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Market Research on Russian cities _ MLA+

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These days Russia is a difficult market, but it still is a market and - in terms of population size - it is by far and large the biggest market in Europe.

Over the last 2 years MLA+ has been conducting market research in Russia to identify opportunities and potential places for Dutch urban and architectural design expertise to excel. The focus of the research did lie on places with potential outside Moscow and St. Petersburg Regions. Combining hard data, soft data and expert opinions, 12 cities have been shortlisted as potential markets. To increase usability, the report not only introduces these places and but also identifies projects in the making and projects and challenges these cities are facing in the coming years and that with a high likelihood will require design expertise.

The result of the work that was conducted with the support of the Dutch Creative Industries Fund has been published in a 400 page report .

Publié dans : Données & analyses
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Market Research on Russian cities _ MLA+

  1. 1. MARKET RESEARCH RUSSIA Potential for Designers outside Moscow and St. Petersburg
  2. 2. 2 M2R
  3. 3. Introduction Executive Summary 0 PROLOGUE: RUSSIAN CONTEXT Russian urban context Russian market context I CHAPTER: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research method Research focus Identifying local demand Goal Cities selection process II CHAPTER: IDENTIFYING CITIES Hard data Soft data Evaluation III CHAPTER: CITY PROFILES Data for profiles Kaliningrad Krasnodar Voronezh Rostov-on-don Sochi Nizhniy Novgorod Kazan Ufa Yekaterinburg Novosibirsk Irkutsk Vladivostok IV EPILOGUE: ADVICES FOR DUTCH PLANNERS Getting in Bonus list 8 20 32 74 348 4 CONTENTS M2RU 3
  4. 4. Why a market research? And why Russia? A country that has been embargoed by a large part of the western world. The answer is not simple and it is a mix of more general considerations and professional ones. First Russia is a big country and therefore a big market. It has by far the largest territory that houses 142 million people, the world’s 9th largest population. According to the World Bank, its economy is the 10th largest and has been growing significantly in the last 2 decades. Despite the sheer size, the population is largely concentrated west of the Ural Mountains and with an urbanization rate of around 75% - comparable to that of Germany – largely concentrated in a relatively small number of larger cities. Therefore the architecture and urban development market – despite the size of the country - is rather focused. This allows achieving a high degree of market penetration with limited resources. The settlement patterns of all Russian cities with the exception of Moscow and St. Petersburg were quite similar. This means that everywhere problems are big. Transport breakdowns, dilapidated housing stock, shortcomings of the socialist urban development model, deindustrialization, suburbanization – all these phenomena can be observed everywhere and all over the country – all on the background of a country in transition from the socialist regime to a new, yet not fully defined model. It therefore is the scale of the challenge its complexities that make Russia interesting to architects and urban planners equally. For the market research we have been employing a non-traditional approach since we felt that – while data evaluation can give a rough overview - many trends and promising leads happen underneath the radar. We therefore combined several methods to form our own approach. We hope that this market research delivers the interested reader valuable insights into Russian architecture and urban development markets. We hope it helps you as much as it did help us in defining our own strategy in how to operate in Russia. Enjoy reading! The research team of MLA+ INTRODUCTION M2RU 5
  5. 5. Urban Planning and Architecture as a market only form a critical mass that is interesting for foreign firms in a relatively small number of cities. Most of them are located west of the Ural Mountains and therefore are relatively easy to reach. Next to Moscow and St. Petersburg, the so called Millionniki – the cities that in Soviet Times had more than 1 million inhabitants - are probably the most obvious places. But they differ in terms of development, social, economic and political situation and therefore a closer look is necessary. In addition to these places a number of smaller cities have managed to put themselves on the map of places that have potential. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6 M2R
  6. 6. Potentially interesting places for Dutch architects and urban planners have been identified as cities where key skills of Dutch experts can play an important role: – Strategic planning: Development of framework masterplans that set out development directions – Waterfront development: water scape regeneration and (re-)connection of urban areas to water bodies – Inner city regeneration: Revitalising and repairing existing city cores – Residential design: design of mass market, especially mid market housing in larger complexes – Sustainable urban mobility: resolution of transport related problems – Complex development: Creation of mix use complexes introducing centralities in strategic locations – Redevelopment: reprogramming and rescue of urban brownfield – Project management: design, delivery & quality management processes To identify the most interesting places, the market research that has been carried out adopts dual approach. On one hand statistical data, rankings and other hard data were evaluated. A second, alternative approach captures the soft factors, the experience of knowledgeable professionals and of local residents and the image conveyed by a place. These two research tracks have been combined to give a more complete picture and to identify places in a more complete way than each of the methods separately would have been able to achieve. The cities listed as the top 12 most interesting and promising places outside Moscow and St. Petersburg are – Irkutsk – Kaliningrad – Kazan – Krasnodar – Nizhny Novgorod – Novosibirsk – Rostov on Don – Sochi – Ufa – Vladivostok – Voronezh – Yekaterinburg This selection of cities offers a wide range of challenges and numerous opportunities for Dutch expertise to excel. For these 12 cities we have taken the market research to a next level. Not only are the cities introduced in detail, but also key challenges, projects currently under way and the next big things have been identified in intense talks with local stakeholders, politicians and professionals. To add practical usability, the market research also provides names and contacts of key figures in the city, so that any Dutch architect and urban planner interested in a place or a problem can immediately tap into networks on different levels – political, economic and societal. While this allows direct access to people, the research also makes recommendations how Dutch experts themselves can appear on the Russian market and what – from our own and others experience – the best way into it can be. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY M2RU 7
  7. 7. 0. PROLOGUE
  8. 8. prologue 10 M2R
  9. 9. Russia had a very limited number of cities in the beginning of XX century and small urban population. 2/3 of all cities in Russia were built in the Soviet era: According to the first Russian census of 1897 the country had 430 cities, in 1997 there were 1087 cities. During Soviet times the urban population grew ten fold - from 15,5 million people in 1917 to 109,8 million people in 1991 [Pivovarov, 2006]. Most of the urban fabric in the country was built after World War II following the modernist paradigms of light, air and sun and mass production. To accommodate the new urbanites and to achieve a more balanced settlement pattern across the country, cities were developed fast, using prefabrication and identical development models. This also meant a big part of the population in cities had rural origins and often kept living its rural life in the new environments, leading to an hybrid culture that neither was entirely urban nor entirely rural anymore. Preserving some of the rural skills also proved useful, especially in times of scarce food supply. As a consequence, today we are dealing with cities that often do not have a historical core but vast industrial areas frequently under utilized and awaiting a new purpose and a culture that - while in the meantime more urban - still has traces of a rural past. During the Soviet Union and following socialist ideology, creating living environments for workers was the main purpose of urban development. The notion of quality of life did not play a major role and only starts to emerge slowly as a guiding principle of urban development. Therefore, there is a huge need for redevelopment and quality improvements. Russian urbanites in 1959 (visit of Christian Dior to Moscow, note that most of women are wearing head- scarves, which marks their rural background) image source: http://www.go2life.net/people/161-30-unikalnyh-foto-1959-goda-kris- tian-dior-v-moskve.html WHAT IS URBAN CULTURE IN RUSSIA? RUSSIAN URBAN CONTEXT M2RU 11
  10. 10. prologue THE RUSSIAN CITY TODAY Russian cities today are a mix of cutting edge technology and development and outdated and delapidated housing, industry and infrastructure. This creates conditions that in their overlay are unique and highly challenging. At the same time, the omnipresence of singular development models in the whole country over long periods also creates few prototypical city structures. Therefore any solution developed not only applies to a singular context as often is the case in western european cities but to many cases. A single solution therefore cannot only improve life of a few but immediately can have a big impact on thousands of people all across Russia. Saratov city residential district Image source: http://vk.com/yebenya?z=photo-69563163_393150752% 2Falbum-69563163_00%2Frev 12 M2R
  11. 11. RUSSIAN URBAN CONTEXT Outside Russia the impression persists that Russian cities have barely changed since the end of the Soviet Union. That impression is fed by the – often highly elaborated - photo safaris undertaken by photographers in search for the post socialist decay. Indeed run down city quarters, abandoned industrial plants, former research centre s, schools, parks and holiday resorts can be found all over the Russian Federation. They are silent witnesses of an era long gone and they are both, challenge and opportunity equally. While these monuments of the past still form a large part of most Russian cities, other parts show a very different picture: Well maintained city centre s, lively urban streets, pedestrian zones, vivid inner city neighbourhoods and post- reuse of old factories. In all larger cities these zones have seen significant improvements and especially in recent years a focus has shifted from refurbishing or replacing buildings to uplifting the urban environment as a whole, therefore including streets and local public spaces. A third element of the past that is not always in a good condition but also lively: The Microrayons – the residential micro districts that have been developing since the 1960’s at the periphery. While from the outside they resemble western modernist large scale housing estates from the 1960’s to 1980’s they are often mistaken by foreigners as problem zones of the same order as the socially deprived counterparts in the west. That does not comply with the social and economic condition they are in. Microrayons in Russia largely house the middle class and therefore are more stable and suffer less from vandalism, crime and social deprivation. Since 1990 Russian cities literally have been exploding in size. Like in the west, with increasing car ownership and cheap fuel suburbanisation has taken place everywhere. But while in Europe and the US this model usually is associated with seas of single family houses close to motorway entries, in Russia the result is more varied. The Russian Datcha (a second summer home in the countryside) as a model has been adapted to serve as the out of town single family house; usually hidden behind high fences. These suburban datchas are located in dense clusters with little infrastructure, resembling allotment garden settlements in many western cities. The complete opposite can also be found: New types of Micro