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Basic Structure of a Cell
Review Facts About Living Things
What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? <ul><li>Made of  CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Require  ENERGY  (food) </li></ul...
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Nonliving Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>ATOM  (element) </li></ul><ul><li>MOLECULE  (compounds ...
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Living Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>CELL  (makes up ALL organisms) </li></ul><ul><li>TISSUE  (...
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Living Levels continued: </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION  (one species in an area) </li></ul><...
Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul>...
Which is NOT a characteristic of all living things <ul><li>Respond to environment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain homeostasis <...
Your heart is an example of <ul><li>A cell </li></ul><ul><li>A tissue </li></ul><ul><li>An organ </li></ul><ul><li>An orga...
Cells that work together are <ul><li>Tissues  </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>o...
One species living in an area is: <ul><li>An organism </li></ul><ul><li>A population </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem </li><...
Different species living in an area makes a(n): <ul><li>Organism </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Community ...
Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Partic...
History of Cells & the Cell Theory Cell Specialization
First to View Cells <ul><li>In 1665,  Robert Hooke  used a microscope to  examine a thin slice of  cork  (dead plant cell ...
First to View Cells <ul><li>Hooke is responsible for  naming cells </li></ul><ul><li>Hooke called them “CELLS” because the...
Anton van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>In 1673,  Leeuwenhoek  (a Dutch microscope maker), was  first to view organism  (living thin...
Beginning of the Cell Theory <ul><li>In 1838, a German botanist named  Matthias Schleiden  concluded that all  plants  wer...
Beginning of the Cell Theory <ul><li>In 1839, a German zoologist named  Theodore Schwann  concluded that all  animals  wer...
Beginning of the Cell Theory <ul><li>In 1855, a German medical doctor named  Rudolph Virchow  observed, under the microsco...
CELL THEORY <ul><li>All living things are made of  cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of  structure and func...
Who was the first person to see a living cell? <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul>...
Who was the first person to see a cell? <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Mat...
Who was the first person to state all animals are made of  cells? <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwen...
Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Partic...
Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
Discoveries  Since  the Cell Theory
ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY <ul><li>In 1970, American biologist,  Lynn Margulis , provided evidence that  some organelles within ...
Cell Size and Types <ul><li>Cells, the basic units of organisms, can only be  observed under microscope </li></ul><ul><li>...
Number of Cells <ul><li>Although  ALL  living things are made of cells, organisms may be: </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular  –...
CELL SIZE <ul><li>Typical cells range from 5 – 50 micrometers (microns) in diameter </li></ul>
Which Cell Type is Larger? _________  >  _____________  >  ___________ Plant cell Animal cell bacteria
How Big is a Micron ( µ ) ? 1 cm = 10,000 microns  1” = 25,000 microns
Cell Size <ul><li>Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? </li...
Factors Affecting Cell Size <ul><li>Surface area (plasma membrane  surface) is determined by multiplying length times widt...
Cell Size <ul><li>When the surface area is no longer great enough to get rid of all the wastes and to get in enough food a...
Cell Size <ul><li>Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? </li...
Multicellular Organisms <ul><li>Cells in multicellular organisms often  specialize  (take on different shapes & functions)...
Cell Specialization <ul><li>Cells in a multi-cellular organism become specialized by  turning different genes on and off <...
Specialized Animal Cells <ul><li>Muscle cells </li></ul>Red blood cells Cheek cells
Specialized Plant cells Xylem cells Pollen Guard Cells
Organization Levels of Life Atoms to Organisms
ATOMS     MOLECULES    ORGANELLES Nonliving Levels
CELLS – life starts here TISSUES – Similar cells working together Living Levels  
ORGANS ORGAN  SYSTEMS ORGANISM Different tissues working together Different organs working together   More Living Levels
Simple or Complex Cells
Prokaryotes – The first Cells <ul><li>Cells that  lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Includes  ...
Prokaryotes <ul><li>Nucleoid region  (center) contains the DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by  cell membrane & cell wall ...
Eukaryotes <ul><li>Cells that HAVE  a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Includes  protists, fungi, p...
Eukaryotic Cell <ul><li>Contain 3 basic cell structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></...
Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell
Organelles
Organelles <ul><li>Very  small  (Microscopic) </li></ul><ul><li>Perform  various functions  for a cell </li></ul><ul><li>F...
Animal Cell Organelles Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Cell Membrane Rough  endopla...
Plant Cell Organelles
Cell or Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Composed of  double layer of phospholipids  and  proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds  out...
