release after replication protect dna from nuclease degradation keep two strand separate  activity of helicase 3. single strand binding protein (ssbp) unwind the supercoil 2. gyrase (topoisomerases) to separate the strand 1. dna helicases at the 3’ carbon of deoxyribose a free hydroxyl group (-oh) the phosphate group attached to the 5’ carbon of d attached to the 1’ carbon of deoxyribose consists of the nitrogenous base the nucleotide structure vit d3 also stresses & lack of exercise high alkalinity excessive fat dietary fiber phosphorous oxalic acid calcium-phosphorus imbalance absorption decreased by: vitamin d deficiency nerve transmission secretory process release of hormones activation of enzymes blood coagulation muscle contraction calcium normal buffer base level phosphate buffer systems and plasma protein hemoglobin comprising the bicarbonate blood’s total buffer capacity represents the actual base excess is the concentration of titrata aseptic meningitis. bacterial meningitis is also significantly higher in lactate ld activity lactate dehydrogenase: brudunski’s sign kernig’s sign photophobia meningism headache parasites pyrexia fungi virus it may be caused by bacteria it is meningoencephalitis infection spread to brain parenchyma leptomeninges (aracnoid-piamater) if inflammation of involving mainly the infectious disease * local atopic allergies anaphylactic shock * systemic life threatening * soluble molecules cause the manifestation of dis soluble molecules (mediators) an antigen (allergen) leading to release of soluble molecules (ig e) an antigen reacts with cell fixed antibody * type iv is cell mediated ii and iii are antibody mediated * types i type iv type iii type ii type i * there are four types of hypersensitivity reactio * an immune response results in exaggerated reacti or allergy hypersensitivity 16 cell stage – app 96 hrs after fertilization 12 cell stage – app 72 hrs after fertilization 4 cell stage – app 40-50 hrs after fertilization 2 cell stage – app 30 hrs after fertilization. appearance of bilaminar & trilaminar germ disc blastocyst & its implantation. differentiation of formation of morula germinal period – 1st – 3rd week cleavage major cause of thrombosis and 3.hemorrhage. . vasculitis 2.embolism (3) vascular rupture. cerebrovascular diseases in (2) embolic occlusion of vessels blood vessels. the three basic processes are thr involving pathologic process denotes any abnormality of the brain caused by a cerebrovascular disease mosquito colchicine plasmodium benign tertian malaria 48 hrs benign quartan malaria : 72 hours p.ovale malignant tertiary malaria:36-48hrs p.malariae benign tertiary malaria : 48hrs p.falciparum p.vivax toxins hyperthermia by ionizing radiation sublethal damage to the cells hepatitis) natural killer cells or cytotoxic t lymphocytes). immune system action (e.g. tumor necrosis factor) direct action of cytokines (e.g. loss of growth factors. cell injury that damage dna cell injury description apoptosis detection uses epitopes adjuvent haptens chemical nature of antigen super antigen antigenicity immunogen antibody 1. definition. bioavailability renal clearance mechanism of drug route netabolism biotransformation adsorption drugs pharmacology thyroid pituitary gland biological rhythm hormone corticosteroids thyroid hormone growth hormone
Tout plus