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The Open Research Agenda

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Slides presented at Open Education 2016. The Open Research Agenda is an international consultation exercise on research priorities in open education which combines online surveys and focus group interactions. This presentation summarises thematic analysis of the data set and indicates future directions for research in the field of open education.

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The Open Research Agenda

  1. 1. The Open Research Agenda Open Education 2016 #opened16 Richmond, VA. November 2016 Dr. Rob Farrow @philosopher1978
  2. 2. • Award-winning research into open education • Strategies for building worldwide open education research capacity • Available for research & consultancy (short & long term) • Current projects include: oerhub.net
  3. 3. What is the Open Research Agenda? Simple consultation and sharing exercise Invitation to share thoughts about research priorities in open education Results are discussed at conferences and workshops That discussion then becomes part of the following presentation Promoting an open research culture The hope is that we will become better able to anticipate research needs and funding opportunities as well as find potential collaborators
  4. 4. What is the Open Research Agenda?  Community consultation exercise to better understand research priorities of practitioners Intended to identify patterns across countries and stakeholders ‘ Flipping’ the conference format  Stealing research ideas Setting the agenda ourselves
  5. 5. consultation form tinyurl.com/2016ORA
  6. 6. Survey Methodology Country (main residence) Self-perception of OER expertise (adapted from Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1980) model of skill acquisition) Role (choose from list or free text) Context of work/study (based on International Standard Classification of Education (UNESCO, 2011)) Perception of research priorities (free text) Most important research questions (free text)
  7. 7. As at 31 October 2016: • 91 survey responses • Respondents from 24 countries across 5 continents: Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Ireland, Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, The Netherlands, United Kingdom • Approximately a further 90 participants in discussion (3 expert meetings; 3 conferences; 1 webinar) Survey Sample Overview
  8. 8. Hewlett OER Meeting (February)
  9. 9. Action Lab @ OE Global, Krakow (April)
  10. 10. Action Lab @ OE Global, Krakow
  11. 11. OER16, Edinburgh, UK (April)
  12. 12. Global OER Graduate Network (May)
  13. 13. Computers and Learning Research Group Annual Conference (June)
  14. 14. European OER Experts Meeting (June)
  15. 15. OERu Expert Meeting (October)
  16. 16. Open Education 2016 (November)
  17. 17. Summary of Results
  18. 18. Role
  19. 19. • One third of respondents described themselves as having only one role • More than three quarters (77.3%) of all respondents described themselves as wholly or in part an educator (n=75); Over 40% (n=42) said they were both an educator and an advocate • Three quarters of respondents who describe themselves in whole or part as a policymaker also describe themselves as an advocate of OER (n=11) • Some people said they had as many as 7 simultaneous roles • Most participants who responded with ‘Other’ told us their role was wholly, or in part, as a librarian (3) or researcher (13) Role
  20. 20. Expertise/Experience
  21. 21. What are the most important areas for open education research over the next year?
  22. 22. Most popular themes 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Assessment Awareness & Perceptions Business models Professional development Quality OER for development Collaboration Evidence Impact Technology Case studies Adoption Pedagogy OEP
  23. 23. ‘Tier 2’ themes 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Adult education Advocacy Credentialing, Professional development, Reuse Digital/information literacy Discoverability Implementation Improving access Policy, Collaboration Copyright & intellectual property Discourse analysis/perceptions Reuse
  24. 24. Least popular themes Accessibility Ethics Formal recognition of OER Global North/South Innovation (marginalised voices) Lifelong learning MOOC Non-formal learning OER Creation Open Data Social mission of open education + all the others not mentioned…
  25. 25. Open practices and pedagogies • OER for lifelong learning and professional development • Policy development • Benefits of ‘non-disposable assignments’ • Local/National platforms for teachers • Networked learning • OER for language development • “Open pedagogy” • Citation and cataloguing protocols • Integration of OER into curriculum • Creating assessment tools • Micro-credentialling • Recognition of prior learning • Sustainable business models
  26. 26. OER impact research • Measuring the influence of the use of OER and OEP on learning outcomes and institutions • More empirical studies with wider focus than purely on open textbook efficacy • A wider range of research methods (including qualitative approaches) • Quantifying the return on investment from going open • Scant mention of student cost savings
  27. 27. Promoting adoption and adaptation • Factors affecting adoption of individual OER • Qualitative descriptions of adaptation • Barriers to remix and sharing (& implications for design) • Barriers to institutional adoption • Strategies for easing implementation by faculty