Phospholipids <ul><li>Heads  contain  glycerol & phosphate  and are  hydrophilic  (attract water) </li></ul><ul><li>Tails ...
The Cell Membrane is Fluid <ul><li>Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing </li></ul>
Cell Membrane Proteins <ul><li>Proteins  help move large molecules  or  aid in cell recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Peripher...
<ul><li>Recognize “self” </li></ul>GLYCOPROTEINS Glycoproteins have  carbohydrate tails  to act as markers for cell recogn...
Cell Membrane in Plants <ul><ul><li>Lies immediately  against the cell wall  in plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pus...
Cell Wall <ul><ul><li>Nonliving  layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Cell Wall <ul><li>Supports  and  protects  cell </li></ul><ul><li>Found  outside of the cell membrane </li></ul>
Cytoplasm of a Cell  <ul><ul><li>Jelly-like  substance enclosed   by  cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a ...
More on Cytoplasm <ul><ul><li>Contains  organelle s to carry out specific jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in  ALL  c...
The Control Organelle - Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Controls the normal  activities of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain...
More on the Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Each cell has fixed  number of chromosomes that carry  genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ge...
Nuclear Envelope <ul><li>Double membrane  surrounding nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Also called  nuclear membrane </li></ul><u...
Inside the Nucleus - The genetic material (DNA) is found DNA is spread out  And appears as  CHROMATIN in non-dividing cell...
What Does DNA do? <ul><li>DNA is the  hereditary material  of the cell </li></ul>Genes  that make up the DNA molecule code...
Nucleolus <ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell may have  1 to 3  nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>Disappears  when cell...
Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Helps cell maintain  cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Also help  move organelles  around </li></ul><ul><l...
Cytoskeleton MICROTUBULES MICROFILAMENTS
Centrioles <ul><li>Found only in  animal  cells </li></ul><ul><li>Paired  structures near nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made o...
Centrioles & the Mitotic Spindle <ul><li>Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin) </li></ul>
Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria) <ul><li>“ Powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Generate cellular  energy (ATP) ...
MITOCHONDRIA <ul><li>Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane </li></ul>Folded inner membrane called  CRISTAE  (increases surface a...
Interesting Fact --- <ul><li>Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in  the EGG cell during fertilization  </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Cell Powerhouse <ul><ul><li>Rod shape </li></ul></ul>Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
What do mitochondria do? Burns glucose to  release energy (ATP)  Stores energy as ATP “ Power plant” of the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER <ul><li>Network of  hollow membrane tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to  nuclear envelope & c...
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) <ul><li>Has  ribosomes  on its surface  </li></ul><ul><li>Makes membrane proteins a...
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) <ul><li>Proteins are made by  ribosomes on ER surface </li></ul><ul><li>They are th...
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Smooth ER   lacks ribosomes on its surface </li></ul><ul><li>Is  attached to the ends...
Functions of the Smooth ER <ul><li>Makes membrane lipids  (steroids) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates calcium  (muscle cells) <...
Endomembrane System Includes nuclear membrane connected to ER connected to cell membrane (transport)
Ribosomes <ul><li>Made of  PROTEINS  and  rRNA </li></ul><ul><li>“ Protein factories” for cell </li></ul><ul><li>Join  ami...
Ribosomes <ul><li>Can be attached to  Rough ER </li></ul>OR Be free (unattached) in the  cytoplasm
Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Stacks of  flattened sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Have a shipping side ( trans face ) and receiving side ( ...
Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Look like a stack of pancakes </li></ul>Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for  storage  OR  t...
Golgi
Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES
Lysosomes <ul><li>Contain  digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Break down  food, bacteria,  and  worn out cell parts  for ...
Lysosome Digestion <ul><li>Cells take in food by  phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes  digest  the food & get  rid of...
Cilia & Flagella <ul><li>Made of protein tubes called  microtubules   </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules arranged  ( 9 + 2 arr...
Cilia & Flagella <ul><li>Cilia  are shorter and more numerous on cells </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella  are longer and fewer (u...
Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella
Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs Respiratory System
Vacuoles <ul><li>Fluid filled  sacks for  storage </li></ul><ul><li>Small or absent  in  animal  cells </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Vacuoles <ul><li>In plants, they store  Cell Sap </li></ul><ul><li>Includes storage of  sugars, proteins, minerals, lipids...
