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Brief Overview of
Federalism
Barry Gutierrez
UP College of Law
Institutional characteristics
• Shared rule and divided rule
• Three independent branches of government at unit level
• Units have own constitutions
• Representation and participation of units in the central
government: equal or unequal representation of units
• Representational rights or “veto powers” to certain ethnic groups
• Federal party system
Federal values
• Recognition of and respect for diversity
• Solidarity
• Non-centralization
• Residual powers rest with units
• Cooperation and competition
• Subsidiarity
• Equality of units vis-à-vis central government
• Protection of federal principles through national/unit constitutions
Subsidiarity as a key principle
• “functions should be performed by the lowest level of government
competent to do so effectively”
• Freedom of choice: Individual or groups are given maximum
scope to solve problems
• Systemic failure: largely avoided (lowest possible level in charge,
only one level of government may crash, but not all levels
together)
• “Free riding” is avoided (responsible behavior)
Problems with subsidiarity
• May preserve illiberal orders (liberty problem)
• May work against economies of scale
• May inhibit application of national standards (for example, health,
environment, labor)
Federalism as self rule
• Whenever able, exercise all necessary functions of government
without intervention by the other authority
• Choose your own leaders
• Exercise legislative powers in your jurisdiction
• Power to enforce laws or to discipline one’s own citizens
• Control parties, factions and groups that seek to break away
• Codes of ethical behavior within one’s own unit or group
• Resolve internal conflicts, grievances, or malpractices without
external interference
Principle of shared rule
• Cooperation with regard to competencies/joint decision-making and/or
decentralization
• Financial cooperation
• Co-decision-making in Second Chamber
• Cooperation of ministries: Executive federalism
• Supreme or Constitutional Court
• (Re-)Drawing of boundaries of regions (no unilateralism)
• Central government confined to framework legislation
• Coalition-building together with representatives from the regional parties &
units of the federation
• Incorporation of ethnic or regional leaders
Yardsticks of Federalism
• National sovereignty in external affairs
• Prohibition against secession
• Exercise of federal powers independent of individual approval
by units
• Unit participation in constitutional amendments
• Protection of unit identity
Yardsticks of Federalism
• (Equal) Representation of unequal units
• Two independent judicial systems
• Norm control through federal Supreme or Constitutional Court
• Residual powers with the units
• Transparent division of competencies (exclusive, joint, or
concurrent)
Variations
• Ethnic and/ or territorial federalism
• Degree of asymmetry
• Parliamentary or presidential federalism
• Majortarian or proportional electoral laws or combination of both
• Nation-wide civil service or divided civil service
• Nation-wide police or divided
• National property of natural resources or divided or exclusive property
of units
• Education: national or unit responsibility
Flexibilities
• Flexible application of joint or concurrent powers
• Multiple speeds of granting autonomy
• Status hierarchies among federal units
• Variety of government systems in states
Varieties of regional systems
• Types of government: Directly elected president/ chief minister
or elected by parliament
• Type of Cabinet: Collegial or decision-making competence by
Chief Minister
• State/regional constitutions: Confirmation of identity, for
example one or several state languages
• Unicameral or bicameral system on state level, variations in size
of parliament
Varieties of regional systems
• Direct democracy (referenda), social rights
• Ethnic quotas for minorities in state/regional parliaments
• State/region-based citizenship regulations(Switzerland, former Soviet
Union)
• Type of local self-government: competencies, resources, obligations,
oversight
• Variations in size, number and type of districts, for example
Autonomous(ethnic) Districts inside states/regions
• Policy goals: School types, legal status of churches, public welfare
obligations of enterprises, protection of agricultural land, social care,
labor rights, etc.
