rotation scaling disadvantages advantages homogeneous ddbms 3 to 8 line decoder truth table logic circuit decoders indirect triples triples quadruple implementation of three address code how to generate three address code three address code steps of the algorithm parametric equation: cyrus beck line clipping algorithm oblique projection orthographic projection parallel projection perspective projeaction 3 d viewing mathmetics of projection translation 3 d transformation bresenham’s line drawing algorithm:example derivation illustrating bresenham’s approach bresenham's line algorithm scheduler function/functional block broker function/functional block and directory node security function/functional block the grid security infrastructure: a functional view software and licenses scientific instruments grids storage computation a physical view crt color monitor types of deflection: cathode ray tube (crt) working of crt video display devices text clipping sutherland hodgman algorithm) polygon clipping cohen-sutherland line clippings line clipping point clipping the polygon table the edge table scan-line method depth buffer (z-buffer) method algorithm depth buffer (z-buffer) method object-space methods image-space methods what is visible surface detection? limitations : the algorithm for left-handed system : normal vector algorithm for right-handed system : back-face detection properties of b-spline curve? b-spline curves derivation for quadratic bezier curve properties of bezier curves bezier curves x shear y shear shear reflection translation:moving the grid transformation two successive rotation two successive scaling composite transformation 3d-shearing 3-d reflection 3d translation three dimensional transformations drop sql view updating a view example: view types of view read-only view update a view force view creation create a view: sql views dropping a trigger enabling and disabling triggers trigger predicates bind variables :old and :new defined row trigger – accessing rows example 1– statement trigger trigger types create trigger syntax facts about triggers trigger limitations database triggers logical operator comparison operator arithmetic operators create database: sql constraints alter table - alter/modify column alter table - add column alter command data control language (dcl) - transaction control language (tcl) data manipulation language (dml) data definition language (ddl) checkpoint… log based recovery disk failure… system crash… transaction failure… 3 states of database recovery: recovery-introduction example – passing in and out parameters example – procedure with no parameters parameter constraint restrictions and in out parameter modes out defining the in create procedure syntax procedures in pl/sql example – use cursor variable cursor example – package cursors in packages results of calling package procedure example– package body example –package create package body syntax package body declaring procedures and functions within a packag create package syntax package specification and scope packages the sql select into statement the sql any and all operators the sql exists operator sql group by having statement sql union operator full (outer) join: right (outer) join: left (outer) join: (inner) join: difference between sql and pl/sql pl/sql advantages detailed diagram of sql process stages of sql what can sql do what is sql? unfederated federated − heterogeneous distributed databases major objectives typical heterogeneous environment non-autonomous database homogeneous homogeneous distributed databases dropping a function example function with parameter example – testing retrievesalary function example – no parameters in function function in pl/sql assignments having clause grouping and aggregate functions grouping using multiple columns grouping using a single column group by syntax group by clause flow control rule-based access control: role-based access control (rbac): discretionary access control (dac): mandatory access control (mac): physical access control access control types of multimedia applications : content of multimedia database management system : multimedia database temporal database class hierarchy and inheritance class attributes and methods object and object identifier data models to be considered: object-oriented database (oodb) features to be con object-oriented database (oodb) object oriented modeling aggregration generalization: example bottom-up approach generalization example of b+ tree structure of the leaf nodes of a b+ tree structure of the internal nodes of a b+ tree b+ tree drawbacks of b-tree b-tree of minimum degree 3 properties of b-tree b-tree adversities of distributed databases advantages of distributed databases features of distributed database distributed database components of data communication system data communication two-way merge sort external merge sort external sorting heuristic optimization (logical) cost based optimization (physical) a query-evaluation plan query processing importance query optimization encryption & decryption integrity backup & recovery authentication authorization data security lifecycle goals requirements database security disadvantages of data replication advantages of data replication mixed distribution: hybrid fragmentation horizontal fragmentation vertical fragmentation fragmented: partially replicated fully replicated non-replicated and non-fragmented inheritance encapsulation compex object key attributes- multi-value attribute single-value attribute derived attribute composite attribute simple attribute multi - dbms architectures peer- to-peer architecture for ddbms client - server architecture for ddbms distributed dbms architectures data processor (dp) transaction processor (tp) communications media network hardware and software components computer workstations or remote devices components of ddbms distribution transaction replication data fragmentation what is parallel database heterogeneous ddbms centralized vs. distributed database characteristics ddbms
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