Contractile Vacuole <ul><li>Found in unicellular protists like  paramecia </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate water  intake by  pum...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Found only in  producers  (organisms containing  chlorophyll ) </li></ul><ul><li>Use  energy from sun...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Surrounded by  DOUBLE  membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Outer  membrane  smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Inner  me...
Chloroplasts <ul><li>Contains its  own DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contains  enzymes & pigments  for  Photosynthesis </li></ul><...
Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul>...
Which types of cells do not have a nucleus? <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul...
Which types of cells have no membrane bound organelles? <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryot...
Which types of cells contain chloroplasts? <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Both 1 & 2 </li></ul><...
In prokaryotes, what makes proteins? <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Mi...
What part of a cell controls what can get in and out of the cell? <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li>...
Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Partic...
Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells? <ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li...
Which organisms do NOT have cell walls? <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li...
What organelle helps keep cell shape and mover organelles? <ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome...
Which organelle makes cell products and transports them? <ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes ...
Which organelle produces energy for the cell? <ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><...
What does the mitochondria store energy as? <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li>...
Which organelle modifies, sorts, and packages material from the ER? <ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></u...
What makes proteins in your cells? <ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></...
Which organelle digests worn out cell parts? <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles </li></u...
Short hair like structures on cells <ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul><ul>...
The part of a cell where photosynthesis occurs. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>ER </li><...
A storage organelle that is much larger in plant cells than animal cells. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts <...
Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Partic...
Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
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Cell structure lecture

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Cell structure lecture

  1. 1. Basic Structure of a Cell
  2. 2. Review Facts About Living Things
  3. 3. What Are the Main Characteristics of organisms? <ul><li>Made of CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Require ENERGY (food) </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUCE (species) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain HOMEOSTASIS </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZED </li></ul><ul><li>RESPOND to environment </li></ul><ul><li>GROW and DEVELOP </li></ul><ul><li>EXCHANGE materials with surroundings (water, wastes, gases) </li></ul>
  4. 4. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Nonliving Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>ATOM (element) </li></ul><ul><li>MOLECULE (compounds like carbohydrates & proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANELLES (nucleus, ER, Golgi …) </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Living Levels: </li></ul><ul><li>CELL (makes up ALL organisms) </li></ul><ul><li>TISSUE (cells working together </li></ul><ul><li>ORGAN (heart, brain, stomach …) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGAN SYSTEMS (respiratory, circulatory …) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANISM </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Living Levels continued: </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION (one species in an area) </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY (several populations in an area </li></ul><ul><li>ECOSYSTEM (forest, prairie …) </li></ul><ul><li>BIOME (Tundra, Tropical Rain forest…) </li></ul><ul><li>BIOSPHERE (all living and nonliving things on Earth) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 5 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Which is NOT a characteristic of all living things <ul><li>Respond to environment </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Use energy </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 20
  9. 9. Your heart is an example of <ul><li>A cell </li></ul><ul><li>A tissue </li></ul><ul><li>An organ </li></ul><ul><li>An organ system </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  10. 10. Cells that work together are <ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>organisms </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  11. 11. One species living in an area is: <ul><li>An organism </li></ul><ul><li>A population </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>A biome </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  12. 12. Different species living in an area makes a(n): <ul><li>Organism </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  13. 13. Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
  14. 14. Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant
  15. 15. History of Cells & the Cell Theory Cell Specialization
  16. 16. First to View Cells <ul><li>In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork (dead plant cell walls) </li></ul><ul><li>What he saw looked like small boxes </li></ul>
  17. 17. First to View Cells <ul><li>Hooke is responsible for naming cells </li></ul><ul><li>Hooke called them “CELLS” because they looked like the small rooms that monks lived in called Cells </li></ul>
  18. 18. Anton van Leeuwenhoek <ul><li>In 1673, Leeuwenhoek (a Dutch microscope maker), was first to view organism (living things) </li></ul><ul><li>Leeuwenhoek used a simple, handheld microscope to view pond water & scrapings from his teeth </li></ul>
