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Module 1 Introduction to Industrial Safety

Introduction to Occupational Safety and Health Management focusing on industry including definition of hazard and risks, accidents etc

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Module 1 Introduction to Industrial Safety

  1. 1. Norrazman Zaiha bin Zainol razman.pe@gmail.com
  2. 2. What is Safety? Why Safety is important?
  3. 3. Ref: Safety Institute of Australia
  4. 4. Industrial safety started since Hammurabi 2000 BC 1473, Ulrich Ellenborg, German physician published the first known pamphlet on occ. diseases. 1556, Agricola described the diseases of miners and prescribed preventive measures The first comprehensive book on occupational medicine, The Diseases of Workmen was published in 1700s in Italy by the “father of industrial medicine,” Bernardino Ramazini. 18th century, industrial Revolution, industrial accident aroused because people migrating from agricultural to factory Started from 19th, awareness in OSH increasing to make the industries more safer work place
  5. 5. Before OSHA 1994, no specific act but the acts related to OSH were gazetted in accordance with the requirements at that time. Chronology laws and regulations of OSH in Malaysia: Enactment of Boiler Safety (before 1913) Federal Machinery Enactment 1913 Machinery Ordinance 1953 Factories & Machinery Act 1967 Occ. Safety and Health Act 1994
  6. 6. Boiler Safety Enactment - Scope: Security boiler machine including machine guards - 4 states : Selangor (1982), Perak (1903), Pahang & N. Sembilan (1908) Federal Machinery Enactment 1913 - Scope: Safety of engine, boiler & machinery including boiler man - Registration and inspection Machinery Ordinance 1953 - Scope: Safety of machinery incl person in charge - Employee’s safety at workplace Factories & Machinery Act 1967 - Revise MO 1953 - Extended the scope to cover health - More specific Occ Safety and Health Act 1994 - Cover weakness in other OSH related laws - Main OSH laws - Holistic
  8. 8. Occ. Health The protection of bodies and mind of people from illness resulting from the materials, processes or procedures used in the work place Occ. Safety The protection of people from physical injury in the work place
  9. 9. Welfare facilities Facilities to maintain the health and well being of the workers at the work place i.e. washing, sanitation, resting area, drinking water, lighting, café etc Accident Any unplanned event that results in injury or ill health to people or damage or loss to property, plant, materials or environment or a loss of business opportunity or combination Resulting from series of event leads to incidents
  10. 10. Near miss Incidents that could resulted in an accident Stats – appx. 10 near misses a minor accident Dangerous occurrence Near miss that could lead to major accident – serious injury or death Ex. Collapse of scaffolding or embankment
  11. 11. Hazard Potential of something i.e. substances, person, activity, process to cause harm Risk Likelihood of hazard to happen and result consequences/severity
  12. 12. Unsafe Act Act of people(s) that may potentially cause harm to something Unsafe Condition Condition or circumstance that may potentially cause harm to something
  13. 13. What is occupational safety hazard and occupational health hazard? What are the differences between high hazard and high risk? Construction site – high hazard or high risk?
  14. 14. Legal reasons OSHA 1994 and other laws and regulations Moral reasons Accident rates Diseases rates Social reasons Duty of the employer Duty of the employee Economic reasons Lower productivity and loss of revenue Cost of accidents – direct and indirect costs Insurance & compensation of worker
  15. 15. Ministry of Human Resources Main authority for human resources Function - administer and supervise implementation of industrial communication system Govern the policies related to workforce Consists of ▪ Departments likes DOSH, JTK, MLVK ▪ Statutory bodies likes PERKESO, PSMB ▪ Advisory board likes Majlis Penasihat Buruh Kebangsaan, Maj Negara untuk KKP
  16. 16. PERKESO / SOCSO Enforce Employee’s Social Security Act 1969 Function -Welfare of workers Insurance scheme for workers
  17. 17. Dept. of Occ. Safety & Health Enforce OSHA 1994, FMA 1967 & Petroleum Act 1984 Function – Ensure safety and health of the workers and stakeholders from work activities
  18. 18. Industrial Court Enforce Industrial Court Act 1967 Function – resolve conflict between employer- employee
  19. 19. Events or conditions that are not planned or expected Unfortunate events as a result of negligence or ignorance Events occurring unintentional Events that occur due to one or more reasons An accident is an unexpected sequence of events and unplanned occurs through a logical sequence and by a combination of several historical reasons cause harm either an injury or illness to people, damage to property or the environment, accidents, near misses, loss, or a combination of the above effects
