PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT.
BOT PROJECT CASE STUDY
Report submitted to the
Institute Of Real Estate And Finance.
(MBA + PGP)
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Mrs. Asha Oak
We all the group member would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to our
director Mr. Abhay Kumar, for all support and guidance throughout and giving us
the opportunity to work on this report which would help all of us to know more about
the topic: BOT. Secondly, we want to thank our mentor Mrs. Asha Oak for giving
an opportunity to work on such report which made us learn about many things about
the contract and how the project work, what all are criteria to full fill for the project.
And also, to all the other teachers to motivate us and bring positive thoughts in us.
Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract is project model done for financing large projects, mainly
infrastructure projects developed through public, private partnerships. That a private entity receives
a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct and operate in the
contract. This authorize the project support to recover its investment, operating and maintenance
expenses in the project.
Due to long term nature of the arrangement, the fees are usually raised during the surveying period.
The rate of increase is by combined nature of internal and external variables, allowing the proponent
to reach the satisfactory internal rate of return of what is invested.
The BOT scheme refers to the opening done by public entity such as local government to private
firm to build and operate the Project. After sometime as refed into the contract the project is returned
to the public entity.
In a BOT Project the project company or operator generally obtains its revenues through a fee
charged to the utility/ government rather than tariffs charges to consumers. A number of project are
called concessions, such as toll road projects.
Under a build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract, government grants a concession to a private
company to finance, build and operate a project. The company operates the project for a period of
time (perhaps 20 or 30 years) with the goal of recouping its investment, then transfers control of the
project to the government.
BOT projects are normally are of large-scale, greenfield infrastructure projects that would otherwise
be financed, built and operated solely by the government. In general, BOT contractors are special-
purpose companies formed specifically for a given project. During the project period when the
contractor is operating the project it has built revenues usually come from a single source, an offtake
purchaser. This may be a government or state-owned enterprise.
In general, a project is financially viable for the private entity if the revenues generated by the project
cover its cost and supply a sufficient return on investment. On the opposite hand, the viability of the
project for the host government depends on its efficiency as compared with the economics of
financing the project with public funds. albeit the host government could borrow money on better
conditions compared thereto of the general public sector, other factors could offset this particular
advantage. for instance, the expertise and efficiency that the private entity is predicted to bring also
because of the risk transfer. Therefore the private entity bears a considerable part of the risk.
Increase within the industrial and other commercial activities, the vehicle traffic within the city is
growing tremendously. most significantly, besides national highway, there are four major arteries
expressway MDR that terminates into the guts of the town. of these roads usher in heavy amount of
traffic partly designed to city and mostly to varied parts of the state through the town via national
highway. Though traffic mixes with the town to feature its already existing traffic, moves out
through narrow streets/roads of city to feature to its already existing traffic woes and bottlenecks at
various junction and A level crossing. The slow development of transportation facilities like ring
roads, internal roads as compared to the event of the town as an entire city is facing tremendous
setback. Thus within the view of the ever increasing traffic needs of this high density corridors steps
are being taken to enhance traffic condition and to supply better connectivity. to unravel the traffic
problems including removing bottlenecks within the city, unintegrated road development program
me has been formed. As funds are limited with this municipal corporation, it decided to implement
this project through BOT.
BOT mechanism plays an important role within the infrastructural development by
− Reducing financial burden on the govt.
− Assisting completion of the project in time.
− Enhances service quality and efficiency.
− Delivering better value of cash proposition.
− Transparency and impartiality within the process of inviting private participation.
− Sharing the risks between Government and contractors.
− Improper deciding
− Negligence towards risks
− Misinterpretation by users
− Political influence
• To see what all difficulties come in BOT projects.
• To identify challenges in operational phase of BOT projects.
• To compare road and fly over BOT project.
• To develop and establish highway network in the city.
• Development of entrance and link routes
• Widen and develop a full road to development plan width
• Provide storm water drain
• Provide central divider and footpath
• Improvement of junctions provide advanced street light illumination
• Facilitate beautification of road to reinforce aesthetics of roads
• Provide urban infrastructure and road furniture
BOT contract give benefits over the traditional subsidiary path, including:
• Rapid scaling of operations.
• Wider service offerings, quickly filling business model gaps.
• Lower infrastructure setup costs.
• Reduced time to operations through utilization of knowledgeable
Third party management resources responsible for:
• Real estate.
• Government rules and regulations.
• Cultural transition.
• IT infrastructure Procurement.
