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A Seminar on Paper Battery
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
ER.REENA RATHORE SANJEET KUMAR
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR 12EAICS746
GENERAL Li-ION BATTERY
Generally Li-ion re-chargeable batteries are used in mobiles, laptops and most of the
3 primary functional component of Li-ion battery are:
1. -ve electrode(graphite)
2. +ve electrode(cobalt oxide)
3.electrolyte( lithium salt in organic solvent)
During discharge and charging, lithium ions Li+
carry the current from the negative to the positive
electrode and vice-versa respectively, through the
non-aqueous electrolyte .
Disadvantages of Li-Ion
• EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.
• DELICATE -- battery temp must be
monitored from within (which raises the
price), and sealed particularly well.
• REGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion
batteries in bulk (which also raises the
Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production
device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet
of cellulose-based paper.
The nano materials are a one-dimensional structure with very small
It can be bent and twisted, trimmed with scissors or molded into any
A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor.
This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady
power production and bursts of energy.
It is non toxic, environment friendly and is everything that a conventional
battery is not.
WHY TO USE PAPER BATTERY?
Ultra-thin size & flexible structure.
Exhibits property of super-capacitor(22F-36F per gram)
Operating temperature(-75 to 100 degree celsius)
provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy.
Carbon nanotube is the main concept behind paper battery
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs; also known as buckytubes) are allotropes of
carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Allotropes are different structural
modifications of an element
CNTs exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are
efficient thermal conductors.
Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. The diameter of a
nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers Their name is derived from
their long, hollow structure with the walls formed by one-atom-thick sheets of
carbon, called graphene. These sheets are rolled at specific and discrete angles,
and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube
CONSTRUCTION OF PAPER BATTERY
CNT thin films were coated onto stainless steel (SS) substrates with a
solution based process.
The concentration of CNT is 1.7 mg/mL.
A dried film with a thickness of 2 micrometer was formed after drying the
CNT ink on the SS substrate at 80 °C for 5 min.This film is then peeled off
These films act as electrodes of paper battery.
one film is pasted to electrolyte LTO (Li4Ti5O12) and the other film is
pasted to electrolyte LCO (LiCoO2).
Paper is sandwiched between two electrolytes LTO and LCO with
PVDF(poly vinylidene fluoride) acting as glue.
• While a conventional battery contains a number of separate
components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery
components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient,
• The battery contains carbon nanotubes, each about one
millionth of a centimeter thick, which act as an electrode. The
nanotubes are embedded in a sheet of paper soaked in ionic liquid
electrolytes, which conduct the electricity.
How a paper battery works?
• Electricity is the flow of electrical power or electrons
• Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal in
the traditional battery.
• Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.
• Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected wire to
the positive terminal.
• Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to
Light, rugged, flexible, can be rolled, crunched, cut, made into any shape.
The nano composite paper is compatible with a number of electrolyte, like blood,
urine, sweat etc.
If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500 times the voltage. If we rip the
paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage
Non toxic and hence ca be used to power pacemakers and RF tags.
It is very useful where burst of energy is required for operation like mostly electric
The electrolyte contains no water, thus there’s nothing in the
batteries to freeze or evaporate, potentially allowing operation in
The organic radical materials inside the battery are in an
"electrolyte-permeated gel state,“ which helps ions make a smooth
move, allowing the batteries to charge at lightning speeds.
(It could charge 10-20 times faster than conventional Li-ion
“Paper Battery Would Be THE Answer To Electrical Energy
Presently, the devices are only a few inches across and they have to be scaled up to
sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable.
Carbon nanotubes are expensive.
The idea is still in the labs and a commercially viable paper battery will take at
least 40-60 years to become a reality.
Researches in nanotechnology to mass produce nanotubes is promising.
Pace makers (uses blood as electrolyte)
Used as alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets.
Devices in space shuttles
Powered smart cards RF id tags, smart clothes.
The black piece of paper can power a small light.
Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of
the next generation of gadgets.
The ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one day power
The paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power storage.
The range of possible applications for paper batteries derives from their important
advantages as compared to conventional battery technologies.
They can be made in virtually any shape and size to meet the requirements of each
The batteries are rechargeable, and have reduced cost and weight which in itself
may give birth to new applications.
Paper battery could solve all the problems associated with electrical energy
However the reality is still very far away, though the researches are promising.