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how to make Presentation Part 2

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how to make Presentation Part 2

  1. 1. Using PowerPoint to Design Effective Presentations THE CAIN PROJECT Power Point Etiquette
  2. 2. What shall we Learn <ul><li>Getting Started with Design </li></ul><ul><li>Template </li></ul><ul><li>Displaying Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Displaying Text </li></ul><ul><li>Animating </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting </li></ul>
  3. 3. Text & Content <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces key terms and concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate or highlight main points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tables and Graphs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present information in a visually appealing way </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Getting Started <ul><li>Create a slide show with storyboards not a script </li></ul>
  5. 5. Choosing a Design Template Avoid templates with themes that don’t fit your information If your content includes images, avoid templates with large background graphics Streamlined templates with minimal background graphics present a professional image
  6. 6. Content of A Slide <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complement speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk ≠ technical report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 lines/page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 words/line </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Speaker Reads Slides <ul><li>A speaker may put his entire presentation on his slides. He turns his back to the audience and reads the slides aloud. Perhaps he feels this approach guarantees all the information will get to the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>This may be the most annoying way to give a presentation. Audience members feel insulted: they already know how to read! They wonder why the lecturer doesn’t simply hand out a copy of the slides. </li></ul><ul><li>The visual presentation dominates the presenter. The presenter is not adding any value to what is on the slides. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Speaker Interprets Slides <ul><li>Slides dominate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide all content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience’s attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speaker supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faces slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps audience understand </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Slides Enhance Speaker <ul><li>Speaker dominates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faces audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slides support speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orient listeners </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. type of room <ul><li>Dimly-lit room: use dark back ground and light text and visual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-lit room: use light back ground and dark text and visual </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Wall of White <ul><li>Increases glare </li></ul><ul><li>Causes eyestrain </li></ul><ul><li>Distracts from speaker </li></ul>
  12. 12. Red/Blue Conflict Red letters on blue background creates “flicker effect” Blue letters on red background just as bad
  13. 13. Color Wheel <ul><li>Primary colors (outside) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary colors (inside – combine adjacent primary colors) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Readability <ul><li>Make sure people in the back can read it! </li></ul><ul><li>High contrast between text and background </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful with busy backgrounds </li></ul>This is good This is not good This is good This is not good
  15. 15. Choose Color Carefully Similar intensities draw attention but make details hard to see. Strong, clean contrast draws attention, makes details easy to see
  16. 16. Low Contrast White on yellow Yellow on white Black on blue Blue on black
  17. 17. Make It Clear (Colours) <ul><li>Use contrasting colours </li></ul><ul><li>Light on dark vs dark on light </li></ul><ul><li>Use complementary colours </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fonts can express a mood <ul><li>Comic sans is a gentle font </li></ul><ul><li>BettysHand is very relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Diner makes you think of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>Tinkertoy is a good elementary font </li></ul><ul><li>Schools often use the Kids font </li></ul><ul><li>Century Schoolbook is a formal font </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let the font become distracting! </li></ul>
  19. 19. Project a Clear Font <ul><li>easy to read in printed documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Times New Roman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And Verdana </li></ul></ul>Serif <ul><li>easy to see projected across the room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helvetica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geneva </li></ul></ul>Sans serif
  20. 20. <ul><li>Sanserif Z </li></ul><ul><li>Serif Z </li></ul>Make It Clear (Fonts) busy clear
  21. 21. Use sans serif fonts. <ul><li>Sans serif: Arial, 24-pt </li></ul>Involvement The importance of a topic to the speaker. Serif: Bookman, 24-pt Involvement The importance of a topic to the speaker.