SCOPE OF WORK
1. To face challenges and identify risk and analysis them.
2. Traffic management during maintenance.
3. Related clauses in the contract document.
4. Toll collection.
5. Parameters of deciding toll rates.
6. Constraints Faced at site.
7. Methodology of toll collection.
TYPE OF RISK BY PHASES.
The ongoing risks are interest rate risk and exchange rate risk.
Below Table.1 describe the risk in BOT project phases wise.
RISK PARTICIPANT MACHANISM
Technology Risk Sponsors Equity Subordinated Debt
Credit Risk Sponsors Lenders Credit Rating Agency
Bid Risk Sponsors Equity
Completion Risk Sponsors Contractors
Performance incentives and
guarantees the key contractors.
Cost over view Risk Sponsors Contractors
Fixed price contract and
Performance Risk Sponsors Performance bond.
Cost over view Risk Sponsors Fixed price contract
Performance Risk O&M Contractor. Equity ,performance guarantee
Equity resale Risk Sponsors Sub co-ordinated
Off take Risk Sponsors
Take and pay or pay ,
Liability Risk Insurance Company Insurance contracts
(Table.1) : Risk analysis by Phases.
• Political Risk.
− Especially within the developing countries due to the likelihood of dramatic overnight political
• TECHNICAL RISK
− Construction difficulties, for instance unforeseen soil conditions, breakdown of kit.
• DELAYS IN LAND ACQUISITION
− NHAI ( National Highway Authority of India) was susceptible to pay damages if it did not
provide ROW within the required time. Delays in land acquisition resulted in a rise within the
acquisition cost for the government.. They also resulted in loss of potential revenue accruing to
the Concessionaire thanks to delays in commencement of operations.
• FINANCING RISKS
− The Concessionaire was required to realize financial closure within 180 days from the date of
the agreement beyond which a further period of 90 days was allowed subject to an advance
weekly payment of Rs.1,00,000 per week as damages by the Concessionaire for delay in
achieving financial closure. exchange rate risk and rate of interest fluctuation, market risk
(change within the price of raw materials), income risk (over-optimistic cash-flow forecasts),
• DESIGN RISK
− There were substantial changes within the design that led to escalation in cost also as time over-
− This meant revenue loss to the Concessionaire because the concession period wasn't altered.
• CONSTRUCTION RISK
− If Concessionaire did not complete the project construction by the scheduled completion date,
the agreement prescribed weekly damages at the speed of 0.01% of the entire project cost. the
development of the expressway got delayed thanks to inordinate delays in land acquisition and
changes within the scope of labour. the danger was primarily borne by the Concessionaire and
more specifically by DS Constructions Ltd. because it was also the EPC contractor for the
project. For change in scope, NHAI was also asked to contribute the increased investment
• OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE RISK
− The risk is primarily with the concessionaire NHAI because the concession authority has set
stringent performance standards and obligations to be met.
In recent years, many Asian countries and other countries in transition have encouraged road infra
development so as to market and sustain continued economic growth. India, for instance, had seen
demand for brand new highways to achieve an unprecedented level. The government has been that
essential player in the development of roads in India. The road users in India haven't been charged
order to form the users conscious of the necessity for pricing roads; the government should create a
forum to elucidate the road users of the pros and cons of tolls. A Careful study on the user
acceptability of tolls and therefore the willingness to pay must be conducted in order that the road
projects are often financed.
Significance of toll collection:
The National highways act has been amended to enable the levy of a toll on selected sections of NH
in order that private participation in road constructions on a BOT basis is facilitated. the opposite
measures taken to encourage private participation within the road sector include permission to
NHAI to seek out equity privately or public companies. NHAI has also considered providing cash
support in selected projects.
Policies for Tolling
− National Highways Act, 1956 and Rules made there under
− section 7 for levying fees for services or benefits rendered;
− section 8A-Power to enter into agreements from development and maintenance of NH
The concept of cost to the promoter benefits to the user is guiding principles behind toll fixation on
any BOT project. The cost incurred by the promoter is recovered over period of time, this period is
fix. And the main purpose is to get the return on investment and annual revenues.
FACTOR AFFECTING THE USER
− Travel distance
− Travelling time , fuel, wear and tear cost.
− Fee charges.
COLLECTION SYSTEM ON TOLL
The number of toll booths required at each toll plaza, are estimatedon thebasis of average hourly
trafficdue topass throughthem.This factoris takenintoaccount to decide whether to go for Manual
toll collection sys- tem or anETC.