  28. 28. Collaboration and community • Peer review • Co-operation between institutions • Transnational co-operation • Collaborative instructional design • Promoting equality of opportunity • Partnerships that provide added value • Quality
  29. 29. Technology and infrastructure • Sustainable OER ecosystem • Ways of cataloguing and sharing OER (e.g. shared database) • Linked open data for education • Open digital badging • Geographical hubs for sharing OER • Using OER with VLEs • Beyond repositories • Interoperability
  30. 30. Ethical issues • Privacy, security and trust in online learning • Ownership of (student) data and ‘safe spaces’ • Access & accessibility vs. remixable resources • Appropriate literacies • Being ethical ‘in the open’ • Some conflation with ethical issues in e-learning more gnenerally
  31. 31. Openness • Tension between differing interpretations of openness • Social and political aspects of open education • Articulating the benefits of open • Building open communities and supporting cross-community exchange
  32. 32. What are the most pressing questions that need to be answered?
  33. 33. Reflections on this approach It’s quite hard to get people to do anything! Envisaged breakdowns of role, level of expertise have been problematic because of multiple roles and most identifying as expert http://oerhub.net/collaboration-2/the-open-research-agenda-2/
  34. 34. “Messes are complex, multi-dimensional, intractable, dynamic problems that can only be partially addressed and partially resolved.” (Brydon-Miller et al., 2003:21)
  35. 35. Action Research Originally conceived by Luwin (1946) “a cycle of posing questions, gathering data, reflection, & deciding on a course of action” (Ferrance, 2000) Several approaches (traditional, contextual, radical, educational) Simple Action Research Model (MacIsaac, 1995)
  36. 36. Participatory Action Research (Freire) Blackall & Hegarty (2012:69) identify four key aspects to Participatory Action Research (PAR) which are relevant to the worldwide OER community: The explicit aim to engage all stakeholders […] in describing the problems Asking those stakeholders to research the problem and propose solutions Empowering those stakeholders to carry out their plans Repeating the cycle, reflecting on lessons learned and publishing the research
  37. 37. Suggestions for future research Holistic case studies which include a focus on efficacy and cost savings but also provide (balanced) qualitative data regarding the impact on persons and practices Detailed case studies of open pedagogy (including theoretical perspective) Studies of the narrative on ‘open’ (e.g. discourse analysis) – there are ever more voices in this space with differing interpretations Business analysis -> generate sustainable business models How can a more holistic OER ecosystem be achieved? OER World Map? Sociology/psychology of conversion, persuasion, and culture change Sharing best/effective practices: institutions, educators, learners
  38. 38. Tensions in the overall picture Desire for control and predictability Desire for freedom, exploration and innovation Advocacy ‘Pure’ research A well defined community of practice An ‘open’ community ‘I have this problem and I need a solution…’ ‘I think research should be done in…’ Local context Global context Pragmatic Ideological
  39. 39. How this presentation relates to others at Open Education 2016 Many of the conference themes and discussions were prefigured Focus on open pedagogy and open educational practices A way of structuring future breakout sessions A method for sharing focus across countries, roles, and levels of expertise
  40. 40. Reflections on the approach It’s can be hard to get people to contribute, even to a short survey Flipped conference format seems to work well for stimulating collective reflection (requires time, preparation & moderation skills) Envisaged analyses by role, level of expertise have been complicated by small sample, multiple roles and most identifying as proficient/expert Formulating a research question does not always come naturally to non- researchers Some conflation of open education and e-learning more generally
  41. 41. What’s next? Final presentation at Open Education 2016 (Nov) Publish report/paper with results Identify possibilities for future work & collaboration Get feedback. Repeat?
  42. 42. 22222 consultation form tinyurl.com/2016ORA
  43. 43. Image credits https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/American_Queen_Eads_Bridge.jpg "Life is Sharing" (CC-BY 2.0 Generic, Alan Levine) “Open” Chuck Coker https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Richmond,_Virginia_downtown.jpg https://www.flickr.com/photos/caveman_92223/4016133284/ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Water_drop_impact_on_a_water-surface_-_(5).jpg http://www.thebluediamondgallery.com/pictures/webinar.jpg http://www.thebluediamondgallery.com/highlighted/a/advocacy.html CC-BY-SA 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2012/11/07/10/14/quality-65060_960_720.jpg https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2014/04/02/10/16/key-303320_960_720.png https://static.pexels.com/photos/4316/technology-computer-chips-gigabyte.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/Openness.jpg/377px-Openness.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Openness_and_Collaboration.png