Federal party system
• Party system should avoid two extremes: centralism and party
fragmentation
• Party system should encourage politicians to join ranks with
national parties and to incorporate regional/local interests
• Encourage that minority votes are needed for winning elections
(vote pooling)
• Electoral districting and minimal electoral quorums
• National parties should be federal in character
Functions of Second Chamber
• Exercise of joint competencies
• Constitutional amendments
• Legislative review
• State of emergency or declaration of war
• Co-appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court
• Aggregation/representation of region/state interests and
bargaining
• Conciliation with first chamber (which can often override second
chamber with qualified majority)
Frequently granted powers to units
• Legislative powers :Electoral law, police, education, universities, forests,
agriculture, fisheries, health, irrigation, sports, museums & archaeology, urban
development , local taxes & revenue; tourism; transport; local authorities;
markets; welfare of “tribes”; penal law
• Protection of land and property rights
• Languages of instruction: Only with approval of region/state government
• Selection of & control over officers and staff working in unit administration
• State/regional government decides upon investment & provides grants for
development works
• Executive branch: Election, size, and principles of representation of minorities

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Federalism overview by Atty. Barry Gutierrez

  • 1. Brief Overview of Federalism Barry Gutierrez UP College of Law
  • 2. Institutional characteristics • Shared rule and divided rule • Three independent branches of government at unit level • Units have own constitutions • Representation and participation of units in the central government: equal or unequal representation of units • Representational rights or “veto powers” to certain ethnic groups • Federal party system
  • 3. Federal values • Recognition of and respect for diversity • Solidarity • Non-centralization • Residual powers rest with units • Cooperation and competition • Subsidiarity • Equality of units vis-à-vis central government • Protection of federal principles through national/unit constitutions
  • 4. Subsidiarity as a key principle • “functions should be performed by the lowest level of government competent to do so effectively” • Freedom of choice: Individual or groups are given maximum scope to solve problems • Systemic failure: largely avoided (lowest possible level in charge, only one level of government may crash, but not all levels together) • “Free riding” is avoided (responsible behavior)
  • 5. Problems with subsidiarity • May preserve illiberal orders (liberty problem) • May work against economies of scale • May inhibit application of national standards (for example, health, environment, labor)
  • 6. Federalism as self rule • Whenever able, exercise all necessary functions of government without intervention by the other authority • Choose your own leaders • Exercise legislative powers in your jurisdiction • Power to enforce laws or to discipline one’s own citizens • Control parties, factions and groups that seek to break away • Codes of ethical behavior within one’s own unit or group • Resolve internal conflicts, grievances, or malpractices without external interference
  • 7. Principle of shared rule • Cooperation with regard to competencies/joint decision-making and/or decentralization • Financial cooperation • Co-decision-making in Second Chamber • Cooperation of ministries: Executive federalism • Supreme or Constitutional Court • (Re-)Drawing of boundaries of regions (no unilateralism) • Central government confined to framework legislation • Coalition-building together with representatives from the regional parties & units of the federation • Incorporation of ethnic or regional leaders
  • 8. Yardsticks of Federalism • National sovereignty in external affairs • Prohibition against secession • Exercise of federal powers independent of individual approval by units • Unit participation in constitutional amendments • Protection of unit identity
  • 9. Yardsticks of Federalism • (Equal) Representation of unequal units • Two independent judicial systems • Norm control through federal Supreme or Constitutional Court • Residual powers with the units • Transparent division of competencies (exclusive, joint, or concurrent)
  • 10. Variations • Ethnic and/ or territorial federalism • Degree of asymmetry • Parliamentary or presidential federalism • Majortarian or proportional electoral laws or combination of both • Nation-wide civil service or divided civil service • Nation-wide police or divided • National property of natural resources or divided or exclusive property of units • Education: national or unit responsibility
  • 11. Flexibilities • Flexible application of joint or concurrent powers • Multiple speeds of granting autonomy • Status hierarchies among federal units • Variety of government systems in states
  • 12. Varieties of regional systems • Types of government: Directly elected president/ chief minister or elected by parliament • Type of Cabinet: Collegial or decision-making competence by Chief Minister • State/regional constitutions: Confirmation of identity, for example one or several state languages • Unicameral or bicameral system on state level, variations in size of parliament
  • 13. Varieties of regional systems • Direct democracy (referenda), social rights • Ethnic quotas for minorities in state/regional parliaments • State/region-based citizenship regulations(Switzerland, former Soviet Union) • Type of local self-government: competencies, resources, obligations, oversight • Variations in size, number and type of districts, for example Autonomous(ethnic) Districts inside states/regions • Policy goals: School types, legal status of churches, public welfare obligations of enterprises, protection of agricultural land, social care, labor rights, etc.
  • 14. Federal party system • Party system should avoid two extremes: centralism and party fragmentation • Party system should encourage politicians to join ranks with national parties and to incorporate regional/local interests • Encourage that minority votes are needed for winning elections (vote pooling) • Electoral districting and minimal electoral quorums • National parties should be federal in character
  • 15. Functions of Second Chamber • Exercise of joint competencies • Constitutional amendments • Legislative review • State of emergency or declaration of war • Co-appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court • Aggregation/representation of region/state interests and bargaining • Conciliation with first chamber (which can often override second chamber with qualified majority)
  • 16. Frequently granted powers to units • Legislative powers :Electoral law, police, education, universities, forests, agriculture, fisheries, health, irrigation, sports, museums & archaeology, urban development , local taxes & revenue; tourism; transport; local authorities; markets; welfare of “tribes”; penal law • Protection of land and property rights • Languages of instruction: Only with approval of region/state government • Selection of & control over officers and staff working in unit administration • State/regional government decides upon investment & provides grants for development works • Executive branch: Election, size, and principles of representation of minorities