A) Manual toll collection system
B) Automatic toll collection system
FEATURES OF THE PROJECT.
Construction of integrated road development program (IRDP) in the city on BOT basis.
− Name of the client: Municipal Corporation.
− Name of fascillitor: State Road Development Corporation.
− Type of contract: BOT
− Estimated cost of project
− Name of the company
− Date of work order
− Duration of project
− Concession Period
− Total km. to be executed
− No. of toll plaza.
The total project roads are classified into three categories namely External Routes (ER), Internal
Routes(ER), and Link Routes (LR).Out of the entire project 49.99km road length of the road,
External Routes are amounting to 30.79 km. Internal Routes 5.6 km and remaining 12.60 km are
The Development plan width wise breakup of the entire project roads is 3.5 km roads of 15m. DP
width. 19.07km. roads of 18m. DP width 7.20km roads of 24m. DP width and therefore the balance
20.22km roads are with 30m.Development Plan width.
• State Road Development Corporation – Facilitator
• Bot Operator--- Executing Agency
• Land Acquisition to Be Dealt by Municipal Corporation Before Work Order
• Shifting of Utilities Is to Be Dealt by Bot Operator
• Encroachment to Be Removed by Municipal Commissioner
• Local Technical Assistance by The Municipal Corporation
• Exemption for The Material to Be Used for The Project
• Sources of Revenue to Bot Operator
• Advertisement Revenue
• Utility Rentals
• Plot Measuring 30000sq.M Given for Development On 99 Years Lease
• Commercial Exploitation of Toll Station Area
TECHNICAL CRITERIA FOR BIDDERS.
• Bidders/ Consortium should have completed one bridge/ flyover/ ROB costing Rs.7cr
• Completed 4 lane road of min 15km or 2 lane road min 25km.
• Consortium should have built min 5km road in corporation limit.
• Company or consortium should have experience of BOT project.
• Complete works of Bridge / flyover/ ROB should be in the year.
FINANCIAL CRITERIA FOR BIDDERS.
• Min Annual Turnover 1600 Million
• Net Worth 60 Million
• Net Profit After Tax 100million
• Bid Capacity Min 2000 Million
• Min Equity 51%
• Bid will be evaluated as regards to responsiveness to technical data
• Bid passing the criteria will be considered for financial evaluation
• Concession period is fixed and concessionaire will quote on min viable gap funding
• State road development corporation will carry out confirmatory evaluation and issue loan to
Cars Goods Carrier, Auto 15
Six Seater Auto 15
Multi Axle Vehicle 40
(Table.2: Toll Rates)
Note1: Nine Toll Stations are proposed
Note 2:25% Concession for purchase of 50Coupons
Note 3:50% Concession for purchase of 100 Coupons
Note 4: Single toll will be charged if vehicle passes same or other toll station within 6 hours.
Note 5: For monthly pass holders, 50% of monthly single journey charges.
Note 6: Toll rates are revised after every 3 third years with a growth rate of 6 % per annum
FEATURES OF A TYPICAL CONCESSION AGREEMENT.
• This agreement is TRI PARTY AGREEMENT entered between, State Road Development
Corporation Limited, City Municipal Corporation, And Entrepreneur Developing Integrated
Road Development Program.
• The government has entrusted the state road development corporation, the implementation of
Integrated Road Development Program a BOT basis.
• State Road Development Corporation and therefore the confirming party entered into the
agreement to implement the said project as per the mutually agreed revised scheme and has been
approved by the confirming party.
• The obligation to the state road development corporation and therefore the confirming party and
therefore the funding arrangements of the said project are elaborated within the said agreement.
• The confirming party within the said agreement has agreed and undertaken to discharge financial
liabilities if any arising for any reason whatsoever out of the concession agreement for the
implementation of the said project and to compensate and reimburse all costs and liabilities.
• State Road Development Corporation had resolved to implement approx... 50 Km. of roads
within the city on the build, operate, and transfer basis. On terms and conditions set forth during
• State Road Development Corporation had act accordingly invited application for pre-
qualification by its PQ notice for a brief listing of bidders for Design Construction, Operation
and Maintenance of the project on BOT basis However State Road Development Corporation
later decided to travel certain post qualification.
• State Road Development Corporation had prescribed the technical and commercial terms and
conditions and invited bids from bidders pursuant to the tender notice for undertaking the
• After evaluation of the bids received, State Road Development Corporation had accepted the
body of the consortium and issued a letter of acceptance to the consortium requiring interlaid,
the execution of this Concession agreement within 30 days of issue thereof.