  20. 20. MAINTHEORIES - DominoTheory of Accident Causation ▪ Bird’s Loss Causation Model Human FactorsTheory of Accident Causation Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation SystemsTheory of Accident Causation CombinationTheory of Accident Causation Behavioural Theory of Accident Causation
  21. 21. Developed by Herbert Heinrich in late 1920s after studying about 75k industrial accident cases Concluded that 88% accident caused by human error, 10% by unsafe conditions & 2% is unavoidable Proposed Axioms of Industrial Safety comprises of 10 statement on industrial OSH He stated that Injuries caused by action of preceding factors Removal of central factor (unsafe act/condition) prevent accidents
  22. 22. • Theories and models are not necessarily reality. • A single theory may not suit all circumstances. • Some theories address particular problems better than other theories. • A combination of theories and models may be the optimal approach toward problem solutions.
  23. 23. Accident Theory D Theory C Theory B Theory A
  24. 24. Tye PearsonTriangle
  26. 26. Other than chance occurrence, three main contributing factors are: Work & its surrounding Unsafe workplace Unsafe equipment Unsafe procedures Non ergonomics – lighting, design, physiology, psychology
  27. 27. Organization and its related business Size of organization – accident inversely correspondence with size of firm Safety culture Workforce Unsafe act Gender Age
  28. 28. Injuries Disability Loss (monetary) Reputation Disablement Death Damage Phobia/Fear
  29. 29. Direct (magnitud 1) Indirect (magnitud 8-36) Medical Loss of income Damage of property Supervisory time Affect the performance Reputation New workers
  30. 30. Safety issues Falls Mobile plant Falling materials and collapses Electrical accident Trips Health issues Asbestos Manual handling Noise and vibration Chemical
  31. 31. Year No of reported accidents No of workplace accident No of accident to/fro workplace No of death accident 2001 84,333 67,163 17,170 958 2002 81,810 63,423 18,387 858 2003 73,858 56,249 17,609 822 2004 69,132 50,803 18,329 846 2005 61,182 43,885 17,297 773 2006 58,321 40,617 17,704 733 2007 56,339 38,657 17,682 755 2008 54,133 35,092 19,041 981 2009 55,186 34,376 20,810 663 2010 57,656 34,911 22,745 409 Source: PERKESO & JKKP (as cited by Sayani Saidon in her research on HSE in JBPM)
  32. 32. - 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 No of reported accidents No of workplace accident No of accident to/fro workplace No of death accident
  33. 33. The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident in India, considered the world's worst industrial disaster.[1] It occurred on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals. The toxic substance made its way in and around the shanty towns located near the plant.[2] Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.[3] Others estimate 8,000 died within two weeks and another 8,000 or more have since died from gas-related diseases.[4][5] A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial injuries and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[6]
  34. 34. The Chernobyl disaster (Ukraine) was a catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then officially the Ukrainian SSR), which was under the direct jurisdiction of the central authorities of the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe. The Chernobyl disaster is widely considered to have been the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, and is one of only two classified as a level 7 event (the maximum classification) on the International Nuclear Event Scale (the other being the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011).[1] The battle to contain the contamination and avert a greater catastrophe ultimately involved over 500,000 workers and cost an estimated 18 billion rubles.[2] The official Soviet casualty count of 31 deaths has been disputed, and long-term effects such as cancers and deformities are still being accounted for.
  35. 35. HighlandTowers – 1993 – 48 were killed
  36. 36. Azuddin Bahari, Hanum Hassan &Tunku SalhaTunku Ahmad (2009); Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Dalam Perniagaan Kecil, Penerbitan Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kangar Mohamad Khan Jamal Khan, Nor Azimah Chew Abdullah & Ab. AzizYusof, (2005), Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Dalam Organisasi, Pearson Prentice Hall Ismail Bahari, (2006), Pengurusan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan. McGraw Hill David L. Goetsch, (2005), Occupational Safety and Health for Technologists, Engineers and Managers, Pearson Prentice Hall Alwi Saad (2011) Occ Safety & Health Management. Penerbit USM Hughes P & Ferret E. (2010) Introduction to International Health and Safety atWork. Butterworth-Heinemann NIOSH (2005)Training manual for Safety & Health Officer Certificate Programme – Module 1. NIOSH