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Heating without the hot air: Principles for smart heat electrification

Heating in buildings is responsible for almost a third of total EU energy demand. And most of that heat is met by burning fossil fuels. In order to decarbonise heating, electrification is seen by many as a key strategy. The transformative challenge of the electrification of heating should not be underestimated. It will require strategic, ongoing policy and governance support. It requires a well-coordinated approach that cuts across several areas — buildings, individual and district heating systems, the power sector and existing heating fuel supply infrastructure. In this webinar, Dr. Jan Rosenow and Dr. Richard Lowes present pragmatic principles and policies for smart electrification of heating in Europe.

The webinar will be based on a recent RAP report which can be freely downloaded at https://www.raponline.org/knowledge-center/heating-without-hot-air-principles-smart-heat-electrification/

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Heating without the hot air: Principles for smart heat electrification

  1. 1. Dr Jan Rosenow & Dr Richard Lowes The Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® Rue de la Science 23 B-1040 Brussels Belgium +44 7722 343137 jrosenow@raponline.org raponline.org April 2020 Heating without the hot air: Principles for smart heat electrification
  2. 2. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 1 Why heating?
  3. 3. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 5 Almost half of energy use in EU This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 695989. www.heatroadmap. @HeatRoadmap Non-H/C 50% Process heating 16% Space heating 27% Hot water 4% Other heating 1% Process cooling 1% Space cooling 1% Heating and cooling 50% (EU28) igh relevance   C about 50  of ED Source: Heat Roadmap Europe (2017)
  4. 4. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 6 75% of heat generated by fossil fuel This project has received funding from the H&C FED by energy carrier in 2015 (E 2015 shares • ossil   • RES  13 • El D  2142% 12% 12% 12% 9% 8% 4% 1% 0% 0% Gas Oil Biomass Electricity District heating Coal Others (fossil) Solar thermal Heat pumps Others (RES) Source: Heat Roadmap Europe (2017)
  5. 5. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 7 Residential sector most important 2015) End‐uses by sec • Industry   for process h • Residential 5  for sp heating • Tertiary  hig share of coo compared to other sector ( 10 ) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Industry Residential Tertiary Finalenergy[TWh] Space heating Space cooling Process heating Process cooling Hot water Other heating Source: Heat Roadmap Europe (2017)
  6. 6. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 8 Improvements but not fast enough Source: Bertelsen and Mathiesen (2020)
  7. 7. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 2 Decarbonisation options and context
  8. 8. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 10 Limited options for decarbonisation
  9. 9. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 11 Electricity is becoming increasingly green gCO2/kWh Source: EEA (2020)
  10. 10. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 12 Heat pumps now much cleaner than gas – example UK Source: Staffel 2019
  11. 11. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 3 Principles for heat electrification
  12. 12. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 14 Principle 1: Put Efficiency First Reduces system cost Provides thermal storage
  13. 13. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 15 Thermal storage capabilities of buildings Source: tado (2020)
  14. 14. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 16 Principle 2: Recognize the value of flexible heat load 7 AM 16 AM 12 PM Electricity demand (kW) Reduce AM peak load Reduce PM peak load use of wind power use of solar power
  15. 15. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 17 Value of flexible heat load: example with high wind penetration Source: Ruhnau et al. (2020)
  16. 16. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 18 Principle 3: Understand the emissions effects of changes in load
  17. 17. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 19 Principle 4: Design tariffs to reward flexibility
  18. 18. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 4 Heat policy
  19. 19. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® • Building codes, appliance standards and labelling • Energy Efficiency Obligations and financial support schemes • Carbon intensity standards • Building codes, appliance standards and labelling • Energy Efficiency Obligations and financial support schemes • Electricity pricing 21 Heat policy Reducing the heat demand Reduce carbon intensity of energy carrier Deployment of low carbon heat technologies Operate flexibly
  20. 20. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® 5 Conclusion
  21. 21. Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® • Decarbonising heat is critical for meeting climate and clean air goals • Electrification is a central pillar • Energy efficiency is key to minimize costs and build in thermal storage • Flexible operation of heat pumps is possible and can be incentivized through tariffs • Whole range of policy instruments needed to accelerate replacement rates 23 Conclusions
  22. 22. Dr Jan Rosenow Director of European Programmes The Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® +44 7722 343137 jrosenow@raponline.org raponline.org I janrosenow.com Rue de la Science 23 B-1040 Brussels Belgium About RAP The Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP)® is an independent, non-partisan, non-governmental organization dedicated to accelerating the transition to a clean, reliable, and efficient energy future. Learn more about our work at raponline.org