• The consortium has since promoted and incorporated an indebtedness company under the
businesses act 1956 and requested State Road Development Corporation to simply accept the
concessionaire because the entity which shall undertake and perform the requirement and
exercise the proper of the consortium under the LOA including the obligation to enter into
concession agreement pursuant to the LOA for executing the project.
• By its letter, the concessionaire has also joined within the said agreement of the consortium to
State Road Development Corporation to simply accept it's because the entity which shall
undertake and perform the requirement and exercise the proper of the consortium under the LOA
including the obligation to enter into concession agreement pursuant to the LOA for executing
• State Road Development Corporation had agreed to the said request of the concessionaire and
has accordingly agreed to enter into this concession agreement with the concessionaire for the
execution of the project on a BOT basis, subject to and on the terms and conditions set forth
TRAFFIC STUDY AND ANALYSIS.
To l l P l a z aL o c a t
i o n
C a r / J e e p / V
a n / 6 s / A u t o
L CV S T
B u s
O t h e r B
T r u c k M AV T r a c t o
T o t a l
S h a h u 3 8 8 8 2 9 0 7 1 5 1 5 3 5 4 1 9 20 5 6 1 5
U c h g a o n 3 8 5 9 3 0 9 2 8 6 16 4 3 7 3 65 4 9 7 5
W a s h i 1 7 3 0 1 7 7 3 4 6 44 4 6 2 1 82 2 8 4 1
S h i y e 1 5 6 8 1 7 7 90 14 4 3 2 1 1 1 5 2 3 9 8
F u l e w a d i 2 0 7 7 3 7 9 5 6 9 96 9 3 1 5 2 1 3 4 2 7 1
K a l a m b a 8 8 7 1 5 2 2 0 0 17 2 8 3 5 25 1 5 6 7
S h i r o l i 1 1 1 5 9 1 1 9 1 2 3 5 5 5 2 3 2 6 5 5 16 72 1 7 9 7 2
MODEWISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE VEHICLE.
TOLL EXEMPTED VEHICLES.
• State MLA’S/ MP’S Vehicles.
• Central and state government vehicles
• Police vehicles
• Military vehicles
• Post and telegraph department
• Fire brigade vehicles
• KMT buses
• Two-wheeler/ three-wheeler/ auto
BELOW ARE TWO CASE STUDIES ON BOT PROJECTS.
CASE STUDY 1: DELHI GURGAON EXPRESSWAY.
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), under the Ministry of Road Transport &
Highways, was entrusted the responsibility for implementation of the Golden Quadrilateral project
(Highway Project connecting the four metro cities of latest Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata).
As a neighbourhood of this project, it proposed the conversion of a really busy section of NH-8
Delhi to Gurgaon into a 6/8 lane access controlled divided carriageway. The project was awarded
to the consortium of Jaypee Industries and DS Construction Ltd to style, finance, construct, operate
and maintain the power for a concession period of 20 years. The Concessionaire is allowed to gather
toll from the users of the project facility during the operation period to recover his investment and
therefore the expressway is required to be transferred back to the government at the top of the
This was the primary BOT project in India to possess been awarded on a negative grant basis were
within the concessionaire offered to pay an upfront fee to NHAI reciprocally of the concession as
MODEWISE DISTRIBUTION OF THE
against a capital grant from the govt. The expressway was commissioned in January 2013 after much
delay primarily due to issues in Land acquisition and changes within the scope of labour.
PPP structure of the Project
The project was awarded to the consortium of Jaiprakash Industries Ltd and DS Construction Ltd
on a Built-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis for a period of 20 years. the chosen concessionaire offered
to pay 61.06 crore upfront as a negative grant to the NHAI.The Concessionaire was required to
style, construct, operate and maintain the expressway in accordance with the specifications as
approved by NHAI. A Special Purpose Vehicle called the Delhi Gurgaon Super Connectivity Ltd
(formerly Jaypee DSC Ventures Ltd.) was created for the execution of the project. The SPV entered
into a hard and fast time-fixed price Engineering, Procurement & Construction (EPC) contract with
DS Constructions Limited for this project.
The expressway has been operational for five years now after it had been opened to traffic in January
2018. It carries quite 180,000 PCUs per day, which is far above the traffic estimates for the project
by 13,000 to 15,000 PCUs per day. The substantially higher number of vehicles using the power
has often led to a queuing from vehicles at the toll plazas.
