2. Data collection is defined as
the procedure of collecting,
measuring and analyzing
accurate insights for research
using standard validated
techniques. A researcher can
evaluate their hypothesis on
the basis of collected data.
What the data
There are two types of
1. Primary data
2. Secondary data
3. Primary data collection
is the process of gathering data through surveys,
interviews, or experiments. A typical example of
primary data is household surveys. It could be further
analyzed into two segments such as qualitative and
quantitative research methods.
On the one hand, qualitative research generates
“textual data” (non-numerical). Common qualitative
methods include interviews with open-ended
questions, observations described in words, and
literature reviews that explore concepts and theories.
On the other hand, quantitative research, produces
“numerical data” or information that can be converted
into numbers. Common quantitative methods include
experiments, observations recorded as numbers, and
surveys with closed-ended questions.
Secondary data collection
already existed and was previously collected by another
person, organization, institution, for a different purpose,
such as reporting or research. In terms of ease, this is
cheaper, and easier to collect.
4. Structured VS Unstructured observation
Disguised VS Undisguised observation
Participant VS Non participant observation
Natural VS Contrived
Classification on the basis of mode of administration.
In structured approach, data is collected systematically in order to describe behaviors accurately and reliably.
While, unstructured approach is best used to look at a single situation, for example, examining the experiences of
elderly people admitted to care.
Disguised observation is a technique employed, often in product testing, where respondent or groups of
respondents are unaware that they are being observed. While in undisguised observation, the observed individuals
know that the observer is present for the purpose of collecting info about their behavior.
The participant observation means watching the events or situation or activities from inside by taking part in the
group to be observed, while the non-participant observation involves observing participants without actively
In natural observation, subjects are studied in “real life” circumstances and environments. They may or may not
know that they’re being observed. In contrived observation, subjects are studied in controlled settings (research
labs, for example), and know that they’re being observed.
This includes: monitors and records the behavior as it occurs. The recording is done on an observation schedule.
The personal observation not only records what, has been specified but also identifies and records unexpected
behaviors that defy pre-established response categories.
Categories of observation
5. Empowering to make informed
Helping identify problems
Allowing to develop accurate
Saving cost and time