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Guiding Questions Why did they go exploring? How did they explore? What did they explore? Where did they explore? How did the Crusades and Renaissance encourage exploration? How does exploration affect us today? Who benefits from modern-day exploration?
Marco PoloA Venetian merchant who traveled with his father and uncleto China in 1271.There, he met with Kublai Khan who employed Marco totravel the province and make reports. After many years, the three men return to Venice, but arenot recognized by their family.Marco Polo is captured during a Venetian – Genoese battleand put into prison where he meets a writer who records hisamazing adventures.
Why did they go? Spices: nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, pepper Goods: silk and gold Land to claim for crown Religious converts To bypass Venetian and Muslim trade monopoly and high pricesGod, Glory, and Gold!!
Portugal & Prince Henry the Navigatorultimate goal—find awater route around Africato India
Explorers from Portugal and Spain As a result of their location facing the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal and Spain were well suited to kicking off the Age of Exploration. The Portuguese Navigation Court•Portugal was first country to • Early 1400s, Henry established launch large-scale voyages of court to which he brought sailors, exploration mapmakers, astronomers, others•Begun largely due to efforts of • Expeditions sent west to islands Prince Henry, son of King John I of in Atlantic, south to explore Portugal western coast of Africa•Often called Henry the Navigator, • Portuguese settled Azores, not himself explorer Madeira Islands, learned more•Patron, supporter of those who about Africa’s coast wished to explore
Ready, Set…Advances in Technology• Whatever reasons for exploring, Europeans could not have made voyages of discovery without certain key advances in technology• Some advances made in Europe during Renaissance• Others borrowed from people with whom Europeans had contact, especially Chinese, MuslimsNavigation• Sailors needed precise means to calculate location• Compass brought to Europe from China, let know sailors know which direction was north at any time• Europeans learned to use astrolabe from Muslims• Navigators could chart location based on sun, stars in relation to horizon
How did they explore?Astrolabe: used todetermine altitude of thesun and position of thestars. Sextant: used to find latitude and longitude Caravel: small sailing ship with 2 or 3 masts and triangular sails
ShipbuildingImprovements• Just as important as advances in navigation were advances in shipbuilding• Europeans learned to build ships that rode lower in water than earlier ships• Deep-draft ships could withstand heavier waves; also had larger cargo holdsCaravels• Caravel, light, fast sailing ship; two features made it highly maneuverable• Steered with rudder at stern, rather than with side oars• Also lateen, triangular, sails; could be turned to catch wind from any directionPopular for Exploratory Voyages• Caravel would also be equipped with weapons, including cannons• Ships could face off against hostile ships at sea• Maneuverability, defensive ability made caravel most popular for exploring
Risks of explorationInaccurate maps!Storms!Diseases like scurvy! (from a lack offresh fruit and veg)Running out of food entirely!Getting lost!
Daily Life of an ExplorerIcky food: salt pork, cheese, fish, ale,and stale biscuitsPossible threat of mutinyCramped conditions!Low pay!Stiff punishments for disobedience!
Christopher Columbus Italian Sailor Columbus’ First Voyage• Spain also eager to seek out new • Columbus reached island in routes to riches of East Caribbean after about two months at• 1492, Spanish rulers agreed to pay for sea voyage by Italian sailor Christopher • Thought he had reached Asian Columbus islands known as Indies; called• Columbus believed he could sail west people living there Indians from Spain, reach China • 1493, returned to Spain with exotic• Correct in theory, but figures he items, including parrots, jewels, gold, presented about earth’s size wrong plants unknown in Europe• Also had no idea the Americas lay • Spanish believed Columbus found across Atlantic new route to Asia, hailed him as hero
Results of VoyagesColumbus—three more voyages to Americas Still believed he had reached Asia Error not realized until about 1502 Explorer Amerigo Vespucci sailed coast of South America, concluded it was not Asia Mapmakers later named land America in his honor Knowing they had found new land, Spanish set out to explore it
Vasco Nunez de Balboa Marched through Panama to the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand MagellanAfter Balboa’s discovery, the Spanish realized they needed to cross another ocean to reach Asia. West Around World Perilous Voyage• What Spanish did not know was • Journey long, difficult; some men how large ocean might be mutinied, rebelled• Daring adventurer, Ferdinand • Magellan killed in fight with Magellan decided to sail west Philippine natives; his men sailed on around world • 1522, 18 survivors of original fleet• 1519, Magellan set out from Spain arrived back in Spain, first to with five ships, 250 men circumnavigate world
Treaty of TordesillasSpain and Portugal competing for newterritoryPope tries to keep the peace between thetwo by dividing up the new territory usinglongitudeSpain focuses all it’s efforts in the NewWorld, west of the treaty linePortugal sends most of it’s fleet to Asia
Portuguese Battles!European ships battle the local peoples as well aseach other!Portugal extends control over the Asian territories.They defeat the Muslim traders because they addedcannons to their ships!Portuguese build an important trading fort anHormuz which blocks the Muslim traders!They win the city of Malacca (Malaysia) giving themcontrol of the Spice Islands!
Portugal Crushes the Muslim-Italian TradeAlfonso de Albuquerque, a Portuguese sea-captain prepshis crew for attack by saying, “If we deprive them (Muslims) of this their ancient market there, there does not remain for them a single port in the whole of these parts, where they can carry on their trade in these things…I hold it as very certain that if we take this trade of Malacca away out of their hands, Cairo and Mecca are entirely ruined, and to Venice will no spiceries…be…conveyed except that which her merchants go and buy in Portugal!”
The English The English Sir Francis Drake• 1497, first major English voyage of • English soon realized they had discovery launched reached an unknown land, not Asia• John Cabot sailed to Atlantic coast of • Queen sent Sir Francis Drake out what is now Canada • After stop in what is now California,• Tried to repeat voyage; fleet Drake sailed north to seek route vanished, presumably sunk around North AmericaThe weather was too cold, and he ended up heading west around the world to get back to England. He became the second man to circumnavigate the globe.
The English and Henry Hudson• England wanted to find shorter route to Asia than Magellan found• England sent Dutch-born sailor Henry Hudson• 1607, Hudson set out to north• Hoped to find Northeast Passage around Europe• Found nothing but ice, returned to England• Later made two more voyages for English, one for Dutch The French The Dutch• Also wanted to find passage to Asia • By 1600s Netherlands powerful• Sent explorers to look for Northwest trading nation, hoped to find new Passage products, trading partners• 1534, Jacques Cartier sailed past • 1609, Henry Hudson set out to find Newfoundland into St. Lawrence Northwest Passage River, claimed land as province of • Did not find passage, but did explore New France, now Canada river now named for him
Explorers and their RoutesChapter 16, section 1, pages 472-473
Scramble!Noticing how rich the Portuguese and Spanish aregetting, the other European countries now beginin earnest to grab up the new territories andestablish trading forts!Each country begins building more ships.The Dutch, English, and French establish their ownEast India Companies.These companies the power to mint money, makepeace treaties, and even raise their own armies!
Dutch Battles!Since Portugal has now become the clear leader inAsia, the other countries attack their ships ortrading posts.The Dutch and English fleets attack the Portuguese.The Dutch now have the largest fleet of ships in theworld.The Dutch make their home base on Java Island andbegin to put pressure on the Portuguese.They take the port of Malacca and the valuableSpice Islands from the Portuguese.
The EnglishAs the Dutch expand in the Asianarea, the English focus onexpanding trade in India.The English developed a successfultrade of Indian cloth in Europe.
EffectsForeign influence is mostly in the portcities.Native culture inland is mostlyunaffected.Globalization begins…