districts with highrise buildings around public spaces. While the model has not changed dramatically since soviet times, the quality has improved significantly. Not only do the buildings offer more variety and a more architectural language that is also executed at much higher quality, but also a regime of public, semi-private and private spaces results in increasing quality. Since the end of the Soviet Union the social and economic divide, especially in the bigger cities has been growing. Today an upper class lives a luxury life in lifestyle bubbles within the city while a large part of the population still is relatively poor. In between these groups an urban middle class has been growing but it still is rather small and hit hardest by the many crises Russia has been experiencing since the late 1980’s. Despite these ups and downs this group is the key target group for many development projects in recent years. Their budgets, aspirations and their desired life styles have a big impact on the development models that are being pursued. The different levels of maintenance and newness in Russian cities do lead to a very heterogenic urban fabric with contrasts stronger than common elsewhere. Zones of activity and such that have been abandoned exist immediately side by side, creating a rather impermeable collection of clusters. The fact that a lot of new development is inward looking and tries to seclude itself from the city by means of walls, gates, security only increases this problem. Russian cities therefore depend more on road and public transport infrastructure to move between active parts of the city than is the case elsewhere. The problem: Soviet city development models always treated each development as a secluded entity connected to one arterial transport corridor. With the enormous increase of cars, a system that – unlike a network – does not have much redundancy, a lack of traffic management and long postponed upgrades of transport infrastructure all cities are suffering from severe transport problems causing epic traffic jams. Another problem is to be found in the way Russian society is organized. Ever since tsarist times, the state has been organized in a strictly hierarchical manner with the top leader deciding on most issues – big questions and small details. Today this model is not only common in the public administration but also in the business community and society as a whole. Processes are rather iterative and ad hoc and decision making is not always consistent and based on knowledge but on authority of the leader. This leads delays, contradictions and failures that a more horizontal system probably could avoid. However – it does not mean that there is no corrective. Especially in urban development there are often quite rich debates that include a wide variety of local individuals. In this context the role of the activist has become an important voice, bringing together public opinion and exercising checks and balances. These individuals that have charged themselves with a specific mission are vocal forces pushing for their agendas and often succeed. All these aspects together lead to a quite colorful image of the post-soviet city where many of the big challenges that especially in western cities have been solved are still pending. It is this mix that makes it challenging to work in these places while at the same time booking results brings improvements on a scale and for numbers of people that are hard to match elsewhere. M2RU 13
  12. 12. prologue URBAN STRUCTURE OF RUSSIAN CITIES IN-BETWEEN AREAS HISTORICAL CORE INDUSTRIAL BELT Before the mass housing construction era kicked in the need for housing was enormous, resulting in barracks and self built housing that was informally sprawling around the newly built industrial enterprises. The historical core often features a regular grid pattern, which goes back to XVIIIth century planning enforced by Ekaterina the Great [Gulyanizkiy, 1995]. Within the grid low and mid-rise buildings coexist. XVIII - BEGINNING XX CENTURY END XIX - BEGINNING XX CENTURY UNTIL MID XX CENTURY Accommodated the first wave of industrialization. Large industrial enterprises were established together with development of the railway system, encircling the historical urban cores. Urban pattern has a s often ar grid ack to nforced Great midrise es were with railway storical housing of ation Description Urban pattern ding on ual city , but in cases end I, ning of XX y The typical Russian city has a historical core, which is often represented by a regular grid pattern, which goes back to XVIIIth century planning enforced by Ekaterina the Great [Gulyanizkiy, 1995]. The grid mixes low and midrise buildings. ave of rialization, XIX, ning of XX y Large industrial enterprises were established together with development of the railway system, encircling the historical urban cores. he mid-XX y Before the mass housing construction era kicked in the need for housing was enormous, resulting in barracks and self built housings sprawling around the newly built industrial enterprises. Historical core Depending on individual city history, but in most cases end of XVIII, beginning of XX century The typical Russian city has a historical core, which is often represented by a regular grid pattern, which goes back to XVIIIth century planning enforced by Ekaterina the Great [Gulyanizkiy, 1995]. The grid mixes low and midrise buildings. Industrial belt First wave of industrialization, end of XIX, beginning of XX century Large industrial enterprises were established together with development of the railway system, encircling the historical urban cores. Inbetween areas Until the mid-XX century Before the mass housing construction era kicked in the need for housing was enormous, resulting in barracks and self built housings sprawling around the newly built industrial enterprises. Soviet city 1950s – 1970s The prefabricated panel construction allowed for a high speed development of new areas for the new “mikrorayon” model – urban form typology, combining housing, schools, kindergartens, service and medical facilities inside the plot. 1970s onward The block formation was replaced by more organic and larger spatial entities. 50% of all Soviet Union housing stock was constructed in the “Brezhnev period” (1965-1982) The scale and speed of construction developed at that time is still operational. Postsoviet city (suburban sprawl) 1990s onward With the fall of the Soviet Union, the rising levels of car ownership and an emerging class of wealthy people who could afford villas, development around cities in the green zones became common practice. Growing demand for private house ownership resulted in sprawling suburban settlements. Federal Service for Land Cadastre of Russia states that the area of built-up land in the country grew from 30 to 54 thousand sq. km in 1990-1999. This means that the rate of territorial expansion of the built environment during that decade alone is comparable with that of previous hundreds of years of Russian history. [Golubchikov O., – 1970s The prefabricated panel construction allowed for a high speed development of new areas for the new “mikrorayon” model – urban form typology, combining housing, schools, kindergartens, service and medical facilities inside the plot. onward The block formation was replaced by more organic and larger spatial entities. 50% of all Soviet Union housing stock was constructed in the “Brezhnev period” (1965-1982) The scale and speed of construction developed at that time is still operational. onward With the fall of the Soviet Union, the rising levels of car ownership and an emerging class of wealthy people who could afford villas, development around cities in the green zones became common practice. Growing demand for private house ownership resulted in sprawling suburban settlements. Federal Service for Land Cadastre of Russia states that the area of built-up land in the country grew from 30 to 54 thousand sq. km in 1990-1999. This means that the rate of territorial expansion of the built environment during that decade alone is comparable with that of previous hundreds of years of Russian history. [Golubchikov O., panel a high w areas model – mbining gartens, facilities n was nic and % of all ock was rezhnev eed of at that t Union, wnership wealthy d villas, es in the ommon and for resulted uburban Land tes that d in the to 54 90-1999. rate of he built decade h that of ears of hikov O., 14 M2R
  13. 13. 1950s – 1970s 1970s ONWARD 1990s ONWARD SOVIET CITY 1950 – 1970 SOVIET CITY AFTER 1970 POST SOVIET CITY The prefabricated panel construction allowed for a high speed development of new areas for the new “mikro rayon” model – urban form typology, combining housing, schools, kindergartens, service and medical facilities inside large plots. The block formation was replaced by more organic and larger spatial entities. 50% of all Soviet Union housing stock was constructed in the “Brezhnev period” (1965-1982). With the fall of the Soviet Union, the rising levels of car ownership and an emerging class of wealthy people who could afford villas, development around cities in the green zones started. Growing demand for private house ownership resulted in sprawling suburban settlements. construction allowed for a high speed development of new areas for the new “mikrorayon” model – urban form typology, combining housing, schools, kindergartens, service and medical facilities inside the plot. 1970s onward The block formation was replaced by more organic and larger spatial entities. 50% of all Soviet Union housing stock was constructed in the “Brezhnev period” (1965-1982) The scale and speed of construction developed at that time is still operational. Postsoviet city (suburban sprawl) 1990s onward With the fall of the Soviet Union, the rising levels of car ownership and an emerging class of wealthy people who could afford villas, development around cities in the green zones became common practice. Growing demand for private house ownership resulted in sprawling suburban settlements. Federal Service for Land Cadastre of Russia states that the area of built-up land in the country grew from 30 to 54 thousand sq. km in 1990-1999. This means that the rate of territorial expansion of the built environment during that decade alone is comparable with that of previous hundreds of years of Russian history. [Golubchikov O., 2004] Soviet city 1950s – 1970s The prefabricated panel construction allowed for a high speed development of new areas for the new “mikrorayon” model – urban form typology, combining housing, schools, kindergartens, service and medical facilities inside the plot. 1970s onward The block formation was replaced by more organic and larger spatial entities. 50% of all Soviet Union housing stock was constructed in the “Brezhnev period” (1965-1982) The scale and speed of construction developed at that time is still operational. Postsoviet city (suburban sprawl) 1990s onward With the fall of the Soviet Union, the rising levels of car ownership and an emerging class of wealthy people who could afford villas, development around cities in the green zones became common practice. Growing demand for private house ownership resulted in sprawling suburban settlements. Federal Service for Land Cadastre of Russia states that the area of built-up land in the country grew from 30 to 54 thousand sq. km in 1990-1999. This means that the rate of territorial expansion of the built environment during that decade alone is comparable with that of previous hundreds of years of Russian history. [Golubchikov O., 0s – 1970s The prefabricated panel construction allowed for a high speed development of new areas for the new “mikrorayon” model – urban form typology, combining housing, schools, kindergartens, service and medical facilities inside the plot. 0s onward The block formation was replaced by more organic and larger spatial entities. 50% of all Soviet Union housing stock was constructed in the “Brezhnev period” (1965-1982) The scale and speed of construction developed at that time is still operational. 0s onward With the fall of the Soviet Union, the rising levels of car ownership and an emerging class of wealthy people who could afford villas, development around cities in the green zones became common practice. Growing demand for private house ownership resulted in sprawling suburban settlements. Federal Service for Land Cadastre of Russia states that the area of built-up land in the country grew from 30 to 54 thousand sq. km in 1990-1999. This means that the rate of territorial expansion of the built environment during that decade alone is comparable with that of previous hundreds of years of Russian history. [Golubchikov O., panel a high w areas model – mbining gartens, facilities n was nic and % of all ock was rezhnev eed of at that t Union, wnership wealthy d villas, es in the ommon and for resulted uburban Land tes that d in the to 54 0-1999. rate of he built decade h that of ears of hikov O., RUSSIAN URBAN CONTEXT M2RU 15
