1. Definition of TQM
• Toyota :: Activities to build a corporate
structure that enhances the vitality of people
and the organization, and is capable of flexibly
responding to changes in the business
1Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
2. Definition of TQM
• Deming Prize Committee :: A systematic
activity 7 that contributes to achieving
corporate purposes2 by running all corporate
units effectively and efficiently 5 to provide4
products and services3 with a quality2 that
satisfies customers1 in a timely fashion and at
2Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
3. Definition of TQM
1. Customers : include not only buyers but also
stakeholders such as users, consumers and
2. Quality : indicates usability ( functions,
psychological characteristics, etc), reliability
and safety; the impact to third parties,
society, environment and future generations
should be also considered.
3Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
4. Definition of TQM
3. Products and Services :: include products
(finished products, parts and raw materials)
and services as well as everything provided
to customers, including systems, software,
energy and information.
4Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
5. Definition of TQM
4. Provide :: means activities, from production
to delivery of ‘’products and services’’, such
as surveys, research, planning, development,
design, production preparation, purchasing,
manufacturing, implementation, inspection,
acceptance of order, transportation, sales
and marketing, and also includes activities of
maintenance and after-sales service, and
disposal and recycling of such products and
5Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
6. Definition of TQM
5. Running all corporate units effectively and efficiently :
Under the appropriate organization / business
management, all divisions and all staff in all levels of an
organization work together to quickly achieve corporate
purpose along with the integration of management
systems so as to utilizes as few management resources as
possible. These management systems include quality
assurance as a main system, along with cost, volume,
delivery period, environment and safety. This operation
requires the development of people who are equipped
with the core technology, speed and vitality, grounded in
a value that respects humanity, fact-based management /
improvement of PDCA (Plan/Do/Check/Act) using
statistical methods in process and business operations,
and reconstruction of the management system by
effectively utilizing the appropriate scientific approaches
and information technology.
6Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
7. Definition of TQM
6. Corporate Purpose :: Aim for growth and
long-term appropriate levels of profits to the
company by permanently and continuously
satisfying customers. It also includes
employee satisfaction as well as benefits
improvement for all those involved in the
business, such as community, business
partner, and shareholders.
7Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
8. Definition of TQM
• Systematic activity :: is an activity which
defines clear mid-to-long term vision/strategy
and appropriate quality strategy/policy,
conducted under a strong sense of mission
and leadership carried out by top
management in order to achieve corporate
8Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
9. 3 Basic Concepts of TQM
Purpose :: Enhance the vitality of people and the organization and
improvement the quality of the work.
Always stand in the
customer’s shoes, and work
Possess the belief that
there is no reform
Autonomy and overall
Everyone, from top
management to members
on the frontlines, shares
the same values,
information in their work.
Everyone exercises their
autonomy and creativity,
and fulfills their roles
while increasing their
9Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
11. What is TQM ?
What are TQM Activities ?
In every division
At every stage
Using the QC Philosophy and approach
Utilizing QC methods and information
Q (Quality) : Better quality
C (Cost) : Lower costs
D (Delivery) : More reliable delivery
S (Safety) : Consistent safety
M (Morale) : Higher morale
E (Environment) : Environment conservation
11Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
13. History of TQM in Japan
• 1924 – 1944 : Statistics began to be applied in
the industry field (Primarily in the US)
– 1924 : W.A. Shewhart devised the control chart as
a tool for concretely distinguishing assignable
cause & chance cause variation.
– 1931 : Shewhart written “Economic Control of
Quality of Manufactured Products”.
• 1945 – 1949 : The roots of quality control
(TQM) land on Japan
– The Japanese Standards Association (JSA)
established & research, seminar conducted.
13Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
14. History of TQM in Japan
• 1950-1954 : The importance of variations caused
by statistical quality control emphasized.
– 1951 : Deming Prize established in Japan.
– 1951 : “Quality Control Handbook” by J.M. Juran
published & seminar held on 1954.