  19. 19. Beginning of the Cell Theory <ul><li>In 1838, a German botanist named Matthias Schleiden concluded that all plants were made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Schleiden is a cofounder of the cell theory </li></ul>
  20. 20. Beginning of the Cell Theory <ul><li>In 1839, a German zoologist named Theodore Schwann concluded that all animals were made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Schwann also cofounded the cell theory </li></ul>
  21. 21. Beginning of the Cell Theory <ul><li>In 1855, a German medical doctor named Rudolph Virchow observed, under the microscope, cells dividing </li></ul><ul><li>He reasoned that all cells come from other pre-existing cells by cell division </li></ul>
  22. 22. CELL THEORY <ul><li>All living things are made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life) </li></ul><ul><li>Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Who was the first person to see a living cell? <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Schwann </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  24. 24. Who was the first person to see a cell? <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Schwann </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  25. 25. Who was the first person to state all animals are made of cells? <ul><li>Robert Hooke </li></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Schwann </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  26. 26. Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant
  27. 27. Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
  28. 28. Discoveries Since the Cell Theory
  29. 29. ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY <ul><li>In 1970, American biologist, Lynn Margulis , provided evidence that some organelles within cells were at one time free living cells themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence included organelles with their own DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast and Mitochondria </li></ul>
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Cell Size and Types <ul><li>Cells, the basic units of organisms, can only be observed under microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Three Basic types of cells include: </li></ul>Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell
  32. 32. Number of Cells <ul><li>Although ALL living things are made of cells, organisms may be: </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular – composed of one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular - composed of many cells that may organize into tissues, etc. </li></ul>
  33. 33. CELL SIZE <ul><li>Typical cells range from 5 – 50 micrometers (microns) in diameter </li></ul>
  34. 34. Which Cell Type is Larger? _________ > _____________ > ___________ Plant cell Animal cell bacteria
  35. 35. How Big is a Micron ( µ ) ? 1 cm = 10,000 microns 1” = 25,000 microns
  36. 36. Cell Size <ul><li>Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Factors Affecting Cell Size <ul><li>Surface area (plasma membrane surface) is determined by multiplying length times width (L x W) </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of a cell (inside the cell) is determined by multiplying length times width times height (L x W x H) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Volume increases FASTER than the surface area </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cell Size <ul><li>When the surface area is no longer great enough to get rid of all the wastes and to get in enough food and water, then the cell must divide </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the cells of an organism are close in size </li></ul>
  39. 39. Cell Size <ul><li>Question: Are the cells in an elephant bigger, smaller, or about the same size as those in a mouse? </li></ul>About the same size, but … The elephant has MANY MORE cells than a mouse!
  40. 40. Multicellular Organisms <ul><li>Cells in multicellular organisms often specialize (take on different shapes & functions) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Cell Specialization <ul><li>Cells in a multi-cellular organism become specialized by turning different genes on and off </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as DIFFERENTIATION </li></ul>
  42. 42. Specialized Animal Cells <ul><li>Muscle cells </li></ul>Red blood cells Cheek cells
  43. 43. Specialized Plant cells Xylem cells Pollen Guard Cells
  44. 44. Organization Levels of Life Atoms to Organisms
  45. 45. ATOMS  MOLECULES  ORGANELLES Nonliving Levels
  46. 46. CELLS – life starts here TISSUES – Similar cells working together Living Levels  
  47. 47. ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEMS ORGANISM Different tissues working together Different organs working together   More Living Levels
  48. 48. Simple or Complex Cells
  49. 49. Prokaryotes – The first Cells <ul><li>Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Includes bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest type of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Single, circular chromosome </li></ul>
  50. 50. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Nucleoid region (center) contains the DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by cell membrane & cell wall (peptidoglycan) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain ribosomes (no membrane) in their cytoplasm to make proteins </li></ul>
  51. 51. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals </li></ul><ul><li>More complex type of cells </li></ul>
  52. 52. Eukaryotic Cell <ul><li>Contain 3 basic cell structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm with organelles </li></ul>
  53. 53. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell
  54. 54. Organelles
  55. 55. Organelles <ul><li>Very small (Microscopic) </li></ul><ul><li>Perform various functions for a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not be membrane-bound </li></ul>
  56. 56. Animal Cell Organelles Nucleolus Nucleus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Cell Membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles
  57. 57. Plant Cell Organelles
  58. 58. Cell or Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Composed of double layer of phospholipids and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds outside of ALL cells </li></ul><ul><li>Controls what enters or leaves the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Living layer </li></ul>Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Cell membrane Proteins Protein channel Lipid bilayer Carbohydrate chains