  14. 14. prologue SIMILARITIES ...in the architecture market As in the Netherlands the Russian real estate market is dominated by a number of developers that usually do big projects (50.000 to 600.000 m2 GFA). Apart from a number of them that are active all across Russia or the European part of Russia, there are also sizable development companies that operate more locally in every larger city. There is a high degree use of prefabricated materials. However the quality and specs greatly differ and so does the expertise on the construction site then assembling the elements. Often the result is less satisfying than in the Netherlands. Developers tend to realize lifestyle environments around specific topics chosen. ...in the planning market The cities play a strong role in urban planning, via their general plans they define general development directions. However, a lack of professionalism and expertise on the side of the local planning authorities often does not lead to the results envisioned. Private developers engage in urban planning on the level of area development. Often this then is part of the overall branding of an area. There are strong and formalized legal procedures that also involve the public in the form of statutory public consultations, especially for the bigger planning frameworks. DIFFERENCES & SIMILARITIES OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET The Dutch and the Russian market for planning and architecture services have a few things in common but otherwise vary greatly. This does not mean that Dutch expertise is not useful, but it means that it needs to be adjusted to local conditions to serve its purpose successfully. 16 M2R
  15. 15. DIFFERENCES ...in the architecture market The typological variety of buildings is smaller than in the Netherlands and a mix of high and low types barely exists. Instead either projects with very urban typologies (perimeter blocks, highrise) or with suburban to rural types (row houses, single family houses, cottages) are being realized. Especially outside central areas of cities, developers realize entire micro districts, including provision of basic community infrastructure Many developers do not have long standing experience in the market and therefore often lack the experience in decision making within projects The division of the implementation process into a design and construction implementation phase that usually have separate architectural practices to work on often hampers delivery quality. Few quality securing tools from the side of the public sector when developers implement projects. ...in the planning market Planning is very technically driven and focusing on target numbers. Quality objectives are underrepresented in the planning system. the same is true for the scene of professionals. Creative urban designers are the exception, urban planners with economic or geographic background are the norm. There is little continuity in urban planning and urban plans are often used as tools in political fights. Due to their history and a uniform planning regime Russian cities all face more or less similar problems but nevertheless there seems little collaboration between cities in solving them collectively MYTHS There are some myths circulating outside Russia about working as architect and planner here: There is no such thing as self-censorship in informal talks. Business partners from private and public sector do not hide their opinions and usually are well and broadly informed. Particularly in urban planning projects the local population actively participates and states its opinion, often with fierce conviction and against the political establishment. Politics try more and more to accommodate these opinions. There is a big and active scene of activists around urban questions. The usually involve themselves whether or not they are asked and typically are very well informed about latest developments worldwide in their field of expertise. The Russian consumer did not have time to develop an equally refined knowledge about what the housing market could offer. Instead people are still rooted in the Soviet tradition of ‘being given a house’, meaning that many still feel they need to be happy to have something at all. RUSSIAN MARKET CONTEXT Nevertheless, Russia offers interesting opportunities for Dutch expertise and operating in Russia at present often is valued highly by clients. M2RU 17
  16. 16. prologue A DIFFICULT MARKET – BUT STILL A MARKET! Source: http://www.themoscowtimes.com/ upload/iblock/598/5555-20-BUILD- ING-Yevgeny-Razumny-_-Vedo- mosti.jpg Since starting the market research in the end of 2013, the market in Russia, particularly for foreign competitors has drastically changed. The Russian economy has slipped into a veritable crisis, the Russian Ruble has lost almost half of its value and with the conflict in Eastern Ukraine and Crimea a degree of alienation between Western Europe and Russia has taken place. However, any crisis should be seen as a challenge and opportunity equally. 18 M2R
  17. 17. Despite sanctions and an economic slowdown, it is by no means such that the domestic Russian market has collapsed entirely. There are clear signs of crisis but there is also sustained demand, especially in second and third tier cities that are only in the process of catching up with Moscow and St. Petersburg when it comes to providing better urban environments and housing. These markets are much less dependent on foreign investment than the big two and investment here comes largely from the local population that is buying for its own use. But also in the two largest cities some market segments such as housing, urban planning and landscape design still experience sustained demand. The central government - even though short on funds - also seeks to support urban development and the construction market in introducing tools to get citizens on the property ladder. Buyers get discounted loans or loans with less liens. An increasing number of cities and political leaders understands that making their city attractive is of crucial importance in the inner Russian battle for talent but also for international investment. More and more cities use the cycles of renewal of their regional plans, general plans or local plans as well as larger events to introduce a more quality driven way of urban development. With a widespread lack of experience in quality based urban development plans, this opens opportunities for Dutch expertise, especially in collaborating with the big planning institutes that are inherited from Soviet times more recently need to operate as commercially operating firms. With the double crisis around Russia that we are currently experiencing came a series of risks and RUSSIAN MARKET CONTEXT problems that require special attention: – the Russian ruble is highly volatile which is a commercial risk that, especially for long term projects needs to be dealt with. Here contracts in other currencies or exchange rate insurances can be a solution. Depending on clients, this can come at a premium at the expense of ones own profit margins. – even though there is no open disadvantage to foreign practices, there might be a trend to favour Russian expertise over foreign for political reasons. – the current regime of sanctions against and of Russia could make it impossible to perform (some) services for Russian private and particularly public clients – obtaining visa has become an issue, especially with private sector client invitations that are often rejected by Russian consular services. – in case of legal disputes one cannot assume Russian courts will decide independently. Therefore it is advised to agree other mechanisms of conflict resolution, e.g. by private arbitrary courts. All of these issues have measures to mitigate them - either contractually or by means of involving Russian or foreign partners with experience in dealing with these issues but independent of whether they might be an issue or not, they have an impact on the way collaborations and projects need to be set up. M2RU 19
  18. 18. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  19. 19. research methodology Russia often is reduced to Moscow and Saint Petersburg. They are the two administrative, economical and cultural capitals of Russia and naturally are markets that can be of interest to the Dutch planning and architecture disciplines. But these two cities house only about 1/8th of the population of Russia. Russia has another 14 cities larger than Amsterdam of which 10 have more than 1 million inhabitants - a market that is largely unknown to most westerners. These and a number of ‘special’ cities which are interesting out of other reasons. e.g. tourism, ressources or events, form the league the market research focusses on. Meanwhile in the «other Russia» there are many niches for urban specialists to fill. We analysed the most active cities by the level of their economic potential, desire of its citizens for urban environment transformations and accessibility to detect the TOP- 12 elaborated further. CITIES SELECTION PROCESS What are the most interesting places to pitch for work out of an assumed group of about 30 cities? This market analysis aims to answer exactly that question! Population level MOSCOW ST.PETERSBURG City funds level MOSCOW ST.PETERSBURG MOSCOW ST.PETERSBURG Number of universities 22 M2R
  20. 20. CITIES SELECTION PROCESS DATA RESEARCH Hard data + Soft data 4 LOCAL DEMAND FACTORS Economic potential + Desire for change + Accessibility + Urban Quality TOP - 12 «OTHER» RUSSIAN CITIES Economic potential + Desire for change + Accessibility + Urban Quality 8 APPROPRIATE DUTCH COMPETENCES Strategic planning + Residential design + Sustainable mobility + Project management + Complex development + Complex re-development + Waterfront development + Inner city M2RU 23
  21. 21. research methodology RESEARCH METHOD Market research in developing markets such as in Russia cannot be done like market research in a mature economy where processes are formalized, a high degree of market transparency has been achieved and where the data available is more complete and verifiable. Getting to the bottom of market potential requires a different approach that helps these deficits and at the same time is capable of capturing what is emerging without it becoming a random exercise whithout any grounding. Planned structure Statistics Parameters Facts Indicators Raitings HARD DATA + 24 M2R
  22. 22. Citizen life The market analysis model we developed therefore combines the analysis of data available with other forms of evaluation of information available. In a subsequent step these two types of sources of information are weighted against each other, leading to a balanced picture of where opportunities lie. All information gathered and evaluated provided the basis for identifying the most interesting places to work for Dutch design consultancy expertise. In identifying these places we looked for the ‘total’ picture, meaning that what hard data indicated had to be supported by soft information and the other way round. Opinions Special information Personal contacts Private initiatives SOFT DATA + RESEARCH METHOD M2RU 25
