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Melb susjam.toolkit

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THE TOOLKIT
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
KEEP IN MIND...
- The approach
- The life cycle
- The people
- The environment
Show Don’t Tell
                             Communicate your vision in an impactful and
                             mean...
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  1. 1. THE TOOLKIT
  2. 2. BEFORE YOU BEGIN KEEP IN MIND... - The approach - The life cycle - The people - The environment
  3. 3. Show Don’t Tell Communicate your vision in an impactful and meaningful way by creating experiences, using illustrative visuals, and telling good stories. Focus on Human Values Craft Clarity Empathy for the people you are Produce a coherent vision out of messy designing for and feedback from these problems. Frame it in a way to inspire users is fundamental to good design. others and to fuel ideation. Embrace Experimentation Be Mindful Of Process Prototyping is not simply a way to validate your Know where you are in the design process, idea; it is an integral part of your innovation what methods to use in that stage, and process. We build to think and learn. what your goals are. Bias Toward Action Radical Collaboration Design thinking is a misnomer; it is more about Bring together innovators with varied doing that thinking. Bias toward doing and backgrounds and viewpoints. Enable making over thinking and meeting. breakthrough insights and solutions to emerge from the diversity. d.mindsets
  4. 4. DT for Ed | Guide | p. 5 The design process may The design process therefore seem very straightforward integrates various modes at first glance, but there is of working: some steps are one important aspect to more reflective, others are understand: its real value hands-on, and some encour- lies in the mix of tangible age interactions with people problem solving and abstract outside of your team. To help thinking. The very concrete you know what to expect, One Thing observations of the first phase are abstracted as you define themes and insights. the following indicators will guide you through the meth- ods in the Toolkit section: to Keep Only after you have devel- oped a sense of meaning in Mind and direction do you develop Hands-On tangible solutions. What may seem like a detour in Interaction idea development ultimately makes your solutions much This design process can be more meaningful. applied in many forms. The following pages contain a It requires taking a step back variety of examples of how to reflect, analyze, evaluate, it has been used to create think again and then evolve. new, relevant solutions in an This takes time—a scarce educational context. resource—and can be chal- lenging, as educators are used to solving problems on the spot in their classrooms. But there are no shortcuts. The more abstract steps often feel The small, sometimes hidden, more intense, details often hold the keys to but pay off in solving complex challenges. the long run. ABSTRACT CONCRETE DISCOVERY INTERPRETATION IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION EVOLUTION
  5. 5. PHASE 1: BRAINSTORMING - Warm up - Rapid - Open - Anything goes under the theme of sustainability
  6. 6. IDEATION DT for Ed | Toolkit Defer judgement. There are no bad ideas at this point. There will be plenty of time to narrow them down later. Encourage wild ideas. Even if an idea Brain- doesn’t seem realistic, it may spark a storming great idea for someone else. Rules Build on the ideas of others. Think “and” rather than “but.” These seven rules will make your brainstorming session focused, effective and fun. Stay focused on topic. To get more Introduce them at the start of every brainstorm, even if they out of your session, keep your brain- merely serve as a reminder storm question in sight. for experience participants. One conversation at a time. All ideas need to be heard, so that they may be built upon. Be visual. Draw your ideas, as opposed to just writing them down. Stick figures and simple sketches can say more than many words. Go for quantity. Set an outrageous goal—then surpass it. The best way to find one good idea is to come up with lots of ideas.
  7. 7. DISCOVERY | 1.4 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Define Challenge Reflective ~30-45 min Intermittent Share Chances are good that you already have some knowledge about the topic. What You Share and document this knowledge, so you can build on it and are free to Know focus on discovering what you don’t yet know. Team 2-6 People What it gets you 1. Share what you know 2. Define what you don’t An overview of the team’s Post the design challenge know knowledge and its open where everyone can see Write down and share questions. it. With your team, write what you don’t know or down what you know yet understand about What to keep in mind about the topic. Use one the challenge. Post these Keep notes and look back piece of information per questions in a different on how your point of view Post-it Note. Read your area. has changed after your notes out loud, and post field research. them under the design 3. Build on your knowl- challenge. Ask others for edge and fill in the gaps feedback and discuss any Group the Post-it Notes of the assumptions that into themes and use them come up. to plan your research. Write down questions you want to explore.
