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Retail packaging requirement of
India is known as the “Home of Spices”.
Pepper is the king of spices and cardamom is the
queen of spices.
India contributes 75% of global spice production.
But the small quantity of 6-7% exported because
one of the reason is improper packaging.
In sub continent whole spices are bought mostly in
loose form, packaged spices are being sold in cities.
Nature and Deteriorative characteristics
o Loss of aroma and flavour
o Bleaching of colour
o Loss of free flowing nature
o Microbial spoilage
o Insect infestation
Forms of spices
• Whole spices (cardamom, black pepper, clove, turmeric, ginger,
• Seed spices (celery, fennel, cumin, fenugreek)
• Powdered spices(turmeric, chilies, ginger)
• Spice mixes (curry powders and masalas)
• Paste (curry paste, ginger-garlic paste)
• Concentrates (tamarind concentrate)
• Oil and oleoresins
• Traditionally jute bags are used for storage of spices in ware
• Capacity 10kg to 70kg.
• Jute bags provided with a loose linear bag of polyethylene.
• Double gunny bags are also used especially for whole
• The quality of jute fabric with respect to grammage and the
• A twill, B twill and DW gunny are used depending upon the
value of the spice, their weave clearances 1-2%, 3-5% and
In the traditional packages maximum
loss of volatile oils up to 23% over a
But these have the problem of moisture
ingress and sifting.
In such cases polyethylene lined jute
bags or HDPE/PP woven sacks are
The plastic based packaging materials
also used to overcome the
contamination problems associated
For some spices wooden and metal
containers lined with moisture barrier
materials are being used.
• The latest trend is to use jumbo bags(Flexible
intermediate bulk containers)(FIBCs) for exports of
• These bags have capacity up to 1 tonne.
• The jumbo bags are sometimes made cloth but mainly
from plastic fabric which can be laminated or provided
with an inner plastic linear bag.
• The bags are provided with filling and discharge
spouts and slings for hanging during loading/unloading
• For designing of jumbo bags factors such as capacity,
product protection requirement, bulk density of the
product, filling and discharge facilities at the users end
to be considered.
Some traders use institutional packs for the
requirement of institutions like railways, educational,
air lines, hostels etc., for they use.
Capacities ranging from 2kg to 10kg.
The varieties of packages used include laminated flexible
pouches and plastic woven sacks.
It will replace the traditional materials like tin plate
containers and jute bags.
Unit or Consumer packages:
• Whole spices are packed in 50 g to 1 kg units in polyolefin
• Few brands are packed in PET/PE laminate for good
The package types generally used as consumer packs
Glass bottles of various sizes and shapes with
labels and provided with metal or plastic caps.
The plastic caps have added inbuilt features of
tamper evidence, dispensing, grinding etc.
Printed tinplate container with/without dispensing
Composite containers with dispensers.
Plastic containers with plugs and caps with
dispensing and tamper evidence features.
Printed flexible pouches – pillow pouch, gusseted
pouch, stand-up pouch.
• The printable flexible pouches have recently become very popular.
• Depending upon the functional and marketing requirements, the laminate/film
can be made to serve a specific need
• The printable flexible pouches are generally laminates of various
compositions. some of the commonly used laminates are
• Polyester(10 or 12 microns) and BOPP based laminates are generally more
popular for spice packaging.
Mould growth at
moisture level (%)
Mould growth at
Black pepper 8.19 28 17.74-23.34 73 and above
White pepper 5.09 20 14.47-17.10 81 and above
Red chilies' 4.63 10 16.50-24.67 81 and above
Mace 4.33 43 9.74-13.34 81 and above
Fennel seed 8.16 50 24.33 91 and above
Ani seed 8.00 62 21.11 91 and above
Celery seed 8.96 53 25.09 91 and above
Fenugreek seed 7.73 4 23.59 91 and above
Coriander seed 6.68 13 13.57-19.19 81 and above
Cinnamon 3.24 4 16.67 91 and above
Clove 6.42 30 22.19 91 and above
Initial moisture, equilibrium relative humidity, critical moisture level
and critical relative humidity At which Mould attacks on whole spices
at room temperature (25-28◦c)
Source: Reports of R&D projects at CFTRI