  23. 23. research methodology The purpose of the research was an intermediation between russian demand for urban development and dutch supply of professional townplanning skills; and conversely - dutch demand for the newest urbanplanning ideas realization space and russian supply of immature urban territories, ready for transformation. RESEARCH FOCUS In an economy in transition like the Russian one, one may well ask what the market actually is. It has not matured as in Western Europe and therefore the types of products different players offer vary greatly and on the level of decision making in Russia it often is not known what the market has to offer. Instead they usually refer to well known but largely outdated products rooted in the Soviet planning and architecture tradition. Following discussions with clients, government officials and professionals, the types of commissions Dutch architecture and planning professionals excel in the eyes of Russian market parties can be identified as: – Strategic planning: Development of framework masterplans that set out development directions – Waterfront development: water scape regeneration and (re-)connection of urban areas to water bodies – Inner city regeneration: Revitalising and repairing existing city cores – Residential design: design of mass market, especially mid market housing in larger complexes – Sustainable urban mobility: resolution of transport related problems – Complex development: Creation of mix use complexes introducing centralities in strategic locations – Redevelopment: reprogramming and rescue of urban brownfield – Project management: design, delivery & quality management processes Of course, this definition does not include all expertise that can be found within the Dutch planning and architecture sector and it is not meant to be exhaustive, but it leads to a selection of projects or project types where Dutch architects and urbanists stand a fair chance of excelling and competing in the market. In the market research these types of projects played a particularly important role when determining which places and markets are most interesting. What the Dutch can offer 26 M2R
  24. 24. RESIDENTIAL DESIGN WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH FOCUS INNER CITY COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC PLANNING PROJECT MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY COMPLEX (RE) DEVELOPMENT M2RU 27
  25. 25. research methodology IDENTIFYING LOCAL DEMAND A market only emerges when supply and demand meet. Russian cities in the last years of the Soviet Union and the years after have suffered from a great lack of maintenance and replacement of existing infrastructure when outdated. Consequently the theoretical demand is huge and - if ever possible - it will take decades to help these deficits. The practical and real demand however is currently focussed on 4 basic aspects. Economic potential is an exploiting the full economic potential of Russian cities and fostering their economic development. To identify the economic potential of a city, the following aspects have been considered: – Rank in population – Top Universities – City Population – Agglomeration population – GDP per capita in rub – Rank of airport(s) by passenger traffic – Role as a centre – Major events on the horizon Desire for change & activity is a provision of adequate leisure, sports and recreation facilities and housing that reflect the diverse society Russia has become in the last decade compared to the uniformity of the Soviet Union but also the ‘drive’ a city has to change. Measuring these forces, these aspects have been analyzed: – Rank in most developed city – Density of city communities – Average size of city communities – Major events on the horizon – Places with high density of urbancultural events – Interviews – Higher architectural education institutions Accessibility is an increasing and improving accessibility to cities and within metropolitan areas to reduce the omnipresent traffic breakdowns and to allow for reduced travel times between metropolitan regions but also opening local societies to accepting people from elsewhere and actively working with them. Here we have anayised: – Rank in best city for doing business – Top visited cities, foreign tourism – Top visited cities, internal tourism – Rank of airport(s) by passenger traffic – Major events on the horizon – Places with high density of urbancultural events Urban quality is an improvement of the Quality of Life in cities, ranging from reduction of environmental pollution across human scale quarters to a stronger mix of uses. Here we have focused on the perception people have of a place and degrees of historical uniqueness: – Rank in best city for living rating – Rank in most attractive city rating – Rank according to citizens perception – Top visited cities, internal tourism – Top visited cities, foreign tourism – Historical cities 28 M2R
  26. 26. IDENTIFYING LOCAL DEMAND ECONOMIC POTENTIAL DESIRE FOR CHANGE & ACTIVITY ACCESSIBILITY URBAN QUALITY M2RU 29
  27. 27. research methodology GOAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY RESIDENTIAL DESIGN STRATEGIC PLANNING INNER CITY WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX (RE-)DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT The market research as presented in this document therefore is a comprehensive document aiming at helping Dutch urban and architectural design expertise to understand the places and the market but also to serve as a kind of initial matchmaking, bringing together people. While it is titled market research, the purpose of this document is reaching much further. Market research as describing the market in an abstract and generic way is of limited value for the one that wants to enter a market. What is necessary is to have a good understanding of what the place is about, what is going on at the moment and what are big issues and topics on the horizon. This allows positioning oneself in the right way and coming prepared. This not only increases the chance of being considered a viable candidate to advise on a particular problem, it also saves time and investment entering a market necessarily asks for. Urban development in all its aspects is people business. In the hierarchical structure of Russia and its cities, this is even more true than in Western Europe. Therefore it is important to know the people that can help and – if convinced – can become public supporters of both, the Dutch party and what it stands for. The market research gives names that could be the first point of contact when developing a local network. 30 M2R
  28. 28. URBAN QUALITY ACCESSIBILITY DESIRE FOR CHANGE & ACTIVITY ECONOMIC POTENTIAL GOAL MATCH–MAKING M2RU 31
  29. 29. 2A. IDENTIFYING THE CITIES HARD DATA
  30. 30. identifying cities 34 M2R
  31. 31. HARD DATA HARD DATA Hard data is information that has been gathered, assembled and evaluated in a consistent way. Typically hard data uses statistical information gathered by authorities, structured interviews and questionnaires with a high number of respondents. The data we used has either been pre-evaluated by those issuing the summary or we have evaluated the data ourselves. The sets of data utilized were selected in such a way that they allow for conclusions in relation to local demand for design consultancy services and what has been identified as ‘Dutch’ expertise. Next to data that gives an overview of market sizes (population numbers, growth expectations, development level…) the list of data sets used also contains the results of polls (business climate, quality of the urban environment, local happiness…). Among the hard data available for Russian cities there is firstly, a number of factors, wich define current ecomonical state of cities and their position in the country as the whole. Secondly, there was a number of attempts to rate Russian cities. Each rating has different focus and different set of parameters taken into account. Athough these ratings evaluated different factors, different number of cities, had different focus, some cities scored very high in all of the ratings. That was our starting point. Following factors were selected: – city population – agglomeration population – GDP per capita – real estate prices – airport passenger traffic – internal tourism Following ratings were considered: – Integral rating of 100 largest cities (best cities to live in) in Russia – Rating of 164 cities (quality of urban environment) in Russia – 20 most developed cities – Best 30 cities for doing business in Russia – Opinion poll on whether people are happy with their cities M2RU 35
  32. 32. identifying cities Rank in population [1] City population Role as a centre INDICATORS STRUCTURE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL Ratings Statistics Additional facts Rank in best city for living [2] Agglomeration population [2] Major events on the horizon Rank in most attractive city rating [3] GDP per capita in rub. [3] DESIRE FOR CHANGE Ratings Statistics Additional facts Rank in population [1] City population Role as a centre Rank in most attractive city rating [3] GDP per capita in rub. [3] ACCESSIBILITY Ratings Statistics Additional facts Rank in population [1] City population Role as a centre Rank in most attractive city rating [3] GDP per capita in rub. [3] URBAN QUALITY Ratings Statistics Additional facts Rank in population [1] City population Role as a centre Rank in best city for living [2] Agglomeration population [2] Major events on the horizon Rank in best city for living [2] Agglomeration population [2] Major events on the horizon Rank in best city for living [2] Agglomeration population [2] Major events on the horizon Rank in most attractive city rating [3] GDP per capita in rub. [3] 36 M2R
  33. 33. HARD DATA Rank in most developed city [4] Prices for real estate, 1000rub/sq.m [4] Higher architectural education institutions [9] Rank in best city for doing business [5] Rank of airport(s) by passanger traffic [5] Historical cities [13] Rank according to citizens perception [6] Cities mentioned by Anton Finogenov Top visited cities, internal tourism [6] Density of city communities Places with high urban/ cultural events density Top Universities [8] Average strength of city communities Top visited cities, foreign tourism [11] Cities mentioned by Svyatoslav Murunov Rank in best city for doing business [5] Rank of airport(s) by passanger traffic [5] Historical cities [13] Rank according to citizens perception [6] Cities mentioned by Anton Finogenov Top visited cities, internal tourism [6] Density of city communities Places with high urban/ cultural events density Top Universities [8] Average strength of city communities Rank in most developed city [4] Prices for real estate, 1000rub/sq.m [4] Higher architectural education institutions [9] Top visited cities, foreign tourism [11] Cities mentioned by Svyatoslav Murunov Rank in best city for doing business [5] Rank of airport(s) by passanger traffic [5] Historical cities [13] Rank according to citizens perception [6] Cities mentioned by Anton Finogenov Top visited cities, internal tourism [6] Density of city communities Places with high urban/ cultural events density Top Universities [8] Average strength of city communities Rank in most developed city [4] Prices for real estate, 1000rub/sq.m [4] Higher architectural education institutions [9] Top visited cities, foreign tourism [11] Cities mentioned by Svyatoslav Murunov Rank in best city for doing business [5] Rank of airport(s) by passanger traffic [5] Historical cities [13] Rank according to citizens perception [6] Cities mentioned by Anton Finogenov Top visited cities, internal tourism [6] Density of city communities Places with high urban/ cultural events density Top Universities [8] Average strength of city communities Rank in most developed city [4] Prices for real estate, 1000rub/sq.m [4] Higher architectural education institutions [9] Top visited cities, foreign tourism [11] Cities mentioned by Svyatoslav Murunov Each indicator was composed of several data parameters given in a following table. M2RU 37
  34. 34. identifying cities INDICATORS REFERENCES [1] Russian cities by population http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_and_towns_in_Russia_by_population [2] Integral rating of hundred largest cities (best cities to live in) in Russia (Top - 100) in 2012 by Urbanica http://urbanica.spb.ru/?p=3461&lang=en [3] Rating of 164 cities (quality of urban environment) in Russia 2012 - by Russian Union of Engineers and others http://www.российский-союз-инженеров.рф/рейтинг-российских-городов/ [4] 20 most developed cities – Russian Reporter http://rusrep.ru/article/2012/05/29/goroda [5] Best 30 cities for doing business in Russia – Forbes http://www.forbes.ru/rating/30-luchshih-gorodov-dlya-biznesa-2013/2013?full=1&table=1 [6] Opinion poll on whether people are happy with their cities – Rosgosstrah http://www.rgs.ru/media/CSR/Life_quality_by_cities.pdf 38 M2R
  35. 35. HARD DATA [7] Russia’s 58 busiest airports by passenger traffic in 2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_the_busiest_airports_in_Russia [8] Top 15 Russian Universities http://raexpert.ru/rankingtable/?table_folder=/university/2013/main [9] Higher architectural education institutions http://www.institute-catalogue.ru/rus/specialty/27.html [10] Top visited cities, internal tourism http://www.interfax.ru/print.asp?sec=1481&id=316367 [11] Top visited cities, foreign tourism http://www.tourprom.ru/news/print/23704/ [12] Special tourist economic zones http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Туристско-рекреационная_зона [13] List of 41 historical city in Russia https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Список_исторических_городов_России M2RU 39
