"Hazard always arises from the interplay of social and biological and physical
systems; disasters are generated as much or more by human actions as by
physical events." (Geographer Gilbert F. White, the “father of floodplain
Thait is the
natural hazard ?
A natural hazard is an extreme
event that occurs naturally and
causes harm to humans - or to other
things that we care about, though
usually the focus is on humans
(which, we might note, is
anthropocentric). An extreme event is
simply an unusual event; it does not
necessarily cause harm. Note that
many hazards have both natural and
occur as a result of
processes in the
. Meteorological disasters are caused by
extreme weather such as rain, drought, snow,
extreme heat or cold, ice, or wind. Violent,
sudden and damaging alteration in the
atmosphere associated with, created by, or
touching the earth's atmosphere, particularly
the weather-forming processes.
Examples of weather disasters embrace
blizzard, cyclones, droughts, hailstorms, heat
waves, hurricanes, floods (caused by rain) and
Extra-tropical cyclones, typically known as mid-latitude
cyclones, are a bunch of cyclones outlined as synoptic
scale low weather systems that occur within the middle
latitudes of the planet (outside the tropics) not having
tropical characteristics, are connected with fronts and
horizontal gradients in temperature and temperature
otherwise called "baroclinic zones".
Hailstorms are rain drops that
arrive as ice, instead of melting
before they hit the bottom. a
very damaging storm hit
Muenchen, Germany, on July
12, 1984, inflicting two billion
greenbacks in insurance claims.
A wave is an atmospheric condition. The worst wave
in recent history was the eu wave of 2003.
A tornado could be a violent, dangerous, rotating column of
air that's up-to-date with each the surface of the planet and a
thundercloud or, in rare cases, the bottom of a cumulus. It’s
additionally named as a twister or a cyclone, though the word
cyclone is employed in meteorology during a wider sense, to
talk over with any closed low circulation. Tornadoes are
available in several shapes and sizes; however they are
usually within the style of a plain condensation funnel, whose
slim finish touches the planet and is usually encircled by a
cloud of trash and dirt.
Most tornadoes have wind speeds but a hundred and ten
miles per hour (177 km/h), are just about 250 feet (80 m)
across, and travel a number of miles (several kilometers)
before dissipating. The foremost extreme tornadoes will
attain wind speeds of over three hundred mph (480 km/h),
stretch over 2 miles (3 km) across, and remain the bottom
for dozens of miles (perhaps over a hundred km).
Acid rain results when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen
oxides (NOX) are emitted into the atmosphere and
transported by wind and air currents. The SO2 and NOX
react with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form
sulfuric and nitric acids. These then mix with water and
other materials before falling to the ground.
While a small portion of the SO2 and NOX that cause acid
rain is from natural sources such as volcanoes, most of it
comes from the burning of fossil fuels. The major sources
of SO2 and NOX in the atmosphere are:
- Burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. Two thirds of
SO2 and one fourth of NOX in the atmosphere come from
electric power generators.
- Vehicles and heavy equipment.
- Manufacturing, oil refineries and other industries.
Winds can blow SO2 and NOX over long distances and
across borders making acid rain a problem for everyone
and not just those who live close to these sources.
The global warming
The world is getting warmer: that much is certain.
According to a 2020 report by the World Meteorological
Organization (WMO), the global mean surface temperature
last year was approximately 1.2°C warmer than the pre-
industrial baseline (1850-1900); while the most recent
decade, between 2011 and 2021, was the warmest on
record. And although energy-related CO2 emissions did fall
last year by 5.8 percent as a result of the COVID-19
pandemic, total global greenhouse emissions still increased
year-on-year. The underlying trend is clear, the curves of
most climate change graphs continue to snake upwards with