  59. 59. Phospholipids <ul><li>Heads contain glycerol & phosphate and are hydrophilic (attract water) </li></ul><ul><li>Tails are made of fatty acids and are hydrophobic (repel water) </li></ul><ul><li>Make up a bilayer where tails point inward toward each other </li></ul><ul><li>Can move laterally to allow small molecules (O 2 , CO 2 , & H 2 O to enter) </li></ul>
  60. 60. The Cell Membrane is Fluid <ul><li>Molecules in cell membranes are constantly moving and changing </li></ul>
  61. 61. Cell Membrane Proteins <ul><li>Proteins help move large molecules or aid in cell recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral proteins are attached on the surface (inner or outer) </li></ul><ul><li>Integral proteins are embedded completely through the membrane </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Recognize “self” </li></ul>GLYCOPROTEINS Glycoproteins have carbohydrate tails to act as markers for cell recognition
  63. 63. Cell Membrane in Plants <ul><ul><li>Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushes out against the cell wall to maintain cell shape </li></ul></ul>Cell membrane
  64. 64. Cell Wall <ul><ul><li>Nonliving layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in plants, fungi, & bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of peptidoglycan in bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of chitin in Fungi </li></ul></ul>Cell wall
  65. 65. Cell Wall <ul><li>Supports and protects cell </li></ul><ul><li>Found outside of the cell membrane </li></ul>
  66. 66. Cytoplasm of a Cell <ul><ul><li>Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place </li></ul></ul>cytoplasm
  67. 67. More on Cytoplasm <ul><ul><li>Contains organelle s to carry out specific jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in ALL cells </li></ul></ul>cytoplasm
  68. 68. The Control Organelle - Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Controls the normal activities of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the DNA in chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by a nuclear envelope (membrane) with pores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually the largest organelle </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. More on the Nucleus <ul><ul><li>Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes control cell characteristics </li></ul></ul>Nucleus
  70. 70. Nuclear Envelope <ul><li>Double membrane surrounding nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Also called nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to the rough ER </li></ul>Nuclear pores
  71. 71. Inside the Nucleus - The genetic material (DNA) is found DNA is spread out And appears as CHROMATIN in non-dividing cells DNA is condensed & wrapped around proteins forming as CHROMOSOMES in dividing cells
  72. 72. What Does DNA do? <ul><li>DNA is the hereditary material of the cell </li></ul>Genes that make up the DNA molecule code for different proteins
  73. 73. Nucleolus <ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli </li></ul><ul><li>Disappears when cell divides </li></ul><ul><li>Makes ribosomes that make proteins </li></ul>
  74. 74. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Helps cell maintain cell shape </li></ul><ul><li>Also help move organelles around </li></ul><ul><li>Made of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments are threadlike & made of ACTIN </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules are tubelike & made of TUBULIN </li></ul>
  75. 75. Cytoskeleton MICROTUBULES MICROFILAMENTS
  76. 76. Centrioles <ul><li>Found only in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Paired structures near nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of bundles of microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Appear during cell division forming mitotic spindle </li></ul><ul><li>Help to pull chromosome pairs apart to opposite ends of the cell </li></ul>
  77. 77. Centrioles & the Mitotic Spindle <ul><li>Made of MICROTUBULES (Tubulin) </li></ul>
  78. 78. Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria) <ul><li>“ Powerhouse” of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Generate cellular energy (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>More active cells like muscle cells have MORE mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Both plants & animal cells have mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION (burning glucose) </li></ul>
  79. 79. MITOCHONDRIA <ul><li>Surrounded by a DOUBLE membrane </li></ul>Folded inner membrane called CRISTAE (increases surface area for more chemical Reactions) Has its own DNA Interior called MATRIX
  80. 80. Interesting Fact --- <ul><li>Mitochondria Come from cytoplasm in the EGG cell during fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore … </li></ul><ul><li>You inherit your mitochondria from your mother ! </li></ul>
  81. 81. Cell Powerhouse <ul><ul><li>Rod shape </li></ul></ul>Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
  82. 82. What do mitochondria do? Burns glucose to release energy (ATP) Stores energy as ATP “ Power plant” of the cell
  83. 83. Endoplasmic Reticulum - ER <ul><li>Network of hollow membrane tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in Synthesis of cell products & Transport </li></ul>Two kinds of ER ---ROUGH & SMOOTH
  84. 84. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) <ul><li>Has ribosomes on its surface </li></ul><ul><li>Makes membrane proteins and proteins for EXPORT out of cell </li></ul>
  85. 85. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER) <ul><li>Proteins are made by ribosomes on ER surface </li></ul><ul><li>They are then threaded into the interior of the Rough ER to be modified and transported </li></ul>
  86. 86. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Smooth ER lacks ribosomes on its surface </li></ul><ul><li>Is attached to the ends of rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>Makes cell products that are USED INSIDE the cell </li></ul>
  87. 87. Functions of the Smooth ER <ul><li>Makes membrane lipids (steroids) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates calcium (muscle cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys toxic substances (Liver) </li></ul>
  88. 88. Endomembrane System Includes nuclear membrane connected to ER connected to cell membrane (transport)