  8. 8. METHOD Saturate and Group You space saturate to help you unpack thoughts and experiences into tangible and visual pieces of information that you surround yourself with to inform and inspire the design team. You group these findings to explore what themes and patterns emerge, and strive to move toward identifying meaningful needs of people and insights that will inform your design solutions. Saturate your wall space (or work boards) with post-its headlining interesting findings (see “Story Share-and- Capture”) plus pictures from the field of users you met and relevant products and situations. In order to begin to synthesize the information, organize the post-its and pictures into groups of related parts. You likely have some ideas of the patterns within the data from the unpacking you did when producing the notes. For example, you may have seen and heard many things related to feeling safe, and many things regarding desire for efficiency. Within the group of ‘safety’, go beyond the theme and try to see if there is a deeper connection that may lead to an insight such as “Feeling safe is more about who I am with than where I am”. Maybe there is a relation between groups that you realize as you place items in groups – that safety is often at odds with users’ desire for efficiency. Try one set of grouping, discuss (and write down) the findings, and then create a new set of groups. The end goal is to synthesize data into interesting findings and create insights which will be useful to you in creating design solutions. It is common to do the grouping with post-its headlining interesting stories from fieldwork. But grouping is also useful to think about similarities among a group of products, objects, or users. :: 14 ::
  9. 9. METHOD Why-How Laddering - As a general rule, asking ‘why’ yields more abstract statements and asking ‘how’ yields specific statements. Often times abstract statements are more meaningful but not as directly actionable, and the opposite is true of more specific statements. That is why you ask ‘why?’ often during interviews – in order to get toward more meaningful feelings from users rather than specific likes and dislikes, and surface layer answers. Outside an interview, when you think about the needs of someone, you can use why-how laddering to flesh out a number of needs, and find a middle stratum of needs that are both meaningful and actionable. - When considering the needs of your user, start with a meaningful one. Write that need on the board and then ladder up from there by asking ‘why’. Ask why your user would have that need, and phrase the answer as a need. For example, “Why would she ‘need to see a link between a product and the natural process that created it’? Because she ‘needs to have confidence that something will not harm her health by understanding where it came from’.” Combine your observations and interviews with your intuition to identify that need. Then take that more abstract need and ask why again, to create another need. Write each on the board above the former. At a certain point you will reach a very abstract need, common to just about everyone, such as the ‘need to be healthy’. This is the top of that need hierarchy branch. You can also ask ‘how’ to develop more specific needs. Climb up (‘why?’) and down (how?) in branches to flesh out a set of needs for your user. You might come up to one need and then come back down. In the previous example, you climbed up to the ‘need to understand where a product came from’. Then ask ‘how’ to identify the ‘need to participate in the process of creating a product’. There will also be multiple answers to your ‘whys’ and ‘hows’ – branch out and write those down. The result (after some editing and refining) is a needs hierarchy that paints a full picture of your user or composite user. Alternatively, you can use this tool to hone in on one or two particularly salient needs. :: 20 ::
  10. 10. METHOD Selection Your brainstorm should generate many, wide-ranging ideas. Now harvest that brainstorm, so those ideas don’t just sit there on the board. Harvesting is straight forward for some brainstorms (pick a couple of ideas), but when ideating design solutions give some thought to how you select ideas. Carry forward a range of those ideas, so you preserve the breadth of solutions and don’t settle only for the safe choice. In the selection process, don’t narrow too fast. Don’t immediately worry about feasibility. Hang on to the ideas about which the group is excited, amused, or intrigued. An idea that is not plausible may still have an aspect within it that is very useful and meaningful. Different selection techniques can be used, including these three: 1.! Post-it voting – each team member gets three votes and marks three ideas that he or she is attracted to. Independent voting allows all team members to have a voice. 2.! The four categories method – the method encourages you to hang onto those crazy but meaningful ideas. Elect one or two ideas for each of these four categories: the rational choice, the most likely to delight, the darling, and the long shot. 3. Bingo selection method – like the four categories method, this is designed to help preserve innovation potential. Choose ideas that inspire you to build in different form factors: a physical prototype, a digital prototype, and an experience prototype. Carry forward multiple ideas into prototyping. If an idea is so far out there that it seems pointless to test, ask yourselves what about that solution was attractive, and then test that aspect or integrate it into a new solution. :: 30 ::
  11. 11. DEFINE CONCEPT - Find themes - Highlight potential concepts - Create a problem question and identify an issue to resolve
