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Measuring Women's empowerment: towards a women's empowerment metric v1

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By Agnes Quisumbing
at the 2019 ReSAKSS Annual Conference

Publié dans : Données & analyses
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Measuring Women's empowerment: towards a women's empowerment metric v1

  1. 1. Measuring women’s empowerment: towards a women’s empowerment metric for national statistical systems Agnes Quisumbing, IFPRI
  2. 2. Why do we want to measure empowerment? Why on a national scale? • Sustainable Development Goal 5 SDG5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls • But to monitor progress towards women’s empowerment and gender equality, we need indicators • What’s measured, matters • CAADP: requires 5DE (5 Dimensions of Empowerment from Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) in Biennial Report • Can our statistical systems produce these indicators? Are there better indicators to use?
  3. 3. Overview • Measuring empowerment using the WEAI • WEAI versions • Limitations of the WEAI • Opportunity to develop a Women’s Empowerment Measure for National Statistical Systems for 50 x 2030: • What do YOU want to measure?
  4. 4. The various material, human, and social resources that serve to enhance one’s ability to exercise choice The capacity to define one’s own goals and make strategic choices in pursuit of these goals, particularly in a context where this ability was previously denied The achievement of one’s goals Agency AchievementsResources What is empowerment? (Kabeer 1999) What does empowerment mean in the African context?
  5. 5. Starting point: the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) • Developed by USAID, IFPRI & OPHI • Launched in 2012 • Measures inclusion of women in the agricultural sector • Survey-based index - interviews men and women in the same household • Designed to look at decisionmaking and control over livelihoods, resources, and income (both sole and joint), mostly in agriculture, and in population-based surveys
  6. 6. Where in the world is WEAI? 2019: 55 countries, WEAI and relatives 19 population-based surveys, 99 organizations, including academic orgs and NGOs
  7. 7. WEAI achievements • Some form of WEAI-based empowerment metric collected in 55 countries by 99 organizations • Governments interested in using WEAI at the national level • CAADP: requires 5DE in Biennial Report • Bangladesh: collected and used WEAI to inform national-level outcomes • Ethiopia: expressed interest in using WEAI for national programs • Rwanda: A-WEAI • IADB using it in impact evaluations in Nicaragua and Bolivia, mainstreaming it in land titling projects in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru
  8. 8. Adapting WEAI for project use in GAAP2 (Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project Phase 2) • Demand from organizations for a WEAI suitable for project use; supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID, A4NH • Portfolio of 13 agricultural development projects: develop and pilot a WEAI for project use and use it in impact evaluations • Elements that are relevant to 50 x 2030 • Portfolio approach • Responsiveness to projects’ needs in design of instruments and protocols • A lot of consultation and triangulation across methods • Standardized metric developed
  9. 9. Evolution of WEAI Metrics WEAI A-WEAI Pro-WEAI Core Health & Nutrition Livestock Market Inclusion WEAI A-WEAI  
  10. 10. Lessons learned from the WEAI and pro- WEAI development process • Involvement of stakeholders from the start • Need for clarity of concepts • Importance of cognitive interviewing • Consequences of sampling decisions (e.g. not interviewing men, project-based vs. population-based sampling) • Importance of independent validation (Emory work on psychometric validation) for index validity and shortening questionnaire • Importance of qualitative work to ground concepts and interpret results • Importance of openness, transparency, and flexibility
  11. 11. Feedback from GAAP2 partner projects piloting pro-WEAI: Problems and solutions Feedback Response Comments Need a shorter questionnaire Working on it (see next slide) Shorten questionnaire based on psychometric validation Implementing tool as stand-alone vs integrated survey has cost and logistics implications Integrating in existing questionnaire Test integrated WEAI vs original Translation Need to consider systematically Can partially address in cognitive interviewing Questionnaire easy to understand and use Qualitative methods provided insight and were useful Need systematic way to address contradictions between qual and quant (not a bad thing, but strengthens the work) Qual helped to identify what constraints were not relevant in particular contexts
  12. 12. Proposed Process for Developing WEMNS Compare Qxs (lessons learned) Consult stakeholders Draft short form Stakeholder review Add to existing Qxs (IFAD) Conduct CIs (4 50x2030 cos) Conduct surveys Validate short formDisseminate short form
  13. 13. Proposed Process for Developing WMENS • Assess lessons learned; compare questionnaires • Consult stakeholders Stocktaking exercise with country governments, in collaboration with the 50x2030 partners: what aspects of women’s empowerment are most relevant for their own development priorities? • Draft short form • Stakeholder review • Add to existing questionnaires (IFAD or LSMS) • Cognitive interviewing • Conduct surveys (ideally population-based sample) • Validate short form—disseminate short form (after validation) • Develop index or scale • Repeat
  14. 14. We are eager to hear from you! Photo: Grameen Foundation