• 1955 – 1959 : The idea that quality is built in
during the process emphasized.
– 1955 : “Control Chart Method” by Kaoru Ishikawa
– 1959 : the Lectures of W.A. Shewhart held in various
14Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
15. History of TQM in Japan
• 1960 – 1964 : Quality control on full –
participation basis advocated “All staff from
workers at the frontlines to management
participate in quality control activities”
– 1960 : November of each year designated as “Quality
• 1965 – 1969 : Japanese style quality control
– 1969 : The world’s first “International Conference on
Quality Control (ICQC) held in Tokyo.
15Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
16. History of TQM in Japan
• 1980-1984 : Quality Control (TQM) widely used in
new lines of business.
• 1985 – 1989 : Japanese Style TQM recognized
• 1985 : Six Sigma advocated by Crosby and
introduced into Motorola, Inc.
• 1990 – 1994 : International standard for Quality
control (TQM) established.
• 1995 – 1999 : Quality Control (TQM)
• 2000 – 2004 : TQM integrated with various
16Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
17. Differences between
ISO 9000 and TQM
Item ISO TQM
Purpose Conformance to requirements Ensuring customer satisfaction,
Improvement of Corporate Structure
Initiative Purchaser’s demand Supplier’s initiative
Level Status quo Improvement emphasized
Execution Written agreement Self-initiative respected
Quality Inspection/verification-oriented Built-in quality during the process.
17Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
18. Differences between
ISO 9000 and TQM
Item ISO TQM
Advantages Standardization thoroughly
achieved through written document
Can communicate with other
companies using a common
Helps solve problems logically
throughout the work process.
Leads to improvement in all divisions
The minimum working range
Prone to a format oriented
Not connected with performance
May increase systems which will not
Could encourage format bound
Likely to respond to events.
Problems Generates unwanted documents
by placing too much stress on
Too much concern with revision of
the standards manual, neglecting
Requires introduction of the system
to organizationally promote
Must develop personnel who can
carry out specific improvement
18Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
21. The Idea of Management
Relationship between SDCA & PDCA
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22. Keys to Success in TQM
• Leadership of top group (Clarification of the
relationship between management strategy
• Participation by all divisions ( Correct
understanding of TQM and education /
training for everyone).
• Systematic management (engaged in an
united efforts; clear definition of roles of each
division and control points)
22Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
23. Keys to Success in TQM
• Continual / Adaptive activity (Not partying,
but be flexible)
• Quality is the first priority (Receive
gratification from satisfying customers;
“Quality” is the common language and
• Process-oriented (Follow the PDCA cycle to
achieve not immediate results but the results
23Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
24. Keys to Success in TQM
• Utilization of methods (Your own way does
not work; acquire the QC method)
• “3-gen shugi” or “Principle of the triple facts”
(collect factual data)
• Clarification of casual relations (Seek a cause.
Bad consequences result from the cause)
• Respect for humanity (Everyone fails once in a
while. Establish good criteria).
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25. Deming Prize
• The Deming prize was established in 1951 to
honor the accomplishment of late W.E.
Deming who contributed greatly to Japan’s
proliferation of statistical quality control after
World War II, and helped Japan build its
foundation by which the level of Japanese
product quality has been recognized as the
highest in the world. It is the world’s supreme
award in the field of total quality management
25Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
28. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
• Quality First :
– “Good or bad of quality is decided by the
customer ! “
– Improvements by cost-first (quality second) may
exhibit temporary profit but will eventually lose
the trust from customers.
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29. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
Customer Oriented (Market in):
– To be always conscious of what the customer
wants and what the desired products are.
– Put yourself in customer’s shoes, and grasp not
only the apparent needs but also the potential
– Act to satisfy their needs.
Always act and judge from customer’s
29Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
31. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
• Post Process is customer :
– Each of you needs to think in the shoes of post
process, execute your own work responsibly and
deliver the work to the next person.
Guarantee you own work yourself.
• PDCA (Management ) Cycle :
– Repeat the PDCA cycle again and again to
enhance the way of work.
31Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
33. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
• Fact Control ( Management based on facts) :
– To judge something, it is critical to use facts (data)
as the base rather than relying only on experience
Grasp the fact, judge on the fact, and act on the
Genchi Go to the actual site of the problem
Genbutsu See/Observe the actual object well
Genjitu Convert the result of observation to
data, and grasp the actuality (fact).
33Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
37. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
• Upstream Management :
– When failures occur, there must be some cause in the
process or upstream process.
Quality assurance by design/production (upstream) is
more important than quality assurance by inspection
• Priority Focused :
– Focus your eyes to the item most influential and most
effective among many elements that can cause
problems. Use Pareto Chart.
Win a large achievement by the limited labor.
37Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
38. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
• Recurrence Prevention :
Pursue the root cause and apply the recurrence
preventive action to stop the same trouble to
happen again !
• Dispersion Management :
– It is important to observe the dispersion of data.
The outcome of production can show dispersion
even if the same conditions. Use Histogram to
The basic of quality control is management of
38Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
39. Basic Items :: QC Point of View
• Respect for Humanity :
– it means, to recognize the autonomy (to be able to act
independently with own will) and creativity (to be able
to improve and create something) of each employee,
rather than regarding them as only labor force.
– QC Circle activity is to bring out the humanity of each
employee, promote the business improvements by
helping each person to grow, and to help people and
company to grow together.
Improvements can let people and company grow and
39Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
57. Seven Keys to skillful standardization
• Raise everybody’s quality-consciousness.
• Track down the causes of defects and mistakes and
take action to prevent them recurring.
• Lock the new working methods permanently into
• Follow work standards closely.
• Lock the control methods permanently into place.
• “Apply the brakes” by making use of control tools.
• Disseminate the new methods through education
57Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
58. Meihoku Kogyo Co., Ltd
• Producing C.H.Q. Wire (for Automobiles)
• Established 1947
• Capital : 60 Million Yen
• Sales : 14.3 Billion Japanese Yen (2014)
• Operating Profit : 4 Billion Yen
• 4th place out of 29th Domestic Companies (9%
• Deming prize winner in 2013 for TQM
• Toyota approved Supplier .. Lexus
• Start TQM at 2010
58Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
59. Meihoku Kogyu Co., Ltd
• Policy Management
–President’s policy paper
–Medium Term Corporate planning
–Developed into individual goals
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60. Meihoku Kogyu Co., Ltd
• Continuous Improvement
–Participation by all
–My Suggestion Camping
–1 Suggestion per week per persons
–1000 yen for good suggestion
–19 teams for QC Circle activity
60Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
61. Meihoku Kogyu Co., Ltd
• Daily Management
– 4S1K Activities
– 4S from 5S, 1K stand for Kiritsu i.e. Discipline
– Securing Quality & Safety through 4S1K activities
– Scoring daily basis, Evaluate monthly
– 1K Means : M & M Activity
• M = Moral & M = Manner
– Daily Safety Petrol by Concern Officer
– Day start with Exercise, Read out behavior Principles &
– Every body follow Pedestrian Crossing / Path
61Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
62. Meihoku Kogyu Co., Ltd
• Quality Management
– Built in Quality is motto
– Feeling Happy and being proud of your job
– Next Process is our Customer
– Operation Standard with photo
– Process check sheet with 4 M analysis
– Report of Kaizen after complete the work
62Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
63. Meihoku Kogyu Co., Ltd
• Human Capital Development
– Follow 93/5 % Rule i.e. 93% employee pass QC
Genius certificate & 5% of total hours spend for
– Establish HACHI Studio for education
– Competence score sheet maintain in production
– Skill upgrade record sheet maintain
– Award for 1) best Kaizen 2) best suggestion
63Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
64. TOYOTA .. Motomachi Plant
• 1867 .. Sakichi Toyota was born
• 1937 .. Toyota Motor Co., Ltd was established
• 1959 .. Motomachi Plant started production
• Overseas Plants : 53 companies in 28
countries & regions
• No of staff : 68,240 (consolidated 338,875)
• Main Products of Motomachi Plant : Estima,
Crown, Mark X
64Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
65. TOYOTA .. Motomachi Plant
• Stamping : Steel sheets are cut and stamped to form body
• Welding : 96% work done by Robot. Robots weld about
400 body parts to form a car. The latest welding line can
handle multiple models on a single line & produce
precisely finished car bodies.