  12. 12. DISCOVERY | 1.1 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Define Challenge Reflective ~1-2 hours Continuous Understand A clearly defined challenge will guide your questions and help you stay on the track throughout the process. Spend time with your team to create a com- Challenge mon understanding of what you are working toward. Team 2-3 People What it gets you 1. Collect thoughts 3. Frame the challenge 4. Create a visible A clear design challenge As a team, collect and Based on the thoughts reminder expressed in one sentence. write down thoughts you have collected, frame Post the challenge in a about your challenge. the challenge as one place that everyone on What to keep in mind Start with a broad view: sentence starting with an the team can see, to be A good challenge is ask yourself why people action verb, such as: “cre- reminded of your focus phrased with a sense of might need, want, or ate,” “define,” or “adapt.” throughout the process. possibility. Make it broad engage with your topic. enough to allow you to Or, phrase the challenge discover areas of unex- 2. Establish constraints as an engaging and imagi- pected value, and narrow Make a list of criteria and native question starting enough to make the topic constraints for the chal- with: “How might we...?” manageable. lenge. Does it need to fit or “What if…?” into a certain timeframe? Can it be integrated with Keep rewriting your an existing structure or statement until it feels initiative? approachable, under- standable and actionable to everyone on the team.
  13. 13. METHOD “How Might We” Questions How Might We . . .? “How might we” (HMW) questions are short questions that launch brainstorms. HMWs fall out of your point-of-view statement or design principles as seeds for your ideation. Create a seed that is broad enough that there are a wide range of solutions but narrow enough that the team has some helpful boundaries. For example, between the too narrow “HMW create a cone to eat ice cream without dripping” and the too broad “HMW redesign dessert” might be the properly scoped “HMW redesign ice cream to be more portable.” It should be noted, the the proper scope of the seed will vary with the project and how much progress you have made in your project work. Begin with your Point of View (POV) or problem statement. Break that larger challenge up into smaller actionable pieces. Look for aspects of the statement to complete the sentence, “How might we…” It is often helpful to brainstorm the HMW questions before the solutions brainstorm. For example, consider the following POV and resulting HMW statements. :: 26 ::
  14. 14. PHASE 2: IDEATION - Idea generation to answer chosen issue - Brainstorming for solutions - Tangible solutions to prototype - Identifying audience
  15. 15. METHOD Critical Reading Checklist Critical Reading Checklist : The Checklist is a tool used to determine whether a team has arrived at a meaningful, unique Point of View (POV). The original “Critical Reading Checklist” tool was developed by David Larabee, of the Stanford School of Education, and repurposed in the context of a design process to evaluate POVs. Use this Checklist to ensure that your team's POV is valid, insightful, actionable, unique, narrow, meaningful, and exciting. While this method is not in itself sufficient to address the deficiencies of a POV, it is a great tool to think through and evaluate the usefulness of the POV. We ask ourselves four basic questions about our Point of View: 1. What's the point? – What is your team's angle? • What is your team's framework in stating a POV? • Is it User-centered, Need-based, and Insight-driven? 2. Who says? – How valid is your team's POV? • Is your position supported by findings from users? • Is it a distillation of findings? Is this applicable outside of one colorful interview? 3. What's new? – What is the value-add of your POV? • Have you articulated your findings in a new way? • Are they placed in the context of a user? • If your POV doesn’t feel new, try being more specific. 4. Who cares? – How is your POV significant? • Your team should be excited at this point! • Is this work worth doing? If not, ask yourself why? • Reframe/rephrase until you get it right. :: 24 ::
  16. 16. METHOD 2x2 Matrix 2x2 A 2x2 matrix is tool to scaffold thinking and conversation about your users and problem space. Use it during your synthesis process to help you think about relationships between things or people. The hope is that insights or areas to explore more deeply will come out from using a 2x2. 2x2 matrices are also a great way to visually communicate a relationship you want to convey. 2x2 Pick two spectra (one on each axis), draw a 2x2 matrix, and plot items in the map . The items could be product, objects, motivations, people, quotes, materials – any group of things that would be useful to explore. Put opposites on either end of each axis. For example, you might place different people on a matrix of passion for their career (low-to-high) vs. technology adoption (early-adopter-to-late-adopter). Look for relationships by seeing where groups start to form. See what quadrants are very full or empty; where does the assumed correlation break down? The discussion that is spurred by trying to place items on the matrix is often more valuable than producing the map itself. You may need to try a number of combinations of spectra to get one that is meaningful and informative. Try some combinations, even if you are not sure which is right – the first attempts will inform the ones to follow. One common use for a 2x2 matrix is a competitive landscape. In this case, an empty quadrant could signal a market opportunity (or a very bad idea). :: 19 ::
  17. 17. http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/8
