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High rise residential buildings
Distribution of annual energy consumption in
simulated typical building, kWh/m2/year and
electric baseboard heating
fire places or A/c
plug and appliances
6 remez tower
Tree house residence hall
6 remez tower
118 m (387 ft)
The 6 Remez tower is an unusual residential tower
in several aspects. Perhaps most striking is its
structural system, which uses an off-center core
and minimal interior columns, a design move more
common to office buildings, so as to afford wide,
sweeping views to occupants and maximum
flexibility for tenant improvements.
The core has two lobbies on each typical floor. The
front lobby acts as a reception area, which can be
considered an extension of the apartments
themselves, while the second lobby is located in
the back for service purposes. This concept
enhances firefighter safety, by defining the back
lobby as a safe deployment space on each floor.
This is the first time that a tower façade has been entirely covered with an
aluminum wire mesh, which also serves to conceal the VRV (Variable Refrigerant
Volume) system located in each apartment on the eastern side of the tower.
A new curtain wall system was developed for this project. This system
includes an inward-opening window integrated into a structural curtain wall
system. This specific detail played a crucial part in shaping the overall appearance
of the structural curtain wall, which also incorporates shades in the spandrels as
well as in the vision glass.
The low-E coating complements the shading system, while low-iron exterior glass
affords thermal values appropriate to the hot climate. Electronically operated
Venetian blinds complete the protective system. The effect of all these elements
working together creates a unique texture for the whole towerThe project
includes a small park north of the tower. Plantings in the park are located
strategically so as to minimize undesirable wind effects from the tower for park
users. With a subtle entrance via the garden, rather than directly from the street,
the park is open to the public at all times. Its landscape design is based upon the
typology of a leaf in plan view, and features reflecting and biological pools. The
arrangement of the basement, car park and overall building footprint leave 20
percent of the plot free of built structures or hardscapes.
Tree House Residence Hall
85 m (280 ft)
Structural Material steel
This new residential tower results from a
highly unusual collaborative process and
responds to the unique living/learning
requirements of art school students.
Inspired by Gustav Klimt’s painting Tree of
Life, this innovative high-rise includes 493
beds for freshmen and sophomores in 136
suites configured in one-, two-, or three-bedroom
layouts. The building features a
ground-floor café and living room, a
second-floor health center, and a “Pajama
Floor” at the third level with communal
kitchen, game room, laundry facilities, and
fitness center. Studio spaces alternate with
lounges on the 17 upper floors.
The exterior is an organic mosaic of over 5,000 composite aluminum panels of varying
depths and hues. Dark browns at the base mirror tree bark before growing
progressively lighter to make the building appear taller and lighter in the skyline.
Green window panels punctuate the façade like the leaves of a tree.
The building received a Silver LEED certification from the U.S. Green Building Council
and its energy usage is 22 percent more efficient than code mandates. Other green
features include double-insulated metal panels, and low-flow plumbing fixtures that
reduce the amount of potable water usage by 33 percent. More than 50 percent of
the material used in the residential hall has recycled content, 20 percent from local
sources, and 70 percent of the wood is certified by the Forest Stewardship Council.
Water conservation in high rise building
1. Xeriscaping is a landscape technique that reduces/eliminates the need for irrigation.
Common xeriscape strategies include planting native and adaptive plants that require less
water, pesticides and fertilizer.
2. Efficient Irrigation Technologies can reduce the amount of water used for irrigation. a.
Drip irrigation is 90% efficient compared to conventional sprinklers, which are only
60% efficient, as they lose a lot of water to wind. b. Another efficient irrigation technology
that we recommend employing is the useof reclaimed water. Reclaimed water for irrigation
purposes can drastically reduce the pressure on municipally supplied potable water. Sources
of reclaimed water include: captured rainwater, graywater, or municipally supplied
reclaimed water. The latter option is not currently used in San Francisco; however, the
infrastructure exists and may be used in the future.
3. StormwaterManagement is a problem in urban areas with significant impervious
areas. Impervious materials prevent the infiltration of water after a storm; water instead
rushes offsite. This runoff is a significant threat to water quality due to contamination with
chemicals. In response, we recommend the following:
a. The minimization of stormwater runoff through increased vegetated surfaces on the
ground level, permeable pavers where appropriate, and runoff-capturing landscape
features such as rain gardens or bioswales.
b. The installation of the greatest percentage of greenery possible on the roof of the
building. A vegetated roof will slow down the runoff rate as the plants absorb the water and
reduce the burden on the municipal stormwater system.
c. The inclusion of green walls or vegetated structures attached to vertical surfaces that
can slow runoff rates and provide aesthetic interest.
• Electrochromic (EC) windows are an emerging technology that allows the
transparency level of the glass to be altered. Smart glass controls the amount of
light transmission. When activated, the glass changes from transparent to
translucent, blocking some wavelengths of light. Smart glass can save costs for
heating, air-conditioning and lighting and avoid the cost of installing and
maintaining motorized light screens or blinds or curtains. Most smart glass blocks
ultraviolet light, reducing fabric fading; for SPD-type smart glass, this is achieved in
conjunction with low emissivity coatings.
Bird safe building
The greatest danger to birds comes from unarticulated, highly-glazed buildings adjacent to
water, wetlands, or green open space larger than one acre. The following is recommended to
mitigate bird strikes:
Reduce glass reflectivity: no glazing on building shall have a “Reflectivity Out” coefficient
exceeding 30%. Treat or select glass with a “visual noise barrier” for at least 95% of the collision
zone, defined as the ground floor up to 40 feet. A visual noise barrier is defined as fritting,
permanent stencils, frosted glass, exterior screens, UV patterns visible to birds, or an equivalent
treatment approved by a qualified biologist. Building-integrated photovoltaic glass, such as
Pythagoras glass, may also qualify as a visual noise barrier.
Night lighting on tall buildings can disorient and “trap” nocturnally migrating birds, causing
death due to collision or exhaustion,Avoid uses of uplighting that spills light into the night sky,
including upward-facing spotlights on roof; instead, use shielded lighting that is aimed
downwards at the targeted area. Avoid the use of red-colored lighting; instead, use blue or
Building automation system(BAS)
Generally, building automation begins with control of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing
(MEP) systems. For instance, the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is
almost always controlled, including control of its various pieces of equipment such as:
Air Handling Units (AHUs)
Roof-top Units (RTUs)
Fan Coil Units (FCUs)
Heat Pump Units (HPUs)
Variable Air Volume boxes (VAVs)
Lighting control is, likewise, low-hanging fruit for optimizing building performance.
Other systems that are often controlled and/or brought under a complete automation system
Close circuit video (CCTV)
Card and keypad access
Fire alarm system
Plumbing and water monitoring
Most of the automation system is behind the scenes as hardware devices mounted to
equipment or hidden underfloor or in the ceiling. Some personalized control can be made
available through thermostat-like devices. From a central management perspective, the BAS
resides as software on an operator workstation (computer) or is available as a web page.
Various types of “controllers” manage equipment and portions of the network. “Sensors”
provide input data to the controllers.