  22. 22. Information about fonts <ul><li>Type can express moods and emotions as well as images can </li></ul><ul><li>Type can be serious and business-like </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let the typeface contradict your message </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 3 fonts in no more than 4 sizes during a presentation </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Serif fonts are difficult to read on screen </li></ul><ul><li>Sanserif fonts are clearer </li></ul><ul><li>Italics are difficult to read on screen </li></ul><ul><li>Normal or bold fonts are clearer </li></ul><ul><li>Underlines may signify hyperlinks </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, use colours to emphasise </li></ul>Make It Clear (Fonts)
  24. 24. Make It Clear (Capitalisation) <ul><li>ALL CAPITAL LETTERS ARE DIFFICULT TO READ </li></ul><ul><li>Upper and lower case letters are easier </li></ul>
  25. 25. HOW ABOUT CAPITAL LETTERS ? <ul><li>Make limited use of all capital letters </li></ul><ul><li>Our eyes need to capture the shapes of the letters above and below the line </li></ul><ul><li>Words in all capital letters have nearly the same visual shape </li></ul><ul><li>What does this say…. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Make It Big
  27. 27. Make it Big (Text) <ul><li>This is Arial 12 </li></ul><ul><li>This is Arial 18 </li></ul><ul><li>This is Arial 24 </li></ul><ul><li>This is Arial 32 </li></ul><ul><li>This is Arial 36 </li></ul><ul><li>This is Arial 44 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Make It Big (How to Estimate) <ul><li>Look at it from 2 metres away </li></ul>2 m
  29. 29. Make It Clear (Numbers) <ul><li>Use numbers for lists with sequence </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>How to put an elephant into a fridge? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Open the door of the fridge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Put the elephant in </li></ul><ul><li>3. Close the door </li></ul>
  30. 30. Make It Clear (Numbers) <ul><li>How to put a giraffe into a fridge? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Open the door of the fridge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Take out the elephant </li></ul><ul><li>3. Put the giraffe in </li></ul><ul><li>4. Close the door </li></ul>
  31. 31. Make It Clear (Bullets) <ul><li>Use bullets to show a list without </li></ul><ul><li>Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy, ….. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Typical Eye Movement <ul><li>Upper left </li></ul><ul><li>Upper right </li></ul><ul><li>Lower left </li></ul><ul><li>Lower right </li></ul>Z
  33. 33. Eye Flow The eye flows from top left to bottom right and spends 60% of time on the top half of leaflet 15% 25% 25% 35% of time spent reading this area The eye flows from top left to bottom right and spends 60% of time on the top half of leaflet
  34. 35. Complicated Derivation
  35. 36. Good Illustration Complicated Derivation Number of processors Memory needed per processor Memory Size Scales poorly Scales well
  36. 37. Mixing Important/ Unimportant Words <ul><li>The isoefficiency and the scalability metrics of a parallel algorithm are crucial </li></ul><ul><li>The typical parallel computers of the future will have thousands of CPUs and terabytes of RAM </li></ul>
  37. 38. Important Words Only <ul><li>Crucial metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isoefficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of CPUs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabytes of RAM </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Unbalanced Lists <ul><li>Speedup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel computations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel overhead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul>
  39. 40. Balanced Lists <ul><li>Speedup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expresses time reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential time, parallel time, overhead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expresses processor utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup, number of processors </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Grammatical Parallelism <ul><li>Not Parallel: </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria to Assess Alarm System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How easily the alarm could be installed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel: </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria to Assess Alarm System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of installation </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Use Parallelism <ul><li>Not Parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse cells in buffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 minute centrifuging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supernatant is removed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyse cells in buffer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrifuge for 5 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove supernatant </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. “ Fly In” Fails <ul><li>Could you read this? </li></ul><ul><li>How about this one? </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe the third time is the charm! </li></ul>
  43. 44. “ Wipe from Left” Works <ul><li>Less distracting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces eye movement </li></ul><ul><li>Increases readability </li></ul>
  44. 45. Displaying Visuals
  45. 46. GRAPHICS Standard Personalized
  46. 47. GRAPHICS Tired and overworked clipart Fresh and memorable photo
  47. 48. Displaying Visuals <ul><li>Select visuals purposefully </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What visuals illustrate a point? Make a claim? Help to prove an argument? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Design easy-to-read visuals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are the visuals easy to read by all members of your audience? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Displaying Visuals <ul><li>Insert needed visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Use color </li></ul><ul><li>Resize appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Draw attention </li></ul>That was purely gratuitous!