  36. 36. identifying cities ECONOMIC POTENTIAL DATABASE AGGLOMERATION POPULATION (mln p.) GDP PER CAPITA, (Rub) REAL ESTATE PRICES (1000 rub/ sq.m) RANK IN POPULATION (p.) 40 M2R
  37. 37. HARD DATA RANK OF AIRPORTS by passenger traffic MAJOR EVENTS ON HORIZON ROLE AS A CENTRE TOP UNIVERSITIES M2RU 41
  38. 38. identifying cities DESIRE FOR CHANGE DATABASE MAJOR EVENTS ON HORIZON RANK IN MOST DEVELOPED CITY RANK IN POPULATION (p.) 42 M2R
  39. 39. HARD DATA RANK OF AIRPORTS by passenger traffic MENTIONED BY A. FINOGENOV MENTIONED BY S.MURUNOV RANK OF COMMUNI- TIES DENSITY RANK OF COMMU- NITIES NUMBER M2RU 43
  40. 40. identifying cities ACCESSIBILITY DATABASE TOP VISITED CITIES, foreign tourism TOP VISITED CITIES, internal tourism RANK IN BEST CITY FOR DOING BUSINESS 44 M2R
  41. 41. HARD DATA MAJOR EVENTS ON HORIZONRANK OF AIRPORTS by passenger traffic M2RU 45
  42. 42. identifying cities URBAN QUALITY DATABASE RANK IN BEST CITY FOR LIVING RANK IN MOST ATTRACTIVE CITY RANK IN ATTRACTIVE CITIES (by citizens perception) 46 M2R
  43. 43. HARD DATA TOP VISITED CITIES, foreign tourism TOP VISITED CITIES, internal tourism HISTORICAL CITIES SPECIAL TOUR- ISTIC ZONES M2RU 47
  44. 44. identifying cities RESULTS FOR INDICATORS ECONOMIC POTENTIAL TOP-11 DESIRE FOR CHANGE TOP-16 AСCESSIBILITY TOP-11 URBAN QUALITY TOP-8 48 M2R
  45. 45. HARD DATA YEKATERINBURG NOVOSIBIRSK KAZAN SOCHI KRASNODAR ROSTOV-ON-DON NIZHNY NOVGOROD KALININGRAD VLADIVOSTOK IRKUTSK UFA SAMARA KRASNOYARSK OMSK YAROSLAVL CHELYABINSK VORONEZH KHABAROVSK TOMSK IZHEVSK TOTAL RESULT 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CITIES MENTIONED # OF TIMES M2RU 49
  46. 46. 2B. IDENTIFYING THE CITIES SOFT DATA
  47. 47. identifying cities 52 M2R
  48. 48. SOFT DATA SOFT DATA Soft data is information that has been gathered in a less structured way. It neither is representative nor completely objective. In difference to hard data however, it allows covering a much wider field and, in dialogue, gather a more complete set of information that is embedded in the context it has been communicated. Typically soft data is gathered through interviews with a number of prepared questions. The choice of people questioned has a big impact on the answers one gets and a balanced and therefore tangible overall result only emerges through a series of interviews of individuals that understand the subject but come from different backgrounds. For the purpose of this market research we have chosen to focus on professionals that are involved in urban development in the widest sense. Ranging from the traditional urban planner across community activators to politically engaged persons have been interrogated. The interviews presented in this document show a representative selection of answers and comments the team has received in more than a dozen interviews conducted (both for the raiting – with russian urban experts and for cities profiles – with city experts). We were interested to understand which cities have the biggest potential for actively developing in the future, but also which cities are already today capable of formulating their demand, have started that discussion. Mapping opportunities – places, where big events are happening – special zones (touristic, economic etc.) – places with big governmental investment programs – places with big planning activity – places with high intellectual capacity Mapping special conditions – places with special climate conditions – historical places Mapping activity – places with high density of urbancultural events – places, mentioned by experts as “active“ Photo from interview with Eduard Kubensky – «Tatlin» magazine editor-in-chief. Yekaterinburg, 2015 M2RU 53
  49. 49. identifying cities ANTON FINOGENOV «Urbanica», Director St.Petersburg 1. Which of the Russian cities is currently taking the lead in formulating urban agenda (apart from Moscow and St.Petersburg)? This is a hard question if we speak exactly about ur- ban agenda …. It’s one thing to attempt urban projects implementation, and the other thing is a real startup of a systematic action program. There was an example of Perm, but the trend is downward, as I understand… There are urban centre s and regions that pay attention to urban planning. Among them Moscow and St.Peters- burg are the most obvious, as the problem of agglomer- ation is especially acute there. If we talk about Russian cities, some processes of urban transformation begin in cities of FIFA World Cup. .. because they already have some tasks for sites con- struction (not only of a sport infrastructure, but also for transport infrastructure). These are 8 cities - ... but I can’t emphasize any of them yet as long as the process is in the initial stage. Some processes were in Tomsk, led by Kazmin and Gradirovsky, including Tomsk agglomeration and urban transformation of the city of Tomsk. But it hadn’t materi- alized into action. 2. Which forumsevents related to urban develop- ment that happened around Russia were memora- ble? If talking about any event, Vladivostok with the APEC SUMMIT 2012, Kazan with The Universiade 2013 and Yekaterinburg with SCO SUMMIT 2009 Made them- selves visible. On the subject of urban planning the events have a local character. There was an interesting urban development project implemented in Irkutsk, named “130 QUARTER”, but it is rather an event in the new for Russian mar- ket sphere of peripheral cities development. As about urban planning…the space is a vacuum. All the events organized are quite local in my opinion. I participated in winter school organized by the National Guild of Urban Planners, it was something like a series of conferences. Usually they were held in Omsk, as I understand it, this year the school will be in Yekaterin- burg. Anyway it’s a sort of “local hobnob”. There is also a “Baikal University” in Irkutsk, but it is also a local event. From global - I was at the Sochi Economic Forum, which was held in September, 2013. But, there’s was just one section curated by Minregion and somehow linked to the urban development. There are some events all over the country curated by Minregion, but the most regular ones are held in Moscow.There are some exhibitions on ur- ban development themes such as Innoprom, again held in Tomsk, “SmartCiy” in Kazan… there was a forum in INTERVIEW EXTRACTS 54 M2R
  50. 50. SOFT DATA Yekaterinburg. But all these events are mostly about in- novation development. They pay attention to the urban environment as it is one of the key factors to keep inno- vators within our country. It is worth noting, especially in the last three years, that the topic is now drawing much more attention, but this is not to say that some radically new activities appeared. But the most serious level it still Moscow UrbanForum. Yes, there is a good level of international experts, may- ors of large cities and Moscow government were dense- ly involved… but the format is still for showing off...There was also a FarEast Forum held for several years. 3. What kind of projects cities are looking into now? What is hot on the drawing boards? Evidently there will be some actions in the cities of World Cup - 2018. There is some activity now in Irkutsk, Tomsk and Vladivostok (associated with the extension of the embankment line). The topic is usually emerges in the regions where the new governor is appointed. Perhaps an urgent topic would be a question how to deal with Sochi Olympic legacy. Most likely it will end by a number of facilities transported in other cities, plus a gambling status zone designation for the Olympic Park ... but I hope something positive will happen on this subject. Maybe they’ll try to think about the question in the logic of urban planning & strategy, and not only of utilitarian economic efficiency. 4. Which cities are working towards formulating their urban development policy? Working on stra- tegic plans? Our strategic plan is the reincarnation of an active pro- cess of strategic planning documents preparation in the mid-2000s...Perm attempt for masterplan was really something new, and it’s still something new. I do not see any new in all these strategic plans, even with any kind of spatial reference. The first strategic plan in our country was made in St. Petersburg with the participation of the Leontiev Centre way back in 1996. There is nothing fundamentally new added in the last 18 years. 5. Which cities envisage big planning & architec- tural projects in the nearest future? Hold competi- tions? The largest development project in Tatarstan is Kazan SmartCity, they have really begun to build it! Many pro- jects are being implemented in the Moscow suburbs, CITIES MENTIONED WITH +Sochi, Tomsk, Irkutsk, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Ufa, Krasnodar CITIES MENTIONED WITH -Omsk, Surgut, Khanty-Mansiysk, Tyumen, Khabarovsk M2RU 55
  51. 51. identifying cities involving not only housing, but also business property... One of the largest development projects in Russia is a new business area in Grozniy. In all the cities the stadiums are erected near the wa- terfronts, so it will inevitably cause some reconstruction and the creation of new public spaces. But the form and kind of implementation for that is still an open question. Perhaps the first city to propel the question to the dis- cussion level is Kaliningrad. The other cities still haven’t done this, but it’s a matter of time. Yeah, there can be listed Nizhny Novgorod - the confluence of the Oka and Volga … It may really give an impulse to the creation of new centre s. For instance, in Kaliningrad there was a serious discussion about how to create a stadium as an object integrated in the existing housing rather than a traditional “object in the park”. What is about Omsk, it has a very little lobbying power; there is a very weak governor there ... unfortunately, the quality of the projects in our country directly depends on it. It is clear that there are some relatively wealthy cities of Ufa and Kazan. There are some northern cities such as Tyumen, Khanty-Mansiysk, Surgut - there is always some construction activity there. Something is going to happen Krasnoyarsk, because of the next Universiade. 6. Which city do you personally find most interest- ing as a planner? I look at this question from the complex positions: firstly certain positions related to strategic spatial expediency. Anyway we have to create some points of growth in sub-regions, so that we would have neither one, nor two, but a plenty of capitals. In this case Vladivostok looks very promising Vladivostok has more potential now even if compared with Khabarovsk, which until Vladivostok investment for APEC Summit 2012 was even more well-designed. The potential of Vladivostok can be explained by several reasons. First, it’s a seaside city. And these are seaside cities which mostly become the centre s of growth. Sec- ond, the city is closer to the capitals of the Asia-Pacific region; and finally it’s more southward so the climate in Vladivostok is more interesting, milder than in similar city of Khabarovsk. It was now invested with a lot of money, so that two giant bridges [Golden Bridge and Russian Bridge - MLAb +], a Campus [FarEast Federal University campus on Russkiy Island - MLAb +], some public spac- es were constructed. In my opinion we should continue to strengthen this point, aim to create a metropolitan city in the Far East, which would be able somehow to attract residents of the Far East. Obviously it hardly competes with Korean, Japanese, Chinese cities, but the difference could be not by 5 times smaller. Vladivostok really has a potential, as it has always been such “trade-and-cre- ative” city. All the industry was rather quickly imploded there way back in 1990-s. Vladivostok view at the night In the past it was very much tied to the military complex, there was a navy base there with lots of military units. So they had to rebuild their city, and herewith it was quite rich. It was 2006 when I firstly came to Vladivostok, and it seemed to me so...dynamic, buy-sell, trade, port, you know, even at that times. In my belief this is the base for creation a special creativity and “metropolitaness”. Plus, the relief with its hills is outstanding. Buildings, even those miserable soviet “nine-floors” were built according to the relief, so that it has created… such a San-Fran- cisco spirit during the night, you know....the lights on the hills; all that rises to a height of 100 meters - it forms a special image for the city. I think it’s important, because 56 M2R
