3. WWW=WORLD WIDE WEB.
It is a collection of all the websites connected via
internet worldwide & it has become known simply as
The WWW was central to the development of the
It is the base of server.
(Server is a computer program or a machine that waits for request
from other machines or software & responds to them. It typically
(Software-It is a set of instructions that directs a computer to perform
4. Sir Tim Berners Lees is father of World Wide
He discovered WWW in the year 1989.
By October 1990, he had written the 3
fundamental technologies that remain the
foundation of the today’s Web:
5. 1) HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
The markup (formatting) language for the web
2)URI/URL (Uniform Resource Identifier/Locator)
A kind of address that is unique & used to identify
to each resource on the web. It is commonly
called a URL
3) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – It is the
protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext
6. A network is a group of two or more
computer systems linked together.
7. - A computer network can
be defined as interconnection of two or more
computers with the objective of sharing data,
resources and communication.
8. LAN : [ The computers are
geographically close together (i.e., in the same
WAN : [ The computes are
farther apart & are connected by telephone lines
or radio waves ].
MAN : [ A data
network designed for a town or city ].
CAN : [ The computers are
within a limited geographic area, such as a
campus or military base ].
9. INTERNET APPLICATIONS
INTERNET-It refers to collection of computers
in the network to exchange information and
data using common software.
10. It is a subset of Internet & presents text,
images, animations, video, sound & other
multimedia in a single interface.
12. We are able to see the research papers and journals of
There are many scientific sites to get information.
Internet is very essential in Bioinformatics for
sequencing amino acids and nucleotides.
Internet makes research easy, time saving and more
affordable making people more interested.
13. • A Search Engine is a program that searches through a
database of web pages for particular information.
• Some popular search engines :
Search Engines/Directory URL
14. Q. What is a website?
A. A website is a collection of world wide web
files, scripts, images, multimedia files, audio-
Site refers to ‘place’ and ‘web’ refers to
collection of files online.
15. 1) NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE COMPARISON:-
Nucleotide sequence(DNA/RNA) in suitable format
Select BLAST programme
Select database to be used for comparison
Sequence submitted to BLAST server
16. A database is a vast collection of data
pertaining to a specific topic, e.g.,
nucleotide sequence, protein sequence,
etc. in an electronic environments.
18. NCBI – National Centre for Biotechnology
Information. It is held at USA.
EBI – European Bioinformatics Institute held at
19. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)
It is a family of user-friendly sequence
similarity search tools on the web.
The BLAST server is supported through
20. There are several types of
BLASTp – It compares submitted protein
sequence against a protein database.
BLASTx – This programme translates the
submitted nucleotide sequence into amino
acid sequence and compares the latter with a
tBLASTn – The programme converts the
submitted protein sequence & compares it
with a nucleotide sequence database.
21. BLASTn – This is used to compare a nucleotide
sequence with a nucleotide sequence
tBLASTx – This programme translates the
submitted nucleotide sequence as well as the
nucleotide sequence database into amino acid
sequences and searches for homology
between the two.
23. 3) MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS
The DNA & protein sequence data can be used
to investigate evolution of genes and their
protein products; this is called molecular
Search tools (like BLAST) are used to
determine the phylogenetic relationshiphs,
which may be presented either in form of a
phylogenetic tree or a dendogram.
25. 4) IDENTIFICATION OF FUNCTION OF A
The gene sequence is translated into the
amino acid sequence of the protein. This
protein sequence is then compared with a
protein database. A programme like tBLASTx
will perform both these functions. If the
encoded protein is homologous to a protein in
the database, it confirms the identification of
the new gene.
26. 5) ONLINE JOB SEARCHING
www.irri.org/ : Work for rice research.
in.linkedin.com > Jobs > Biotechnology Jobs
www.timesjobs.com > Biotechnology Jobs
28. 7) JOURNALS AND RESEARCH PAPERS
It is an open access online journal that provides
rapid publication of articles in all areas of
This website helps us to search journals according
to your subjects.
29. 3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
PubMed comprises more than 25millions
citations for bio-medial literatures from
MEDICINE, life sciences journals, & online
books. Citations may include links to fulltext
content from PubMed Central & publisher
It provides free full text articles published in
select Indian Bio-medial Journals indexed in
IndMed or PubMed.
30. WWW is the search engine of computer
using for different Information.
Internet is very useful in higher education,
research and Information.