  18. 18. METHOD Storytelling It seems stories are hard-wired into our psyche. People have been passing information along via storytelling for as long as humans have had a rich language to draw from. Stories are a great way to connect people with ideas, at a human level. A well-told story – focused on sharing pertinent details that express surprising meaning and underlying emotions – effects the emotions and the intellect simultaneously. What’s the point? Know what you intend to convey both narratively and emotionally. You should be able to describe the essence of the transformation of your character in one sentence & the tone of the story in a couple of words. Be able to articulate the emotional tone in a couple of words. Be Authentic: Stories are more powerful when they include a little bit of you. Honest expression is stronger and more resonant than cliché . Character-Driven: Characters are a great vehicle through which to express deep human needs and generate empathy and interest from your audience. Focus on character. Dramatic Action: Your story should have 3 components: Action, Conflict, and Transformation. Action: What is the character trying to do? What actions are they taking to achieve it? Conflict: What is in her way? What questions linger beneath the surface? Transformation: What is the big insight? How do the action & conflict resolve? Details: “Behind all behavior lies emotion.” What details can you share about your character and their situation that will suggest the emotions that lie beneath? Design Process is a Built in Story: Use what you’ve learned during the design process. Empathy maps well to Character. Needs map to Conflict, Insights + Solutions map to Transformation. :: 41 :: photo: flickr/gpwarlow
  19. 19. METHOD Composite Character Profile The composite character profile can be used to bucket interesting observations into one specific, recognizable character. Teams sometimes get hung up on outlying (or non-essential) characteristics of any of a number of particular potential users, and the composite character profile is a way for them to focus the team's attention on the salient and relevant characteristics of the user whom they wish to address. Forming a composite character can be a great way to create a "guinea pig" to keep the team moving forward. The composite character profile is a synthesis method whereby the team creates a (semi)-fictional character who embodies the human observations the team has made in the field. These might include "typical" characteristics, trends, and other patterns that the team has identified in their user group over the course of their field work. In order to create a composite character profile, a team needs to have unpacked its field observations and saturated its team space. After this is done, a team should survey across the individual users it encountered in the field to identify relevant dimensions of commonality and/or complementarity – these dimensions could be demographic information, strange proclivities and habits, or sources of motivation, to name only a few. After several dimensions of commonality have been identified, list these features of the user; if there are any dimensions of complementarity (those which may not be shared by all users, but are interesting to the team and not necessarily mutually exclusive), the team should add these as well. Last, give your character a name, and make sure every member of the team buys into the identity and corresponding characteristics that the team has created. :: 17 ::
  20. 20. PHASE 3: PROTOTYPING - Test solutions - Refine ideas - Understand journey and interaction
  21. 21. EXPERIMENT. | 9.1 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Make Prototypes Hands-On ~45-90 min Intermittent Create a Prototypes enable you to share your idea with other people and discuss Prototype how to further refine it. You can proto- type just about anything. Choose the form that suits your idea best from the list below. Team 2-4 People What it gets you Create a storyboard Create a story Create a model A tangible representation Keep a “parking lot” for Visualize the complete Tell the story of your idea Put together simple of your idea that you can questions that come up experience of your idea from the future. Describe three-dimensional rep- share and learn from. while you build proto- over time through a what the experience resentations of your idea. types. Revisit and answer series of images, sketches, would be like. Write a Use paper, cardboard, What to keep in mind them as you develop your cartoons or even just text newspaper article report- pipe cleaners, fabric and Prototyping is not about idea further. blocks. Stick figures are ing about your idea. Write whatever else you can getting it right the first great—you don’t need a job description. Create a find. Keep it rough and time: the best prototypes Capture the evolution of to be an artist. Use Post-it letter to be sent to parents. at a low fidelity to a start, change significantly your prototype over time Notes or individual sheets Describe your idea as if and evolve the resolution over time. Give yourself as you make changes and of paper to create the it were published on the over time. permission to try, and fail, increase its resolution. storyboard so you can school website. and try again. rearrange their order. Create a role-play Create an ad Act out the experience Sometimes your worst Create a diagram Create a fake advertise- of your idea. Try on the ideas teach you the most. Map out the structure, ment that promotes the roles of the people that Prototyping them may network, journey or best parts of your idea. are part of the situation lead to new inspiration. process of your idea. Try Have fun with it, and feel and uncover questions different versions of your free to exaggerate shame- they might ask. Challenge yourself to visualization. lessly. come up with at least three different versions of Create a mock-up your idea to test multiple Build mock-ups of digital aspects of the possible tools and websites solutions your team has with simple sketches of come up with. screens on paper. Paste the paper mock-up to an actual computer screen or mobile phone when demonstrating it.