  52. 52. SOFT DATA 80% of our cities unfortunately give an impression of replicable standard Soviet Grad. There is something in Vladivostok, which clearly distinguishes it. There’s a potential in Irkutsk, firstly because of the Baikal brand. In our country there are 3 or 4 known brands, and there are only two territorial ones, generally speaking. They are Kamchatka and Baikal. Ask a foreigner, where to go except Moscow, St. Petersburg and the Golden Ring, he would point - Kamchatka, Baikal, maybe Vol- ga - that’s all. All the other has a local character. So, that is the first point. Second, the flow of foreign tourists to Irkutsk is consistently high enough (in spite of all the infrastructure complexities, a long expensive flights, un- developed hotel infrastructure, etc.). Plus there’s still a not completely killed historical wooden housing in centre here. Something could be done with this background. There is some potential there. Novosibirsk - yes, of course. Because in fact it is a cap- ital of such a large (in russian scales) by population, but spatially compact sub-region. Total population of the re- gion is 6.7 million people, and Novosibirsk is an obvious capital for it with an education sector, developed sector of research. The Academic town of Novosibirsk is one of the top three in the country. Yes, I believe in Novosibirsk. If we move further. Omsk not very believable. Tyumen - is also too artificial... too extreme northern conditions. That is, if all the investments, which were made in Sur- gut, Khanty-Mansiysk, Tyumen, were concentrated in one city, it would be possible to build something artificial, like Dubai. And since the investments and efforts are decentralized, they are lacking. As for me, a vivid image has Khanty-Mansiysk, as a town created from scratch ... In the Urals, and in all this vast region I believe most in Yekaterinburg. As the capital, they has already begun building a City with skyscrapers.And besides not because of some pro- ject, but on the basis of commercial logic. The city hosts international events, there is the third largest modern international airport there. It’s a quite an interesting city, where some events are regularly occur. Moving on, it is clear about Kazan and Ufa - they are the capitals of national republics, so they have the mo- tive. These republics are always payed with attention by the federal centre . At the same time there is a factor of multiculturalism, which creates the right atmosphere. Kazan and Ufa are not “somewhat” Bashkir-Tatar towns, but absolutely multicultural cities, notably, they are mul- ticultural by centuries. And there’s also a powerful ed- ucational sector there, while not only for the titular na- tion. Actually Kazan is already the capital: there were so many investments, so many events held including the anniversary, Universiade, and now the World Cup, so, in fact it is already the capital city. Ufa as well, but to a lesser extent. The problem is with the central Russia, as there are Moscow and St. Petersburg, which are bloating … One can say «bloating» about Krasnodar, but it’s not a very good example as it’s more like a «bloating village», In terms of urban planning Krasnodar is an example how we shouldn’t do. It grows very.. very rapidly. Probably it is much more a capital of the Southern region (and Cau- casus as well) than Rostov-on-Don. There’s something going to happen there. Now I really believe in Sochi, just because such a vol- ume of investments was put in infrastructure, such a great PR scale was done and because it has such a unique combination of mild climatic condition and moun- tain cluster. There is a perspective for Sochi to become a capital of the South. In the European part of the country I can’t even notice anything else. M2RU 57
  53. 53. identifying cities SVYATOSLAV MURUNOV Centre of applied urbanistics in MSSES, Director Moscow 1. Which of the Russian cities is currently taking the lead in formulating urban agenda (apart from Moscow and St.Petersburg)? Ufa and Perm. Despite of a fact that they gave up the idea of Masterplan, there are some groups and subjects maturing, who try to restart some local activity. Samara, even after the chief architect, a sensible man, dismissal; Voronezh! All the processes are now boiling in Voronezh! In Voronezh they also have different entities that act in parallel (they don’t know each other, but we know all of them); Murmansk, Ulyanovsk (there is a vigorous activi- ty now in Ulyanovsk, organized by senior architects, who say: “there’s nobody here - it’s necessary to cultivate something - we are losing our young people”); Izhevsk - well, Izhevsk is generally a very correct story, as the association of the city has integrated into the city man- agement as a consulting body. This was just the very base for Izhevsk Urban School formation. Yaroslavl, where the Head of the Department of Architecture is now ready to withdraw an urban activity on a governor level for administrative sources attraction. And there are also guys here, who boost a creative cluster Textil [more information on http://textil.in/ - MLA+]. Omsk is moving, Krasnoyarsk is moving, Tomsk is moving a lot. All Mos- cow suburbs have been moving now a lot. 2. Which forumsevents related to urban develop- ment that happened around Russia were memora- ble? I have visited many activities this year, more than 10 specialized actually: it is clear that from the point of topics raised and the number of invited experts Mos- cow Urban Forum is beyond competition. There are two architectural festivals in Voronezh - first, “Zodchestvo Chernozemya” and the second, informal, is “Archidrom”. «Zodchestvo Chernozemya» Forum in Voronezh, 2015 Nizhny Novgorod - there were several either urban or architectural events there; in NN they have activists, inner experts, but in Business as well as in the Admin- istration there is an absolute lack of interested people! There was Izhevsk forum about the city. There is a good association in Yekaterinburg namely a very active devel- opers community. I was on their local gatherings, called INTERVIEW EXTRACTS 58 M2R
  54. 54. SOFT DATA «smart environment», and saw developers, architects, planners and local lunatics talking about the city, notably on a qualitative level, without any fights. 3. What kind of projects cities are looking into now? What is hot on the drawing boards? It’s determined by the audience. We are making the research of urban communities across the country, in every city we are building inventories, add them to the common map, and conduct a survey. Problem of communities is very simple: they don’t know how to grow, how to commucate with the authorities, how to build relationship with the business. The problem of authorities is the opposite - many au- thorities are afraid to raise bottom-up activities because, in their opinion, any initiative that comes not from above only, but from below - it is a very dangerous path. For example, there won’t be an UrbanForum in Kazan , because the local president administration is sure that as soon as they start to analyze city problems... a grab bag of problems would emerge. If the administration is adequate, such as in Ulyanovsk and Izhevsk, there is a current request for education. They think: “let’s educate, hold forums, festivals and conferences, arrange projects, let’s try something to do something elsewise for the city…” Often they start with public spaces: parks, squares, embankments; there is a large request for public art - how to change something quickly in urban environment with the help of artists. De- velopers now also have a different request. In large cit- ies developers demand history before the project - func- tionality, how should the courtyard look like, what is a social scenario of a project ... plus a specific request for the establishment of community centre s in the existing residential complexes. 4. Which cities are working towards formulating their urban development policy? Working on stra- tegic plans? A very illustrative project was in Makhachkala, namely Kaspiysk - Makhachkala agglomeration. The president wished, found money for the early stages, but then all it failed, because the request was not of a good quality. Urban planning policies should be based on the specific city subjects, on the clear objectives of these subjects. In our country there are no fully fledged cities, because city subjects are absent. CITIES MENTIONED WITH +Ufa, Voronezh, Samara, Murmansk, Ulyanovsk, Izhevsk, Yaroslavl, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Kaliningrad M2RU 59
  55. 55. identifying cities For example, the citizens are absolutely not articulated - and it won’t happen yet as long as we don’t create THE CITY. Until we create urban network models Communi- ty/ Business/ Рower. It is difficult even to talk about ur- ban policy. Urban planning policies at this stage can be such tactical ones: to try to detect their subjects through urban environment changes and some projects in the city. To create a long strategy, all the actors should be detected. That’s what we are working on. A qualitative inquiry for urban planning is only in Ufa. here is a source of energy there, as well as in Kazan, which is their national identity. Kazan and Ufa have such an effect, which is not typical for other Russian cities. There is a special national identity, which wants to be retained and understood. The physical space - city and architecture - could be the platform for that. «Religions Dialogue» Youth Forum in Ufa 5. Which cities envisage big planning & architec- tural projects in the nearest future? Hold competi- tions? Yaroslavl, Murmansk, Ulyanovsk, Voronezh, Izhevsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk and Kaliningrad under the ques- tion. In Krasnoyarsk, there is a large book fair planned in Krasnoyarsk (we enter the cities through such projects). At this fair the topic of urban communities and urban de- velopment will be raised. 6. Which factors can you name that influence the city development? Cities shoot ahead, if there is a qualitative dialog starts there. A city is as interesting as many subjects are de- termined there. If there were, for instance, association of manufacturers, association of small businesses, some urban communities network, communities of city activ- ists of different ages (to represent different generations), an adequate authorities with different stakeholders (rep- resentatives of federal, municipal authorities, regional authorities), inner community of experts in the city - and all of them stopped grabbing the biggest piece of the pie, but began to negotiate - such a city begins to change im- mediately. At least it begins changing in terms of internal communication, the culture of dialogue appeares and the city starts a valid request on education and urban environment. This attracts normal experts, and there- fore the problems of a city begin to be recognized and worked on. 7. Which city do you personally find most interest- ing as a planner? I like multi-layered cities, where a historical centre sur- vived somehow. The more such centre s a city has, the better it is, because one can experience more of dif- ferent meanings, functions, scenarios. I like cities of a several stages of industry, preserved (by architecture and planning) and integrated in an urban fabric; cities with complex landscapes; finally the cities, which with all this represent a kind of a one-piece construction: St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad, Yaroslavl Centre , Arkhangelsk and historical part of Samara. Art-platform «TEXTIL» in Yaroslavl 60 M2R
  56. 56. SOFT DATA M2RU 61