  49. 50. Animating: Tips <ul><li>Custom animation allows you to animate text, visuals, or line work </li></ul><ul><li>Custom animation should be used purposefully (and sparingly!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animating should help audience comprehend your message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t animate solely for aesthetic purposes </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Supplement presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and clear </li></ul><ul><li>Outline of main points </li></ul><ul><li>Serve audience’s needs not of speaker’s </li></ul>Visual Aids Should…
  51. 52. Theme Tone Support Visuals Story Data Closing Presentation Flow Point Point Point Point Point
  52. 53. A. Key point B. Key assertions C. Sub - assertions D. Evidence The Point Assertion 2 A Pyramid Structure Assertion 1 The Point Assertion 2 Assertion 1
  53. 54. Pyramid Principle” requires you to begin with the insight or conclusion and then follow up with the support <ul><ul><li>Mint candy consumption is expected to grow rapidly over the next five years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current capacity will reach maximum next year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May want to add capacity meet demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We should consider adding capacity to meet growing demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mint candy market is expected to grow rapidly over the next five years (CAGR 30%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Our capacity will reach maximum next year </li></ul></ul></ul>Reverse your logic flow
  54. 55. Subliminal Messages <ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul>
  55. 56. Message: Decline
  56. 57. Message: Improvement
  57. 58. Message: Bad Event
  58. 59. Message: Good Event
  59. 60. Here are some of the things many listeners want from a talk:
  60. 61. Change in Thinking Higher level of understanding Change in Performance Change in Behavior Learning

Notes de l'éditeur

  • There are two ways to present information in PowerPoint: through text and through content. Here, “content” means anything other than text, such as graphics, tables, charts audio clips, and video clips. In this presentation, we will only deal with graphics, tables, and charts. Click Mouse In PowerPoint, text is meant to facilitate a presentation rather than reproducing it onscreen. You can tell this by the fact that the default format for text is bulleted lists. Bulleted lists are used for main points, rather than complete sentences. The text is meant to supplement the oral presentation, to give key terms and outline important concepts. Click Mouse Images are also meant to facilitate the presentation. Sometimes images are included because they help to illustrate or to explain a main point. But sometimes they are just used to ass visual interest. In either case, they should complement the presentation. Each image should fit the theme of the presentation and be directly relevant to whatever text it is placed beside. Click Mouse Tables an graphs are intended to support the presentation. Their purpose is to further the point that the presenter is making in the presentation by presenting information in a way that is visually appealing and easily understandable.
  • Design templates are pre-prepared designs that include pre-set backgrounds and text styles and sizes. The advantages of using design templates is that it saves time and effort because it does half the work for you. The disadvantages are that they are easily recognizable (so your audience will know you had half the work done for you) and that they are not customized to the context of your presentation. If you decide to use a template, you need to make an informed decision about which one is appropriate to your purpose, your audience, the way you want to present yourself, and the text and content you will use. For example, Click Mouse Some templates have specific themes that are suggested through background graphics, such as the fireworks in this example. If the theme of the template doesn’t fit the information in the presentation, don’t use it. The template we see here would work well for a presentation of plans for your company’s 4 th of July picnic, but it doesn’t fit the topic of how to write a scannable resume. Click Mouse Another thing to consider is what kind of content you are using. Some designs, like the one you see here, have large background graphics. If the content you are using in your presentation includes images, the graphics in templates like this would be distracting. In the example to the right, the slide includes only text, so the background graphic adds some visual interest; however, if the slide had also included and example page from a scannable resume, the background graphics would have been distracting. Click Mouse When you want to present a professional image, it’s best to use streamlined templates with minimal background graphics. The example to the right is the template that was actually used by the Lab’s Business Writing Consultants for their workshop on writing a scannable resume. They chose the design because of its simple, yet interesting design and the clean, professional lines of its background graphics.