  22. 22. http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/108
  23. 23. http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/13
  24. 24. PHASE 4: REFINEMENT - Refine prototypes - Explore alternative areas within solution - Understand life cycle of solution - Refine solution
  25. 25. IDEATION | 8.1 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Refine Ideas Reflective ~45-60 mins Continuous Do a So far, you have (hopefully) been developing your idea without giving Reality much thought to the constraints you may face while attempting to realize Check it. It makes sense to now do a real- ity check: look at what’s most impor- tant about your idea and find ways to evolve and develop it further. Team 2-4 People What it gets you 1. Find out what your 2. List constraints Then revisit your list A first step toward bring- idea really is about Make a list of all the chal- of constraints. Brainstorm ing your idea to life. As a team, examine what’s lenges and barriers you how you might address at the core of your idea: are facing with your idea. some of these challenges. What to keep in mind what gets you excited What are you missing? For example: how might A reality check might about it? What is the Who would oppose the we raise money to acquire seem discouraging, as most important value for idea? What will be most furniture for our common you may have to let go your audience? What is difficult to overcome? space? of some ideas. Focus the real need that this is Put the list up on the wall on the possibility of actu- addressing? so it is visible to the team. 4. Evolve your idea ally building an idea in Discuss how you can the long term to keep up Capture your thoughts 3. Brainstorm new change your concept your collective energy. on Post-it Notes or a piece solutions based on your new ideas. of paper. For example, First, start from the list you How can you address the Consider doing these if your idea is creating created in step one of this need differently? How can check-ins on a regular a teachers’ lounge with method, describing the you work around the con- basis as you move for- large couches, the real core values of your idea. straints you are facing? ward with idea develop- value is in allowing teach- Think up other possibili- ment. ers to relax. ties that might satisfy the 5. Archive ideas needs your idea responds Let go of ideas that feel too to. Consider facilitating a difficult to create, or that quick brainstorm to come you are not excited about. up with more ideas. Keep your Post-its and notes so you can revisit For example: how them later. might we create spaces for teachers to unwind between classes?
  26. 26. http://www.servicedesigntools.org/tools/38
  27. 27. PHASE 5: PRESENTATION - Tools to present work - Select prototypes for presentation - Prepare to present final outcome
  28. 28. EVOLUTION | 12.4 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Build the Experience Hands-On ~30-45 min Continuous Plan Next The implementation of an idea requires a different approach from Steps its generation. When your idea has evolved into a solid concept, it’s time to plan the next steps. With your partners and team, create a timeline for bringing the concept to life. Team 2-4 People What it gets you 1. List tasks 3. Identify gaps A calendar outlining team Create an overview of all Are there activities that members’ involvement in the actions that need to you can’t assign to any- realizing your concept. be taken to build your one, or open questions concept. Write them down you can’t find an answer What to keep in mind on Post-it Notes. Use dif- to? Create a list of tasks An idea often changes ferent colored Post-its to that you need to seek significantly when people capture open questions. help with. start using it and adjust it to their own needs. 2. Assign champions 4. Create a timeline Consider adaptations Appoint a person on your Map all the tasks to a time- as yet another learning team or a partner to each line. Form agreements opportunity. of the tasks you have iden- about the timing and com- tified. Review the ques- mit to certain dates. The success of a concept tions. Decide who will be largely depends on the responsible for finding an 5. Plan regular check-ins people who are invested answer. Write the name of Set up a time for a regular, in bringing it to life. Build the person responsible for informal team meeting a strong team and let a task on that Post-it Note. (for example, a weekly people feel ownership of breakfast check-in of their contributions. 30 minutes) to keep the momentum going. Use this time to share thoughts, ideas and concerns.