  57. 57. identifying cities YANA GOLUBEVA «MLA+ Saint Petersburg», Director St.Petersburg INTERVIEW EXTRACTS 1. Which of the Russian cities is currently taking the lead in formulating urban agenda (apart from Moscow and St.Petersburg)? Today we see several cities arising in intellectual urban realm, and for me these are Kazan, Yekaterinburg and at some point Ufa. I think this is linked to the political leadership, as soon as politicians understand that they need to promote their city, that they need to fight for their citizens, that they want to have good cities for living, they start talking about all the urban related issues. 2. Which forumsevents related to urban develop- ment that happened around Russia were memora- ble? I think it is understood now that we need to discuss ur- ban issues and each city is doing this differently. The groups of people were formed that are now becoming professionals in organizing these events. For example, those people who organized Moscow urban forum, now started spreading their influence on other cities. At the same time the cities themselves organize the forums because they don`t want to do business as usual but also want to start discussing critical issues. Recently I have been at such forum in Voronezh, a lot things are happening in Ufa, the forum in Tolyatti is happening reg- ularly, new competition is now being prepared in Sama- ra, more and more cities want to look at the development process from societal angle: what is public benefit? In 2015, Kazan held a very interesting competition, which was focused on the inner city lakes system. The fact that inner city regeneration was put into such focus is exemplary and telling about the city ambition. I believe all cities in Russia should look at their inner city opportu- nities for redevelopment and stop the sprawling process. Presentation of MLA+ project for Lakes Kaban cometition in Kazan, 2015 3. What kind of projects cities are looking into now? What is hot on the drawing boards? Nowadays every architectural and planning activity in each city is done according to the usual legislation and to the usual procedure that was inherited from the Soviet Union.At the same time what is interesting is that people start understanding that is not enough, that prescribed procedures do not deliver the required quality, they don`t tackle all the aspects that need to be tackled. The cities started to have the demand for Visions, they want to understand what the cities should be focusing on, which directions they should be going, at the same time they start looking at other systems they have in the cities, for example green networks, waterways… so they want to get away from the traditional developments per 62 M2R
  58. 58. SOFT DATA CITIES MENTIONED WITH +Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Ufa, Voronezh, Tomsk, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok, Kaliningrad area and more look on the connected structures. And what is really hot on the draw- ing boards right now and every city is busy with is public space rede- velopment. Many-many projects happened around parks, around squares, around streets, streets become more pedestri- an, cycle networks are being introduced, and I think this is a very big niche, so there is a market for that. 4. Which cities are working towards formulating their urban development policy? Working on stra- tegic plans? All of the cities are still in a process of questioning what needs to be done, they have not decided the direction… Moscow as the strongest intellectual player starts to for- mulate agenda for everybody else, they are busy now with an experiment of creating new type of residential neighborhoods based on block structure, they are also trying different street sections, and I think these will set the trends for the other cities. Locally Ufa is trying now hard to establish some specific rules. Interesting thing is that each city in Russia can now establish their own planning rules and regulations and they are starting thinking into that. 5. Which cities envisage big planning & architectur- al projects in the nearest future? To me the cities which have the biggest problems actual- ly think about establishing some big planning and archi- tectural things: to hold some big competitions. From my personal experience and from the people I met in recent years I see that Tomsk and Irkutsk will be looking at the city centre s, for Kaliningrad and Samara this will also be the hot topic. Tomsk is going to look at the embankment systems. A lot of cities look at the embankment systems, for example, Kazan is now working on several river em- bankments. Of course, all the cities are doing projects which are linked with the World Cup, and that is Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov on Don and others.Around those World Cup sta- diums big neighborhoods will be developing and I think it is quite an ongoing project. 6. Which city do you personally find most inter- esting (as a planner)? For me the most interesting city is the city I have not been to. In Russian context it is Vladivostok, last years we were involved in planning issues around Vladivostok on several occasions, but until not did not have a chance to go there. I see something is happening there, I want to go there next. Another city on my plan is Novosibirsk, I am also very curious about this city, how it grew from three different industrial satellites into one big city that now is a centre of the region with a population of 5 mil- lion people. And from those I have been to, I think the favorite is Kaliningrad, it has history, interesting traces of different historical layers, and at the same time it has the sea nearby which is a big quality. M2RU 63
  59. 59. identifying cities ILYA ZALIVUKHIN «Yauzaproject», Director Moscow 1. Which of the Russian cities is currently taking the lead in formulating urban agenda (apart from Moscow and St.Petersburg)? Only those, where I appear :) We all know the story of the Perm ... no one speaks about it anymore... This is very characteristic, because silence - it is also a sign of paying attention to the thing. Masterplan was too imposed from the top, it had no in- ternal roots, was too perfect. Now the activity is visible in Yekaterinburg. It feels like a different world there – beyond the Urals. With Akademichesky Project they tried by all means, but it did not work out. Here we see how by landing on our soil the perfect costume cracked. Following this project, I realized that urban planning is not the images and the design, but it’s a system of rules, guidelines that should meet economy and include implementation procedures. Recently in Yekaterinburg, I had to talk for 3 hours to explain simple rules of the compact city. Everywhere it’s a proved phenomenon, but in Russia you still need to prove the obvious. I hope Yekaterinburg will focus on developing its city centre. Here the municipality should act as developer and take the city as the project. Outside of Yekaterinburg I have not seen much, but it is worth mentioning the Moscow region. The region is now being promoted as the place for living, the governor Vorobyev emphasises it by saying: «we do not opt for the construction of square meters; we opt for the creation of cities». This ring around Moscow has potential to become vital alternative to the Moscow city itself and I am personally working on it right now, being part of multiple coordination bodies. We are trying to cre- ate a structure in which the normal specialists could find their place. 2. Which forumsevents related to urban develop- ment that happened around Russia were memora- ble? I remember Izhevsk. Everyone went there. I was not there, so I do not know the results. When I come to a place, I try to come up with a draft strategy for the city. All the cities that we have need a serious study, to establish a system, a framework for further work. 3. What kind of projects cities are looking into now? What is hot on the drawing boards? Spatial strategies that we do for some of the Moscow re- INTERVIEW EXTRACTS 64 M2R
  60. 60. SOFT DATA gion cities I do not see being done elsewhere, because this stage of work does not exist in the official planning documentation. 4. Which cities are working towards formulating their urban development policy? Working on stra- tegic plans? None. I do not know such cities. I believe that the authorities do not have such task. They completely not understand the value of complex urban projects. The authorities should understand that if they want to do anything with the city, even shrink it, they should have the coherent plan. At the Ministry of Regional Development we call those perspective projects Spatial strategies. Today we as the company are working on the creating of the future work; we are opening up the new market. Which does not exist yet. All are tired of building square meters, but no one knows how to go to the next level. And the next level is the development of an integrated project. And if that works out – then every city requires so much work! 5. Which cities envisage big planning & architectur- al projects in the nearest future? From professional perspective, I very much like Yekater- inburg and Vladivostok. In general, the older and the worst condition the city is – the more interesting it is for transformation. CITIES MENTIONED WITH +Yekaterinburg, Izhevsk, Voronezh, Vladivostok CITIES MENTIONED WITH -Perm M2RU 65
  61. 61. identifying cities ELENA BATUNOVA «South Urban Centre», Urban planner Rostov-on-Don 1. Which of the Russian cities is currently taking the lead in formulating urban agenda (apart from Moscow and St.Petersburg)? Perm in the professional field is leading and has a great impact on all. However, judging by the results - Belgorod, because here the population is growing and residents state that it is a comfortable city. Voronezh and Irkutsk. Kazan - a very ambitious city with a lot of projects. 2. Which forumsevents related to urban develop- ment that happened around Russia were memora- ble? For me, the most interesting event is the Winter Irkutsk University, because it is a platform, where it was pos- sible to unite all the structures - the city authorities, re- gional authorities, international experts, business and others. This event was now held for the 16th time, if I am not mistaken - this is a very long period of time, so we can see the implemented results. Solutions, which they found in the course of this action, they are trying to include in urban policy. This is a very positive example of long-term fruitful cooperation, which was organized by the Union of Architects. In many other cities, workshops and multiple urban movements started to happen more and more often - it is very interesting, for example in Rostov we have Ur- banFest. I would also like to note the events that take place in the south, organized by the Southern Russian architectural society - these events play an important role in our pro- fessional association. 3. What kind of projects cities are looking into now? What is hot on the drawing boards? The biggest demand is still for mass housing projects. This is very sad, because most of these projects in dif- ferent cities do not differ from each other, they are dic- tated purely by developers’ interests - but they make up the bulk of all design market. Another hot topic is social facilities. These are the two main directions.The remaining objects are related to the ambitions of the cit- ies and government programs. 4. Which cities are working towards formulating their urban development policy? Working on stra- tegic plans? In addition to the major cities - Belgorod, Voronezh, Ka- zan, there are many cities that are not visible. Smaller cities with population of about 100 000 people are becoming active and sometimes realize interesting projects INTERVIEW EXTRACTS 66 M2R
  62. 62. SOFT DATA For example Novoshahtinsk. The city was in a very de- pressed state, but they were able to use all possible resources and city is actively reviving. They have very interesting urban policies, for example, an interactive master plan for the city. City Nevinnomysk in the Stav- ropol region also has its own active approach towards the formation of the urban fabric. Such positive devel- opments are taking place more often, which makes me feel positive. If you compare Rostov-on- Don and Krasnodar, of course, Krasnodar has more potential. What is happening in Rostov on Don, I would call great stagnation, because the city has no clear policy - everything that is happening is associated with some events. Now we are preparing for the World Cup: we frantically build some infrastructure facilities, at the same time there is no coherent view on city develop- ment from the administration. Even superficially, if you visit the Krasnodar and Rostov you can see a notice- able difference, it is about the improvement of the city, its appearance and residents being satisfied with their government. 5. Which cities envisage big planning & architectur- al projects in the nearest future? If we talk about Russia, it is, first of all government pro- grams related to any of the events, like the World Cup or with some infrastructure projects. For example, many cities are now developing in relation to infrastructure pro- jects in the field of maritime transport, railway transport, as well as economic projects related to the development of new industries. 6. Which city do you personally find most interest- ing (as a planner)? I like many cities, but my favourite is Nizhny Novgorod, i love it for the “Russian” beauty. I love Elista, because it is very distinctive Buddhist city, the most western Bud- dhist city. I love my city - Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, al- though it is in a very sad state, but it has great structure. Chess square in Elista CITIES MENTIONED WITH +Belgorod, Perm, Voronezh, Irkutsk, Kazan, Krasnodar CITIES MENTIONED WITH -Rostov-on-Don, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy M2RU 67