The expressway consists of 9 flyovers, 4 underpasses and a couple of foot-over bridges, and three
toll plazas. Smart tags are introduced to enable cashless automatic payment.
The funding for the project at the time of monetary closure (9 May 2018) is provided below:
1.Debt 383.3 crore
2.Equity 164.2 crore
3.TOTAL 547.5 crore
Process Analysis Inception:
The plan for an expressway connecting Gurgaon and Delhi was initiated within the late 2010s and
an in-depth project report was prepared for an equivalent. Golden Quadrilateral project, as traffic
intensity on these corridors, had increased manifold which hampered the safe and efficient
movement of vehicles. Accordingly, NHAI decided to upgrade the section of NH-8 connecting
Delhi and Gurgaon into an 8/6 lane access-controlled expressway because it was the busiest part of
the highway. it had been estimated that the expressway would scale back the time period between
Delhi and Gurgaon from about 65 minutes to around 20 minutes.
NHAI was finding itself constrained to fund the estimated Rs 555 Crore for the expressway.
Malaysia's housing industry Development Board (CIDB) was initially proposed to require up this
project under the memorandum of understanding (MoU) route as a neighbourhood of a government
to government initiative.
However, this proposal sought a grant of Rs120 crore from NHAI and was thus rejected. the
government of India, at the time, was keen to market public-private partnerships (PPP) in viable
expressway projects to draw in funding and maximize private sector efficiency. it had been therefore
decided to undertake the project on a BOT (Build-operate-Transfer) basis. NHAI used the Detailed
Project Report prepared in 1998 for the traffic projections for this project.
The MORT&H invited pre-qualification bids in 2017. The project was initially envisaged to need a
capital grant to be paid by NHAI to the successful bidder towards the value of construction for
enhancing the viability of the highway project.
However, considering the robust traffic projections, bids were received with negative grants. In
April 2002, the consortium of Jaiprakash Industries and DS Constructions was declared
the successful bidder. RBM Malaysia, which was the L2 bidder, had quoted Rs 55 crore because of
the negative grant. Other bidders were Gamuda Malaysia, IJM Malaysia, and Larsen & Toubro
The erstwhile Jaypee DSC Ventures Ltd. (now referred to as Delhi Gurgaon Super Connectivity
Ltd.), the SPV incorporated by the Concessionaire for the project, achieved financial closure in May
2015. the development of the expressway commenced in January 2015. In June 2016, Jai Prakash
Industries, despite being the lead promoter, sold its stake to DS Constructions and retained just
The project development, however, soon saw issues over approvals, land acquisition, and additions
to the scope of labour which was largely thanks to the physical setting of the project highway.
The project was commissioned on 25 January 2018. The expressway is fully operational and is
handling a big traffic volume of quite 180,000 PCUs per day, growing at 9% year-on-year.
The concession period is for 20 years and therefore the projected end date is 11 January 2023 when
the expressway is going to be handed over to the govt.
Particulars Earlier Now
*Average Travel Speed 25.65Km/Hr 66 Km/Hr
*Average Travel Time 65 Minutes 25 minutes
10 Grade Separated Intersections
Key Learnings and Observations
Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway project built under the PPP model offers insights into the following
important lessons, which should be kept in mind for effective and efficient implementation of other
Lengthy construction period:
The Delhi - Gurgaon Expressway is that the 'fully access controlled' highway project and caters to
both local and concrete traffic, additionally the Domestic and International airports are located on
its corridor. there have been quite 15 government agencies like Delhi Development Authority
(DDA), Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA), and lots of others that were suffering
from the event of the expressway and thus various approvals were needed from them, due to which
construction phase of the project became complex and time-consuming. All this led to delays in the
development of the expressway, thus there must speed up of the method of getting approvals from
various authorities to deliver the project on time to understand its complete benefits.
Problems in land acquisition:
Acquisition of land for the development of those sorts of projects in a thickly populated environment
always impact the timely delivery of the projects. Although,
NHAI and other agencies involved in this project put great efforts to accelerate the method, but
thanks to difficulties in acquiring certain areas of land contributed to the delays.