  29. 29. EVOLUTION | 12.1 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Build the Experience Hands-On ~30-45 min Intermittent Identify In order to realize your concept, you will need various resources and capa- What’s bilities, namely materials, money, time and people. Specify what exactly it will Needed take to make your idea come to life. Team 2-4 People What it gets you 1. Specify materials 3. Estimate timeframes An overview of what it Make a list of all the mate- Specify the amount of takes to realize your idea. rials you will need to build time that you’ll need to your concept. Are these create your concept. Do What to keep in mind supplies available at your you need time for prepa- Your needs may be larger school? Will you need to ration? Does anyone need than the support you purchase any new assets? to be trained? Do you can receive from your want to use an existing school. Don’t give up. Find 2. Calculate funds meeting time differently? ways to creatively make Money will always be your concept work within a scarce resource in an 4. Identify people those constraints. Can educational context. Don’t Create an overview of you involve an extra let this discourage you. people who can help person to lessen the work- Think about creative realize your idea. What load? What can you do ways to hold a fundraiser. capabilities are you look- with existing materials? Look into applying for a ing for? Who is invested grant. Consider opportu- in supporting the con- Reflect on how your nities to tap into existing cept? Do you need to find idea will be sustained budgets. Don’t forget to someone to champion the over time. Can it scale? explore how to realize idea? Capture your needs Will it live on without your idea without any on Post-its. Sort them and your involvement? Build money as a brainstorm identify which capabili- a foundation for longer- challenge. ties you have inside your term impact. school, and which you‘ll have to find externally. Think about leveraging the larger network and including parents, alumni and/or neighbors.
  30. 30. EVOLUTION | 12.2 DT for Ed | Toolkit Step Mode Time Needed Time Type Build the Experience Interaction ~45-60 mins Continuous Pitch Your A credible and inspiring story will help convince others to support your Concept concept. Build your pitch to motivate others to help bring the idea to life. Team 2-4 People What it gets you 1. Know your audience 2. Highlight the potential 5. Be specific about A story that can convince Think about who you are Create a provocative your needs potential supporters of trying to get excited about statement for your idea. Be clear about what you your concept’s strength. your idea. Put yourself in Get your audience excited want from your audience. the shoes of the listener: about the opportunities Draw from your list of What to keep in mind what will get them inter- you see. Frame it as “What needs and communicate Begin by communicating ested in your idea? What if…?” what support you need. what excites you the most— will they be motivated by? talk about the opportunity For example: 3. Build a narrative 6. Encourage and the bigger ideas » For educators: how is it Tell a brief and engaging contribution rather than small details. going to help me do my story, focusing on the most Invite others to join the This enables others to see job? How is it going to important aspects of your conversation or help build the value and contribute help my students suc- concept. Describe what the concept. Consider to the concept. ceed? inspired your idea, and engaging your audience » For administrators: How how it responds to the in an activity that lets does this affect the way needs you learned about. them experience and our school is viewed? participate in the design » For parents: how is this 4. Communicate the value process. going to help my child Explain the value your succeed in school? idea provides for the vari- » For students: how is it ous people involved. Be going to make learning explicit and illustrative in more fun? your descriptions. » For potential team mem- bers: why would I want to be part of this? What’s in it for me?
  31. 31. CREDITS This toolkit has been collated by Stefanie Di Russo for the Melbourne Sustainability Jam. All content is credited to IDEO, Stanford d.School and Service Design Tools. Methods collated for this toolkit can be found from the following sites: D.School Bootcamp Bootleg http://dschool.typepad.com/news/2010/12/2010-boot- camp-bootleg-is-here.html IDEO HCD Toolkit http://www.ideo.com/work/human-centered-design-tool- kit/ IDEO Toolkit for Educators http://www.ideo.com/work/toolkit-for-educators Service Design Tools http://www.servicedesigntools.org/

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