• Painting : After the body is washed, undercoat,
intermediate and topcoat are applied to create a high
quality surface. Water based paint has made this process
even more environmentally friendly.
• Assembly : engines, wheels & other parts are installed.
Than tested & verified in the final inspection before
65Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
68. TPS .. Toyota Production System
• Primary Purpose of TPS : To eliminate waste
(muda) and satisfy customer needs at the lowest
possible cost with consideration and respect for
humanity of employees.
• 1943 .. Parts suppliers co-operative park
• 1963 .. Kanban System Established ( Taiichi Ohno
• 1992 .. Release Fundamental Principles of Toyota
68Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
69. Main Pillars of TPS
• JIT (Just in Time) : Just only Exact
– Making flow of process by reduction of lead time of
– Decide tack time by required quantity ( Tack time =
operational Time/Required quantity)
– A later process takes parts from an earlier process.
Kanban is the control tool to make JIT possible.
• JIDOUKA : Quality in built Process
– Prevent from Making Defective Parts
– Don’t Flow defects to later Process.
– Quickly handle abnormal condition.
69Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
70. TPS Pillar : JIDOUKA
• ANDON : An electrical board lights up to show at
a glance the current state of work operations.
• POKA-YOKE (Mistake Proofing) : Poka-Yoke was
applied by Shigeo Shingo in the 1960s to
industrial processes designed to prevent human
• Standardized Work : Standardized work is
standard to produce product and tool for efficient
production and kaizen.
70Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
• Strategy : Obtain brilliant results from average
people operating brilliant processes. But most
companies obtain mediocre or worse results from
brilliant people working around broken
• SOP : Every where , even visit
• Visit did not hamper production.
• Robotic activities in all case, work should done in
specific time frame with good quality.
71Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
74. Superconductiong Maglev &
• History of Railway in Japan ::
– 1872 : the first line from Tokyo to Yokohama.
– 1987, 1st April : Established Central Japan Railway company
– 1240 QC Circle (Small group / Challenge Tokai) activities.
• History of Railway in Bangladesh ::
– 15th November of 1862. First line between Dorshona of
Chuadnaga district to Jogotee of Kushtia. Total distance
was 53.11 km.
• Why we are behind ??
74Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
KAIZEN is a basic component of
Total Quality Management (TQM).
After the World War II, KAIZEN
contributed most to the
development of Japan.
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KAIZEN employs simple ideas and
KAIZEN is more a mind-set than a
technique. A mind set that “there is
always a better way of doing
76Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
• TQM (Deming Prize Committee ):: A
systematic activity 7 that contributes to
achieving corporate purposes2 by running all
corporate units effectively and efficiently 5 to
provide4 products and services3 with a quality2
that satisfies customers1 in a timely fashion
and at appropriate prices.
• QC Activities :: QCDSME :: Quality, Cost,
Delivery, Safety, Morale, Environment
81Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
82. Summery :: Basic Concepts of TQM
• Customer Focused ::
Customer First / Satisfaction
Process Control & SDCA
Post Process Customer
• Continuous Improvement ::
QC Tools // Genchi .. Genbutsu
Root Cause Analysis to prevent Recurrence.
82Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder
83. Summery :: Basic Concepts of TQM
• Full Participation::
QC Circle Activities
Reward for Kaizen / QC Activities
Suggestions Box & Reward
Develop Human Capital
• Others ::
TQM / QC Board / Visual Board
Self Service & Harmony
83Engr. Kawsar Alam Sikder