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Capturing & working with 3D data in heritage contexts

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Presented at the CAA 2012 conference in Southampton, March 2012

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Capturing & working with 3D data in heritage contexts

  1. 1. Wessex Archaeology Capturing & working with 3D data in heritage contexts A view from the coalfacePaul Cripps•Geomatics Manager, Wessex Archaeology•Archaeological Computing Research Group, University of Southamptonhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  2. 2. Wessex Archaeology Overview • Toolbox – Laser scanners – GNSS – Photogrammetry – Aerial systems • How? – How do we use the tools available? – Advantages/disadvantages – Workflows • Case studieshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  3. 3. Wessex Archaeology The toolbox approach • Many tools/techniques now available • Each have strengths/weaknesses • Need to apply right tools for the job in hand • Right people for the job: – Survey specialists may not fully appreciated needs of heritage projects – Heritage specialists may not fully appreciate survey techniques – Team effort!http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  4. 4. Wessex Archaeology Laser Scanning • Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS), Close Range Laser Scanners, Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS) provide additional survey/recording tools – Not universal panacea – Ideal for capturing large amounts of 3D surface measurements – Part of an armoury which includes traditional measured drawing, photogrammetry, (rectified) photography, TST, GPS and laser scanners • Complementary not replacement – Typically used as part of an overall survey methodology – Typically used in conjunction with other equipment/techniques/ methodshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  5. 5. Wessex Archaeology Practicalities (TLS) • Costs of ownership – Expensive hardware and software – Hire vs purchase – Partnerships • Skills – Survey design; how to structure a survey – Field survey; how to undertake a survey – Data processing; how to prepare & handle the data – Visualisation, Analysis & Interpretation; working with & producing outputs from the data • Data – Massive datasetshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  6. 6. Wessex Archaeology Practicalities (ALS) • Costs of data – Relatively inexpensive to purchase off the shelf – Expensive to capture new data • Skills – Data processing; how to prepare & handle the data – Visualisation, Analysis & Interpretation; working with & producing outputs from the data – Using the data as 3D data vs static imagery • Data – Massive datasetshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  7. 7. Wessex Archaeology Global Navigation Satellite Systems • Useful in a range of situations – Topographic survey / RCHME style earthwork survey – Geolocating other surveys eg TLS • Rapid setup – Smartnet; dGPS but without the base station – Corrections received over mobile network (GPRS/GSM) • Easy to use – Nearly all Wessex Archaeology archaeologists trained to use Leica Viva systems – Shared interfaces with TShttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  8. 8. Wessex Archaeology Photogrammetry • A very old & respected technique • Used to great effect on many projects – eg original English Heritage / IBM 3D model of Stonehenge • Costly in terms of manual processing • Was seen by many as superceded by laser- scanning – Wrong! Laser scanning just another tool • New life thanks to automated systems – 123D Catch, Bundlerhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  9. 9. Wessex Archaeology Unmanned Aerial Vehicles • Range of types – Gyrocopters – Fixed wing • Range of payloads – RGB HD cameras – Multi-spectral imaging sensors • Can be used to provide imagery for photogrammetry – Wide area, high resolution topographic survey – Very cost effective – 3cm resolution DSM or betterhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  10. 10. Wessex Archaeology Workflows • New techniques, new workflows – Traditional/specified approaches may not be best suited – Traditional/specified outputs may be not be what is required • Clients may not know how to achieve what they want – Consultation in advance – Recommend appropriate techniques to achieve outcomeshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  11. 11. Wessex Archaeology Case studieshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  12. 12. Wessex Archaeology Tamworth Castle • Original spec for photogrammetry – Way too expensive!! • Existing laser scan dataset (recycle award…?) • New photographic survey – Ground & aerial • Combined to produce stone by stone elevation drawings • No need for resurvey – Cost effective • High quality product – Prepared to EH Metric Survey specificationshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  13. 13. Wessex Archaeology Tamworth Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  14. 14. Wessex Archaeology Tamworth Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  15. 15. Wessex Archaeology Sandsfoot Castle • Requirements: – topographic survey of interior & immediate environs including earthworks – Stone by stone elevation drawings as record – Panoramic photography • Restricted access: dangerous structure (crumbly castle on cliff edge!) • TLSCAD+GIS – Drawn elevations – DSM & contourshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  16. 16. Wessex Archaeology Sandsfoot Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  17. 17. Wessex Archaeology Sandsfoot Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  18. 18. Wessex Archaeology Wakehurst Place • National Trust property • Complex external elevations • Drawn elevations, floor plans, etc – Traditional products • Combination approach – Direct & Indirect survey techniques – image based methods (rectified photography, images+scan data) • Survey control network – Closed loop traverse • Located using GNSS – OS map a little out…http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  19. 19. Wessex Archaeology Wakehurst Placehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  20. 20. Wessex Archaeology Salisbury Plain • Monitoring of earthworks – Topographic survey using TLS • Restricted access – Short fieldwork duration required – Weeks for GNSS vs days for TLS • GIS based analysis – DSMs – Derived products; slope – Models of changehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  21. 21. Wessex Archaeology South Wales • 19 airborne LiDAR datasets • 40km2 • 133.5 million data points • 2 surface models Elevation component Intensity component – Unfiltered elevation – Intensity • Transcription of features – NMP stylehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  22. 22. Wessex Archaeology Tree graffiti • Record and enhance tree graffiti – Historical WWI and WWII graffiti warped by tree growth • Unwrapping & regression – Challenging!http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  23. 23. Wessex Archaeology Stonehenge carvings Left: (top to bottom) stone 3, stone 3 with ‘axes’ highlighted, stone 53 and stone 4 Above: stone 3 lit from below Right: accessibility shadinghttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  24. 24. Wessex Archaeology Integration & Analysis: GIS • Stonehenge Visitor Centre • Environmental Impact Assessment – Modelled proposed structures & tree planting – LiDAR DSM @ 1m resolution – Analysed potential visual impact on >500 archaeological sites – Probablistic viewshed model – As built + 5,10,15yr models – Many many viewsheds!http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  25. 25. Wessex Archaeology Hamdon Hill • Topographic survey of earthworks • Hillfort containing quarry • Combination approach: Laser scanner + GPShttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  26. 26. Wessex Archaeology Tidworth garrison • Record garrison in advance of redevelopment • Visualisation of existing buildings and their context • Used to target further recording works – Direct Survey using (TST) • 0.75 km2 surveyed • 37 buildings • 25 billion measurements • 18Gb data file • 10-25mm effective resolutionhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  27. 27. Wessex Archaeology Amesbury Archer bones • Morphological analysis of skull – Cross-sections – Measurements – Profileshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  28. 28. Wessex Archaeology Salisbury Plain • R&D in collaboration with Leica • Effectiveness as topographic survey tool where vegetation is present – Automated vegetation removal – Manual workflowshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.
  29. 29. Wessex Archaeology Thanks! • Thanks to: – English Heritage – Archaeoptics For more info: – 3D Laser Mapping www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics – Kubit www.archaeogeomancy.net – LatimerCAD p.cripps@wessexarch.co.uk – Environment Agency – Warner Land Surveys – Leica – Tamworth Borough Council – Weymouth & Portland Borough Council – National Trust – Aspire Defence – Defence Estateshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Computer Applications & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Southampton. March 2012.

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