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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356218184
Presented by
Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-latif Megahed
Family and community health
nursing, Egypt
Learning Objectives:
At the end of this lecture each student will be
able to:-
1. Define counseling.
2. Identify importanc...
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  1. 1. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356218184 counseling Presentation · November 2021 CITATIONS 0 READS 84 1 author: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: Guar gum & Iron deficiency anemia among the patients with inflammatory bowel disease View project Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-Latif Megahed Suez Canal University 30 PUBLICATIONS 7 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-Latif Megahed on 15 November 2021. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
  2. 2. Presented by Fatma Ibrahim Abdel-latif Megahed Family and community health nursing, Egypt
  3. 3. Learning Objectives: At the end of this lecture each student will be able to:- 1. Define counseling. 2. Identify importanceof counseling. 3. Identify types of counseling. 4. Identify elements of counseling. 5. Identify principles of counseling. 6. List skills used in counseling.
  4. 4. Cont. 7. Identify counseling about informed consent. 8. List characters of counselor. 9. Identify role of the counselor. 10. Discuss Steps of counseling (technique of counseling). 11. Identify application of counseling. 12. Identify problems in counseling.
  5. 5. 1) Introduction:  Counselingdenotes “giving advice” It is a wider procedure concerned with emotion as well as giving information.  The counselor is active and directs the individual in making decisions and finding solutions to the problems.
  6. 6. 2. Definition of counseling:  Isa two way process through which the provider helps the client make informeddecisionsabout their health. it also helps them clarify, define. Discussand understandtheir feelings, make their own decisions,and resolvetheir own problems.  Support process in which a counselorholds face to face talkswith anotherperson to help him or her solvea personal problem, or help improve that person's attitude,behavior, or character.
  7. 7. 3. Importance of counseling:  It helps to establish a trusting relationship.  It helps the patients to exploretheir needs and concerns.  It helps client to make informed choices and decisions.  It supports correctactions.  It helps clients understand what to do and remember in order to maintain their health.
  8. 8. 4. Types of counseling: A. Individual counseling. B. Group counseling.
  9. 9. Cont. A. Individual counseling:  People come in to counseling looking looking for better ways to relate to the world. They usually want to do this on one to one basis with their counselor.  It gives people time to focus on their life and comes up with goals to help themselves & their relationship at home and at work.
  10. 10. Cont. B. Group counseling:  People benefit from talking with others who are going through the same types of experiences. In in it people find that they are not alone. They meet other people who are in different stages of growth but are on the same to emotional wellbeing.  The group as a wholediscuss issues to which all group members can relate and from which they can learn.  Group members supportone another in learning and participating more effectivebehavior.
  11. 11. 5. Elements of counseling: • Caring ----providing care and support for others. • Challenging----- something new difficult that needs a lot of skill and effort to do. • Explorative----- exploreall the possibilities before you make a decision. • Confidential . • Goes from the conscious to unconscious. • Conclusive---- providing that something is true
  12. 12. Elements cont,…….  Empowering---- givesomeone more control over theirown life(information-education).  Supportive-----giving help or encouragement.  Informative-----providingclient with useful facts or idea.  Prescriptive----- saying how somethingshould be done or someoneshould do.
  13. 13. 6. Principles for Good Counseling 1. Treat each client well. whatever their age, marital status, ethnic group, sex. 2. Each client is a different person. Ask questions, listen, and respond to each client's own needs, concerns, and situation. 3. Give the right amount of information enough for the client to make informed choices but not so much that the client is overloaded. 4. Tailor and personalize information. Giveclients the specific information that they need and want, and help clients see what the information means to them.
  14. 14. Cont. 5. Counseling is a continuous process (it cannot be restricted to problem-solvingsituations only but it is continuous to prevent recurrence of the same problem). 6. Counseling is a professional activity. 7. Counseling is alwaysgoal oriented.
  15. 15. 7. Skills used in counseling Active Listening: Active listening happens when you "listen for meaning". The listener says very little but conveys empathy, acceptance. Body Language: Developing encouraging body language can take some practice. Remember that communication is 55% body language, 38% tone and 7% words. Asking Questions: Asking questions - open and closed - is an important tool in the counseling kit. They can help a person open up or close them down.
  16. 16. Skills cont,……… Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing is when you, the listener, restate what the speakersaid - conveying empathy, acceptance • Verbal and non- verbal communication. • Use of simplelanguage. • Encouragement. • Reflecting feelings. • Use visual illustrations.
  17. 17. Skills cont,……. • Summary: • A summary, in counseling, is when you focus on the main points of a presentation or session in order to highlight them. Note Taking: Note taking is the practice of writing down pieces of information, often in a shorthand .
  18. 18.  Each client needs accurate, adequate and clear information about his or her health and any procedure to be performed.  They should be able to make informed decisions about their own health and participate in care plans. 8. Counseling about informed consent
  19. 19. 9. Characters of counselor. 1. Self-awareness/insight 2. Capableof building trusting relationships 3. Flexibilityin response styles. 4. Assessment and hypothesis skills. 5. Observationskills. 6. Abilityto care for self.
  20. 20. 10.Role of the counselor. 1. Orientation. 2. Helping emotionallydisturbed individual using counseling techniques. 3. Helping other overcome their financial, health and messing problems. 4. Evaluating and doing the follow -up work.
  21. 21. Cont. 5. Gaining cooperation from parents and other personnel of the counseling process. 6. Maintaining up-to-date records of individuals concerning counseling. 7. Arranging for referral service for those who need them.