  63. 63. identifying cities ALEXANDER LOZHKIN Professor of architecture, Mayor Council Novosibirsk 1. Which of the Russian cities is currently taking the lead in formulating urban agenda (apart from Moscow and St.Petersburg)? Still, Perm - because it is the only city in Russia which formulated the urban planning policy and, in spite of all the problems we see that the struggle of ideologies in the field of urban policy is happening there. In other Rus- sian cities, urban policy de jure does not exist, and de facto, it is carried out in the interests of the construction industry. I did not see anywhere anything even slightly near the strategy that would not be the fictitiously-demonstrative product. Novosibirsk, in this case is an example of a «liberal» policy. There is a good purpose - to attract investment to the city, attracting investment by providing maximum freedom for developers. All the existing town planning documents are aimed at the realization of this interest. 2. Which forumsevents related to urban develop- ment that happened around Russia were memora- ble? In my opinion, the most interesting debate in urban plan- ning is happening in Perm, because level of competence of opponents there is rather high. 3. What kind of projects cities are looking into now? What is hot on the drawing boards? As the experience of Novosibirsk shows - a candidate program for pre-election period. The same theme is in demand in Perm for the city manager program. This is corresponding to formulating the key goals and directions of city development. 4. Which cities are working towards formulating their urban development policy? Working on stra- tegic plans? This question very much lies in the field of politics. There- fore, it is a question of the authorities’ competence. The question whether the authorities are interested in the real development of the city. 5. Which cities envisage big planning & architectur- al projects in the nearest future? Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk Nizhny Novgorod is quite problematic at the moment - too close to Moscow Something’s going on in Ufa. In the Siberian context, one can note important cities Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk. Irkutsk leaves a positive im- pression, though, as it seemed to me, whole urban en- vironment is fully formed only along one street – Karl Marx. Tomsk is not doing well. Although it is very unique city, but its loosing this uniqueness very fast. INTERVIEW EXTRACTS 68 M2R
  64. 64. SOFT DATA The uniqueness of Tomsk lies in the fact that it is a huge wooden city, which had to be saved as phenomenon. What they do now, they have defined several zones that are to be preserved, but the phenomenon of the wooden town - quickly disappears. Prospects for the city are rather vague, but the city has very powerful educational cluster, which could contribute to its development. Wooden architecture in Tomsk Decaying wooden architecture in Tomsk CITIES MENTIONED WITH +Perm, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yekaterinburg, Ufa CITIES MENTIONED WITH -Nizhniy Novgorod, Tomsk M2RU 69
  65. 65. identifying cities 1. What makes the city different from other large cities in Russia? ONLINE QUESTIONARIE EXTRACTS « Obviously, it is mentality. The city is like a merchant house after a visit of Bolsheviks. » Rostov-on-Don « Dirty streets and abscenece of roads. Memorable war heroics. » Volgograd « There are no plots of new development now, city and region administratin do not work with developers...City centre is full with shabby architectural monuments, but where are the money to restore it? They could burn as quick as a match...» Irkutsk « None. City is in stagnation » Volgograd « There’s no vector for future city development » Vladovostok «...After 10 pm the citylife is frozen everywhere exept night clubs and dive bars » Nizhniy Novgorod « City is preparing for Universiade 2019 (new sport complexes are being built; the work of public transport is being improved etc » Kazan « Nothing inspiring. Roads, a couple of crossroads and the aquapark. » Novosibirsk « Festival «o’Gorod»; festival «Ancient Gorkiy» by Artyom Filatov; events in Arsenal space; exibitions in Tolk space; workshops in «Masterskaya» space » Nizhniy Novgorod « Should I mention all or just useful ones? :) » Krasnoyarsk «Alexandr Lozhkin (how without him!:) Yulia Prokopova (cycling) Mikhail Nikulin (trams) Oleg Alaev (landscaping, benches)» Novosibirsk «Yana Golubeva :) » Voronezh «Myself » Irkutsk 2. What are the current “hot topics” in the city? 3. Which problems does the city have? 4. Which projects are on the horizon? 5. Which activities/ events related to urban topic can you name? 6. Which people would you recommend as local urban experts? Questions for the form Extracts from form answers 70 M2R
  66. 66. SOFT DATA To collect a common citizen & experts opinion as well as to find out some special information about cities’ life we arrange an online questionnarie. Link: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1gPqptiugAPx9d824TGUesu6Gf9mEQlcDdUiLBGLtRpo/viewform M2RU 71
  67. 67. 2C. IDENTIFYING THE CITIES EVALUATION
  68. 68. identifying cities ACCESSIBILITY URBAN QUALITY DESIRE FOR CHANGE RATING DATA Rank in population City Population Role as a centre Rank in best city for living rating Agglomeration population Major events on the horizon Rank in most attractive city rating GDP per capita in rub Rank in most developed city Prices for real estate, t.rubsq.m Historical cities Rank in best city for doing business Rank of airport(s) by passenger traffic Active places by Anton Finogenov Rank according to citizens perception Density of city communities Active places by Svyatoslav Murunov Top visited cities, foreign tourism Average size of city communities Places with high density of urbancultural events Top visited cities, internal tourism Top Universities RatingsStatisticsAdditionalfacts Higher architectural education institutions ECONOMIC POTENTIAL 74 M2R
  69. 69. EVALUATION Yekaterinburg Ufa KazanRostov-on-Don Samara Chelyabinsk Omsk Krasnoyarsk Khabarovsk Novosibirsk Nizhny Novgorod Yekaterinburg KazanRostov-on-Don Voronezh Krasnodar Sochi Kaliningrad Novosibirsk Irkutsk Vladivostok Nizhny Novgorod Yekaterinburg Ufa Kazan Izhevsk Rostov-on-Don Krasnodar Sochi Kaliningrad Yaroslavl Samara Chelyabinsk Omsk Krasnoyarsk Tomsk Novosibirsk Vladivostok Yekaterinburg Kazan Krasnodar Sochi Yaroslavl Novosibirsk Irkutsk Nizhny Novgorod M2RU 75
  70. 70. identifying cities OVERALL RATING Voronezh Nizhny Novgorod Yekaterinburg Novosibirsk Sochi Krasnodar Kazan Ufa Kaliningrad Rostov-on-Don Yaroslavl Samara Chelyabinsk Omsk Krasn 76 M2R
  71. 71. EVALUATION Irkutsk Vladivostok noyarsk Khabarovsk We analysed which cities occur in most of the ratings and then select TOP-12. In case of dispute the priority was given to the cities recommended by experts. Economic potential Desire for change & activity Accessibility Urban quality Samara Krasnoyarsk Omsk Yaroslavl Chelyabinsk Yekaterinburg Novosibirsk Kazan Sochi Krasnodar Rostov-on-Don Nizhny Novgorod Kaliningrad Vladivostok Irkutsk Ufa Voronezh Khabarovsk Experts recommendations M2RU 77
  72. 72. 3. CITY PROFILES
  73. 73. COLLECTED INFORMATION INTERVIEWS WITH CITIZENS INTERVIEWS WITH EXPERTS ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRE 80 M2R CITY PROFILE
  74. 74. The information about the 12 cities presented in following profiles was collected from different resources to сonsider either facts & statistics or perception & opinions. PROFESSIONAL DOCUMENTATION NEWS & INFOPORTALS STUDY CITY VISITING & IMPRESSION PROFILES CONTENTS M2RU 81
  75. 75. CITY TRAITS COVER INFORMATION As Russia is a strongly centric country, here we indicate the distance to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, as well as city unofficial names, which characterize it as a «capital of something». CITY STRUCTURE Structure of a city defines most of its specific characteristics and helps to understand the context for all the following information. RESUME DNApage describes the overall situation of a city and the information worth mention. The DNA image was selected carefully to illustrate the realistic and highly distinctive urban panorama of a city. Each real city produces some social and culture capital, so that we can define its special traits. We define six famous traits for each city, which helps to understand its potentials and specialization. GENERAL INFORMATION This page provides basic and statistic information about each city (population, transport means, status, age, etc.) as well as about their agglomeration situation for quick understanding of the context. GENERATED INFORMATION CITY STRUCTURE Structure of a city often defines most of its problems. According to the scheme on p. 14-15, we explain the character of different structural parts of each city. 82 M2R CITY PROFILE
  76. 76. CURRENT PROJECTS On this page, the most noticeable developing projects are mapped on cities maps.This page provides context of current city developers market & gives the character of typical and unique projects. Each of 12 profiles encloses the following set of information (11 pages), giving the fullest overview of a particular citylife and planning context. GENIUS LOCI HOT TOPICS The most debated and challenging problems in a particular city. Each topic is linked to a suitable Dutch competence by corresponding pictogram. KEY PEOPLE WHO DO CARE Onthispage,onecanfindcontactsofactive people interested in city development as well as some useful links to actual news & events portals and noticeable city developers. CITY INITIATIVES Hereonecanfindsomehoturbaninitiatives (state, commercial, non-commercial) which are underway. These initiatives could become the entrance doors to particular city planning market. «Genius loci» could be defined as a specific spirit of a particular place. This information notifies individual city character to place reader in cultural, historical and emotional city context and inspire for diverse ideas. USEFUL DUTCH COMPETENCES This page observes vacant urban planning & design niches in a particular city according to the skills Dutch can offer (see p. 24-25) PROFILES CONTENTS M2RU 83
  77. 77. 1284 km to M oscow 963 km to Saint Petersburg 84 M2R CITY PROFILE
  78. 78. KALININGRAD WEST CITY KONIGSBERG M2RU 85
  79. 79. 86 M2R CITY PROFILE
  80. 80. KALININGRAD RESUME Kaliningrad, also known as Königsberg, is the capital of the Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea. Historically the place developed as part of the former East Prussia. After 1945 it was taken over by USSR. The city was largely destroyed during World War II. The city centre was almost entirely lost, thus leaving mental and physical hole in the urban heart. The city was rebuilt mostly in 1970s, when the culture of high modernism was at its rise. The new city fabric does not follow the initial urban pattern, the logic of large scale mikrorayons that were constructed did not fit into the prewar block city. The city feels empty, torn apart, unstructured with objects floating in the greenery. The major issue is how to deal with urban fabric repairs, how to connect the old mental image and the existing reality, how to fix the city. At the same time the city has an interesting culture, uniting people from all over USSR under the new identity, inhabiting European culture and reinterpreting it for themselves. The city today is about sea and sea tourism - a Window to Europe for Russian tourists. It is about Prussian history and new Russian history - an odd mixture of the two manifested in space.And it is about the greenery, lots of green networks connecting the city are being enjoyed by the citizens and are perceived as a true valued quality. Kaliningrad panorama on Cathedral and Soviet housing. Image source: http://www.skyscrapers.com M2RU 87

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