  89. 89. Ribosomes <ul><li>Made of PROTEINS and rRNA </li></ul><ul><li>“ Protein factories” for cell </li></ul><ul><li>Join amino acids to make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Process called protein synthesis </li></ul>
  90. 90. Ribosomes <ul><li>Can be attached to Rough ER </li></ul>OR Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm
  91. 91. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Stacks of flattened sacs </li></ul><ul><li>Have a shipping side ( trans face ) and receiving side ( cis face ) </li></ul><ul><li>Receive proteins made by ER </li></ul><ul><li>Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends </li></ul>Transport vesicle CIS TRANS
  92. 92. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Look like a stack of pancakes </li></ul>Modify, sort, & package molecules from ER for storage OR transport out of cell
  93. 93. Golgi
  94. 94. Golgi Animation Materials are transported from Rough ER to Golgi to the cell membrane by VESICLES
  95. 95. Lysosomes <ul><li>Contain digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts for cells </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed for cell death (AUTOLYSIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Lyse (break open) & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) </li></ul>
  96. 96. Lysosome Digestion <ul><li>Cells take in food by phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes digest the food & get rid of wastes </li></ul>
  97. 97. Cilia & Flagella <ul><li>Made of protein tubes called microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules arranged ( 9 + 2 arrangement ) </li></ul><ul><li>Function in moving cells , in moving fluids , or in small particles across the cell surface </li></ul>
  98. 98. Cilia & Flagella <ul><li>Cilia are shorter and more numerous on cells </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella are longer and fewer (usually 1-3) on cells </li></ul>
  99. 99. Cell Movement with Cilia & Flagella
  100. 100. Cilia Moving Away Dust Particles from the Lungs Respiratory System
  101. 101. Vacuoles <ul><li>Fluid filled sacks for storage </li></ul><ul><li>Small or absent in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>No vacuoles in bacterial cells </li></ul>
  102. 102. Vacuoles <ul><li>In plants, they store Cell Sap </li></ul><ul><li>Includes storage of sugars, proteins, minerals, lipids, wastes, salts, water, and enzymes </li></ul>
  103. 103. Contractile Vacuole <ul><li>Found in unicellular protists like paramecia </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate water intake by pumping out excess (homeostasis) </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps the cell from lysing (bursting) </li></ul>Contractile vacuole animation
  104. 104. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Found only in producers (organisms containing chlorophyll ) </li></ul><ul><li>Use energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from sun stored in the Chemical Bonds of Sugars </li></ul>
  105. 105. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Surrounded by DOUBLE membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Outer membrane smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Inner membrane modified into sacs called Thylakoids </li></ul><ul><li>Thylakoids in stacks called Grana & interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma – gel like material surrounding thylakoids </li></ul>
  106. 106. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Contains its own DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contains enzymes & pigments for Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Never in animal or bacterial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis – food making process </li></ul>
  107. 107. Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 5 </li></ul>
  108. 108. Which types of cells do not have a nucleus? <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  109. 109. Which types of cells have no membrane bound organelles? <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  110. 110. Which types of cells contain chloroplasts? <ul><li>Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Both 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Neither 1 nor 2 </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  111. 111. In prokaryotes, what makes proteins? <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul>10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  112. 112. What part of a cell controls what can get in and out of the cell? <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  113. 113. Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
  114. 114. Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant
  115. 115. Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells? <ul><li>Cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>mitochondria </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  116. 116. Which organisms do NOT have cell walls? <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  117. 117. What organelle helps keep cell shape and mover organelles? <ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  118. 118. Which organelle makes cell products and transports them? <ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  119. 119. Which organelle produces energy for the cell? <ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  120. 120. What does the mitochondria store energy as? <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Capsids </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  121. 121. Which organelle modifies, sorts, and packages material from the ER? <ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  122. 122. What makes proteins in your cells? <ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  123. 123. Which organelle digests worn out cell parts? <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  124. 124. Short hair like structures on cells <ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  125. 125. The part of a cell where photosynthesis occurs. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>ER </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  126. 126. A storage organelle that is much larger in plant cells than animal cells. <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Centrioles </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 20
  127. 127. Team MVP Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant
  128. 128. Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5

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