  22. 22. 11.Steps of counseling In good counseling, providers and their clients often go through a series of connected and overlapping steps. These steps can be remembered by the letters in the word GATHER. g: greeting providing friendly, respectful greeting makes the client feel welcome. All clients deserve understanding, respect, and honesty from everyonethey meet.
  23. 23. How to make clients feel welcome?  Makesure each client is greeted in a friendly, respectful way as soon as she or he comes in.  Try to have places for clients to sit while they wait.  Make the waiting area cheerful and interesting. For example,you can find or make posters that give useful health information.  Have brochures and pamphlets for clients to look at.
  24. 24. CONT,……  If a client will be examined or undergo a procedure, explainwhat will happen clearlyand with reassurance.  Be sure everyclient has privacy from being seen or heard byothers during counseling and during any physical examination or procedure.  Tell clients that information about them and what they say will not be repeated to others (confidentiality).  Reassure and comfort clients if needed.
  25. 25. A: ASKING� Why and How to Ask Questions? Why ask questions? • To learn why the client has come. • To help the client express needs and wants. • To help the client express feelingsand attitudes, and so to learn how the client feels.
  26. 26. Cont,………  To learn about behaviorand situations that could affect the clients health and health choices.  You may need to ask all clients certain questions for your records. But the most important questions bring out what clients really want and how they feel. The best questions lead to answers that suggest more questions like conversation between friends. No list of standard questions suits all clients
  27. 27. How can you question effectively?  Use a tone of voice that shows interest, concern,and friendliness.  Use wordsthat clientsunderstand.  Ask only one questionat a time. Wait withinterestforthe answer.  Ask questionsthat encourageclientstoexpresstheirneeds. Examples are: How would you feel if you became pregnantsoon? How doyou think your spouse feelsabout family planning?  Use wordssuch as thenand oh These wordsencourageclientsto keep talking.  Avoid starting questionswithwhy?.  Ask the same questionin otherways if theclient has not understood.
  28. 28. T :TELLING The provider tells the client information that helps the client reach a decision and make an informed choice. To make wise choices, clients need useful, understandable information. To help with understanding, you can make information both tailored and personalized. Tailored information is information that helps the client make a specific decision. you can learn what decisions the client is facing. Then, in the Tell step, you can give specific information that helps the client make those decisions. You can skip information that makes no difference to the client. Personalized information Personalizing information helps the client understand what the information means to her or him personally.
  29. 29. Tips To Help Clients Remember  Keep it short. Choose the few most important points that the client must remember.  Keep it simple. Use short sentences and common words that clients understand.  Keep it separate. Keep important instructions separate from information that does not need to be remembered.  Point out what to remember. For example,These 3 points are important to remember .Then list the 3 points.  Put first things first. Givethe most important information first. It will be remembered best.
  30. 30. Cont,……. Organize. Put information in categories. For example: There are 4 medical reasons to come back to the clinic. Show as well as speak. Sample contraceptives, flip charts, wall charts, and other pictures reinforce the spoken word. Be specific. For example, check the IUD strings regularly is not clear and not easy to follow. Make links. Help clients find a routine event that reminds them to act for example, When you first eat something each day, think about taking your pill at that time. Check understanding. Ask clients to repeat important instructions. This helps them remember. Also, you can gently correct any errors. Send it home. Give the client simple print materials to take home. Review this material with the client first.
  31. 31. H:HELP  Help ClientsChoose  Offer adviceas a health expert, but avoid making the clients decisions for them.  To help clients choose, ask them to think about their plans and familysituations.  Help clients think about the results of each possible choice.  Ask if the client wants anything made clearer.  Check whether the client has made a cleardecision. Specificallyask, What have you decided to do? Wait for the client to answer. 
  32. 32. E-Explain  Explain What to Do?  After the client has made a choice:  Give supplies,if appropriate.  Explain how to use the method or follow other instructions. As much as possible.  Describe possibleside effects and what to do if they occur.
  33. 33. Cont,……..  Explain when to come back for routine follow-upor more supplies, if needed.  Explain any medical reasons to return.  Tell clients to come backwhenever they wish, or if side effects bother them, or if there are medical reasons to return.
  34. 34. R- Return  Care for ContinuingClients  All returning clients deserveattention, whatever their reason for returning. Returning clients deserve just as much attention as new clients.  Here are 2 general rules for counseling returning clients:
  35. 35. 12. Application of counseling: A. Find out what the client wants. B. Respond to what the client wants.
  36. 36. A. Find out what the client wants. To find out what the client wants, you can ask:  How can we help you today? What would you like to discuss?  What has been your experience with your family planning method (or other care)? Satisfied? Any problems?  Any new health problems since your last visit?
  37. 37. B. Respond to what the client wants.  If the client has problems, help resolve them. This can include offering a new method or referring the client elsewhere.  If the client has questions, answer them.  If the client needs more supplies, provide them generously.  If appropriate, check whether the client is using the method correctly, and offer advice if not.
  38. 38. 13.Problems in counseling 1. Resistance to counseling. 2. Counseling individuals of different cultures. 3. Counseling individuals with strong emotions. 4. Lack of awareness of value of counseling by the public. 5. Lack of physical facilities, non-availability of time and tools, training facilities for counselors. 6. Inadequate administrative set up.
  39. 39. Thank you View publication stats