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“VIDEO INTERFACES AND THEIR
SUMEET PATEL (110050111040)
The existence of many different audio and video standards necessitates the
definition of hardware interfaces, which define the physical characteristics of the
connections between electrical equipment. This includes the types and numbers of
wires required along with the strength and frequency of the signal. It also includes
the physical design of the plugs and sockets.
An interface may define a connector that is used only by that interface (e.g., DVI)
or may define a connector that is also used by another interface; for example,
RCA connectors are defined both by the composite video and component video
Audio connectors and video connectors are electrical connectors (or optical
connectors) for carrying audio signal and video signal, of either analog or digital
format. Analog A/V connectors often use shielded cables to inhibit radio
frequency interference (RFI) and noise.
Since both analog and digital signals are used with some styles of connectors,
knowledge of the interface used is necessary for a successful transfer of signals.
Some interface types use only a distinctive connector or family of connectors, to
ensure compatibility. Especially with analog interfaces, physically
interchangeable connectors may not carry compatible signals.
Some of these connectors, and other types of connectors, are also used at radio
frequency (RF) to connect a radio or television receiver to an antenna or to a cable
system; RF connector applications are not further described here.
VIDEO INTERFACESAND THEIR CONNECTORS:
Often designated by
the CVBS acronym,
Video, Blank and
RCA jack, normally
red and white for
right and left audio
Mini-DIN 4 Pin
video and does not
carry audio on the
In popular use, it refers
to a type of analog
video information that
is transmitted or stored
as three separate
signals. Either RGB
Interfaces or YPbPr
3 RCA Jacks
VIVO = Mini-DIN 9
Pin with breakout
Analog SCART (Peritel) SCART
IEEE 1394 "FireWire"
FireWire or i.LINK
1. D-SUBMINIATURE (OR D-SUB):
A D-sub contains two or more parallel rows of pins
or sockets usually surrounded by a D-shaped metal
shield that provides mechanical support, ensures
correct orientation, and may screenagainst
The part containing pin contacts is called the male
connector or plug, while that containing socket
contacts is called the female connector or socket.
The socket's shield fits tightly inside the plug's
Panel mounted connectors usually have threaded
nuts that accept screws on the cable end connector
cover that are used for locking the connectors together and offering mechanical
strain relief. Occasionally the nuts may be found on a cable end connector if it is
expected to connect to another cable end (see the male DE-9 pictured).
When screened cables are used, the shields are connected to the overall screens
of the cables. This creates an electricallycontinuous screen covering the whole
cable and connector system.
Computer video output
Game controller ports
2. RCA JACK:
An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono
connector or cinch connector, is a type of electrical
connector commonly used to carry audio and video
signals. The connectors are also sometimes casually
referredto as A/V jacks.
The connection's plug is called an RCA plug or
phono plug, for "phonograph." The name "phono
plug" is sometimes confused with a "phone plug"
which may refer to a quarter-inch "phone plug" (TS
or TRS connector) or to a connector used for a
Plugs and sockets on consumer equipment are
conventionally color-coded to aid correct
connections. Stereo audio applications use black +
red, grey + red or white + red RCA connectors; in all three cases, red denotes
right. White or purple may also be replaced by black.
Power connectors and RF connectors
Connector for loudspeaker cables
Used to carry S/PDIF-formatted digital audio.
3. MINI-DIN CONNECTOR
The mini-DIN connectors are a family
of multi-pin electrical connectors used
in a variety of applications. Mini-DIN
is similar to the larger, older DIN
Mini-DIN connectors are 9.5 mm in
diameter and come in seven patterns,
with the number of pins from three to
nine. Each pattern is keyed in such a way that a plug with one pattern cannot be
mated with any socket of another pattern.
Used in early implementations of Apple LocalTalk, Apple Desktop Bus,
and IBM PC compatible PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports. Etc
Used for a variety of audio and video applications.
4. MINI- VIDEO-IN VIDEO-OUT (VIVO)
Video in video out (usually seen as the acronym
VIVO and commonly pronounced vee-voh), is a
graphics port which enables some video cards to
have bidirectional (input and output) analog
video transfer through a mini-DIN connector,
usually of the 9-pin variety, and a specialised
VIVO does not support the HDCP standard
which would be required for official HDTV
support as set out by the EICTA.
VIVO is found on high-end ATI and NVIDIA computer video cards,
sometimes labeled "TV OUT"
Some practical uses of VIVO include being able to display multimedia
stored on a computer on a TV, and being able to connect a DVD player or
video game console to a computer.
5. DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE (DVI):
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display
interface developed by the Digital Display
Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface
is used to connect a video source to a display
device, such as a computer monitor.
It was developed with the intention of creating an
industry standard for the transfer of digital video
The interface is designed to transmit
uncompressed digital video and can be
configured to support multiple modes such as
DVI-D (digital only), DVI-A (analog only), or DVI-I (digital and analog).
DVI is predominantly associated with computers, it is sometimes used in
other consumer electronics such as television sets, video game consoles and
6. SCART (Syndicat Des Constructeurs D'appareils Radiorécepteurs Et Téléviseurs):
Digital SCART is a French-originated standard
and associated 21-pin connector for connecting
audio-visual (AV) equipment.
In Europe, SCART is used to be the most common
method of connecting AV equipment, and was a
standard connector for such devices; it was far less
common elsewhere. As it was designed to carry
analogue standard-definition content.
The SCART system was intended to simplify connecting AV equipment
(including TVs, VCRs, DVD players and games consoles).
The signals carried by SCART include both composite and RGB (with
composite synchronisation) video, stereo audio input/output and digital
7. HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface):
HDMI is a compact audio/video interface for
transferring uncompressed video data and
compressed or uncompressed digital audio
data from a HDMI-compliant source device
to a compatible computer monitor, video
projector, digital television, or digital audio
HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861
standards, which define video formats and
waveforms, transport of compressed,
uncompressed, and LPCM audio, auxiliary
data, and implementations of the VESA
Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since initial
release of the technology but all use the same cable and connector. Newer
versions optionally support advanced features such as 3D, an Ethernet data
connection and improved audio and video capacity, performance and resolution.
The HDMI specification defines the protocols, signals, electrical interfaces and
mechanical requirements of the standard.
The Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD players.
Digital cameras and camcorders.
8. DISPLAY PORT:
DisplayPort is a digital display interface
developed by the Video Electronics Standards
Association (VESA). The interface is primarily
used to connect a video source to a display
device such as a computer monitor, though it can
also be used to carry audio, USB, and other
forms of data.
The VESA specification is royalty-free. VESA
designed it to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-
Link. Backward compatibility to VGA and DVI
by using active adapters, enables users to use Display Port fitted video sources
without replacing existing display devices.
Used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer
monitor.Also used to carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.
9. IEEE 1394 INTERFACE:
The IEEE 1394 interface is a serial bus interface standard for high-speed
communications and isochronous real-time
data transfer. It was developed in the late
1980s and early 1990s by Apple, who called
IEEE 1394 is the High-Definition Audio-
Video Network Alliance (HANA) standard
connection interface for A/V (audio/visual)
component communication and control.
FireWire is also available in wireless, fiber
optic, and coaxial versions using the
IDB-1394 Customer Convenience Port (CCP) is the automotive version of
the 1394 standard used in automobile.
Mac OS X, Linux, and FreeBSD include support for networking over
FireWire. Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows XP and
Windows Server 2003 include native support for IEEE 1394 networking.
IPods released prior iPod with Dock Connector used IEEE 1394a ports for
syncing music and charging.