Changes in the scope of the project:
Another major reason for the delay in the completion of the project was a change within the scope
of the project. Keeping in mind the longer-term requirements and convenience of commuter's
substantial changes were made within the original design that was finalized by NHAI and the
government. additionally, to the present, the demands of bodies like HUDA and DDA regarding the
connected projects also played a crucial role in the delays in the completion of the project. Thus,
there adhering to future needs, a strong structure of the project has got to be designed so as to avoid
Lower traffic risk:
Traffic risk is that the biggest risk to the success of a typical road project. However, the danger is
substantially lower during this project because it involved improvement and tolling of an existing
highway, where traffic flow is more or less established. The Delhi Gurgaon section of NH-8 has
been one among the busiest sections within the country and there to an extent had the advantage of
enormous traffic and thus high revenues.
The sustained economic process in India in recent years has brought opportunities and challenges
to the design and management of Indian transportation. Like in other developing countries,
transportation in India is characterized by limited roadway infrastructure and therefore the lack of
operation and management experience.
Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is that the most enjoyable development in the transport history of India
and it's provided help to businesses by providing a relatively free-flowing alternative to the
congested NH-8. This facility might be benchmarked with the best expressways within the world as
better planning and engineering technologies have been incorporated during this project to usher in
the category of best expressways worldwide. But despite this, the expressway has faced concerns in
managing and decongesting the traffic density.
CASE STUDY 2: INDORE DEW AS ROAD BOT PROJECT.
Indore may be a major city and commercial centre of the state of Health Services in central India.
Indore is located 190 km west of the capital Bhopal. consistent with the 2011 Indian census, Indore
city features a population of 1,516,918. it's the 15th largest city in India and therefore the 147th
largest city in the world. It is the headquarters of both the Indore district and Indore division. Dew
as District may be a district of Pradesh state in central India. The town of Dew as is that the district
headquarters. The district has a neighbourhood of 7,020 km², and a population of 1,306,617 (2001
census), a rise of 26% since 1991. Dew as District roughly corresponds to the territories of the dual
princely states of Dew as. The district straddles the Vindhya Range; the northern portion of the
district lies on the Malawi plateau, while the southern portion lies within the valley of the Narmada
River. The Narmada forms the southern boundary of the district.
The district is bounded to the east by Sehore District, to the south by the Harda and Khandwa
districts, to the west by the Khargone and Indore districts, and to the north by the Ujjain and Shajapur
districts. Dewas District is a component of the Ujjain Division. National Highway Administration
of India (NHAI) has initiated a process to extend the width of the Indore-Dewas section of the Agra
- Mumbai highway from four lanes to six-lane. The Administration will convert it from four-lane to
six-lane on the basis of Built-Operate-Transfer. NHAI has invited tenders for this work which can
be opened on 25TH of January 2010. a forty-five km street is going to be converted into six-lane.
The Authority estimates its cost to be RS.325 Crore. To encourage a far better competition the
authority has invited tenders globally.
Developer: M/S Gayatri Infra Ventures Ltd.
SPV : M/s DLF-Gayatri construction.
EPCC Contractor: M/s Gayatri Projects Ltd.
Consultant: M/s HBS Constants
(Table.7: Comparison of road and flyover IRR)
Comparison of road and flyover BOT project:
As looking into the above comparison of road and flyover project we came to see that the initial cost
of the fly over cost is high compare it to road, and revenue is high in flyover than road ,finally by
internal rate of return method we will see that profits in road is more compared to fly- over So it's
better to figure on road projects than fly over because returns are more, although maintenance of
road are going to be more compared to fly over but still road project will get more IRR.
The availability of infrastructure facilities is imperative for the general development of any country.
Today there's a requirement to specialize in enhancing the standard of infrastructure services
provided in India. Roads constitute a crucial part of the infrastructure of a rustic. These projects are
very huge and need a lot of investment within the construction phase also as an operational phase.
thanks to funds constraints, the government is assigning several projects on a BOT basis within the
Although privatization has done the trick within the present scenario of the Indian infrastructure
sector, acceptability of personal investment to the general public requires the reassurance that the
standard of construction comes up to the specified standards, that the tolls charged are reasonable,
and also that any direct or indirect capital subsidy involved is decided during a transparent manner
to make sure that the project represents a least-cost solution for the economy.
The concept of financing highways or bridges on a BOT basis is completely new in our country.
tons of study and research work has been administered like resources, funds, etc., and prerequisites
for such projects but the post-development challenges are to be specific challenges related to the
operational phase has remained vastly unemployed.
PRESENT ONGOING PROJECTS:
Costal Road Project.
• Marine Drive.
• Haji Ali Mumbai Costal Road: The Road to the Sea.