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Created for AH110 at Defiance College.

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  1. 1. Citation 101 Brought to you by Pilgrim Library & Learning Commons
  2. 2. What is citation?When you start writing in college, you will be expectedto support your statements with credible sources. Thismeans conducting research and finding reliable andaccurate sources of information.Citation is giving credit to those sources.
  3. 3. What is citation?Ultimately, when you create a citation, you are giving yourreaders (professors) all the information they’d need to golook up your source for themselves.You will cite your sources in two main ways:1. List the complete citation information at the end of the paper in the Works Cited/Bibliography/Reference page2. Put a brief reference to your source within your text whenever you pull information or quotes from that source (In-text Citation)
  4. 4. What are citation styles?Citation styles are just different ways offormatting your papers and the informationabout your source.There are several different citation styles.MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian are the mostcommon citation styles. You will probably have touse each of these at some point during your collegecareer.
  5. 5. Why are there different styles? Citation styles are created byorganizations that each tend to cater to an academic discipline.MLA -- Modern Language Association (Humanities – English, Literature, Composition & more)APA -- American Psychological Association (Social Sciences – Psychology/Sociology, Business, Education & more)
  6. 6. How different are the styles?Most of the citation styles piece together the same bitsof information in different ways. Here are somecommon ways that citation styles differ: • Order of citation information • Capitalization • Punctuation • Required Information
  7. 7. So how do I go about making a citation? Five Simple Steps
  8. 8. Step 1: Grab your CookbookBe sure to have a copy of your citation manual with you. Or bring up an online one like the Library’sCitation Guides or Purdue’s OWL. Just make sure it’s a trustworthy site!
  9. 9. Step 2: Figure out which recipe to use Determine what type of source you have.(book? Ebook? website? online newspaper article?)
  10. 10. Step 3: Create an ingredient list Locate a sample citation entry for your type of source. Then determine what pieces ofinformation you will need to find from your source in order to cite it (author, title, publisher, etc)
  11. 11. Step 4: Gather your ingredientsGather the information you need from your source.
  12. 12. Step 5: Start Cooking Following the order of the samplecitation entry, arrange the informationyou gathered into a properly formatted citation.Also remember to practice creating an in-text citation for this source.
  13. 13. Easy as pie, right?Now it’s your turn!