separate GB Statement  Engaged bureaucracy and leadership to ensure that gender equality is integrated into the planning and budgeting processes. GBCs (if in place) could have served as Internal Monitoring Committees to oversee investments in gender equality.  Linking budget allocations and programmes and the gender equality objectives defined in the overall National Policy/State Policy for Women.  So far capacity building has not been defined as the ability to carry out stated objectives. No indicators for measuring the effects of capacity building. It is not based on any strategic framework. A Strategic Framework for Capacity Building on GRB could have facilitated planning and implementation e.g. routine use of the sex disaggregated database by trained staff/GBCs for gender sensitive planning and budget making, 36 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019
  37. 37. Group Work (20 minutes) 04/05/19Dr. Paramita Majumdar 6 March 2019 37 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Risk/enabling indicators Input indicators Process indicators Output indicators Outcome indicators Instruction: 1.Read the case study provided. 2.Select a particular objective and fill in the columns from gender lens 3.All the following Performance Indicators must be linked to the particular objective selected 4.Mention (E) for existing indicators and (P) for the proposed in your exercise
  38. 38. Thank You drpmj2017@gmail.com 38 Dr. Paramita Majumdar, 6 March 2019

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Of course, processes are not linear and e.g. on policy, drafts will be published for discussion
    And the budget process is a long and drawn out one with circulars issued in December and the Budget finally announced in July
    Proper M&E learns from successes and mistakes of the passed with respect to outcomes and impacts
    Point to make: fit GB firmly with the political economy of decision makers (recognising that GB includes an analysis of who those decision makers are!)

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