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Introduction to Research:
Research Means in Search of knowledge. Or Research is an art of scientific investigation.
Research is an academic activity & as such term should be used in a technical sense. Research comprises
of defining & redefining problems, formulating hypothesis & suggesting solutions.
Or we can say collecting, organizing & evaluating the data: making deductions & reaching conclusion,
& carefully the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
Research is Search for Knowledge
It is an Art of Scientific Investigation
According to Redman and Mory, Research is a “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge”
Research is an original addition to the available knowledge, which contributes to its further
In sum, Research is the search for knowledge, using objective and systematic methods to find
solution to a problem
Scopes of Research:
• Does the research cover a particular Objective of research or researcher?
• Does the research cover a particular time period?
• Does the study cover a specific geographical area?
• If the study involves people, what age group, gender and place of origin are to be
• Are all dates of publication to be included?
• Is the research going to cover publications from other countries?
• Will the research include other languages and scripts? (Language of research)
• Are all perspectives to be considered? For example, philosophical, political,
Objectives of research:
To gain familiarity with new insights into a phenomenon
To accurately portray the characteristics of a particular individual, group, or a situation
To analyze the frequency with which something occurs
To examine the Hypothesis of a casual relationship between two variables
Research Methods Vs Methodology:
Research Methods are the methods that the researcher adopts for conducting the
Research Methodology is the way in which research problems are solved systematically.
It is the Science of studying how research is conducted Scientifically
Types of research:
Descriptive Vs Analytical:
In Descriptive Research, the Researcher has to only report what is happening or what has
In Analytical Research, the Researcher has to use the already available facts or
information, and analyse them to make a critical evaluation of the subject
Applied Vs Fundamental:
An attempt to find solution to an immediate problem encountered by a firm, an Industry,
a business organization, or the Society is known as Applied Research
Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is ‘Pure’ or ‘Basic’ or ‘Fundamental’
Quantitative Vs Qualitative:
Quantitative Research involves the measurement of quantity or amount. (ex: Economic &
Qualitative Research is concerned with the aspects related to or involving quality or
Kind.(ex: Motivational Research involving behavioural Sciences)
Conceptual Vs Empirical:
The Research related to some abstract idea or theory is known as Conceptual Research.
(Ex: Philosophers and Thinkers using this to developing new concepts)
Empirical Research relies on the observation or experience with hardly any regard for
theory and system.
Other Types of Research;
One-time or Longitudinal Research (On the basis time)
Laboratory Research or Field-setting or Simulational Research (On the basis of
The Importance of Knowing How to conduct Research;
Helps Researcher to develop disciplined thinking
The Researcher will confidently evaluate and utilize the Research Findings
Helps the Research consumer to evaluate Research and make rational decisions
The Researcher will be equipped with knowledge of different tools to conduct scientific
Qualities of a Researcher:
Desire for accuracy of observation & precision of statement
An alert mind.
Must practice “The art of enduring intellectual hardships”
Making statements cautiously
Significance of Research:
According to Hudson Maxim “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than
overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”
1. Formulating the Research Problem
2. Extensive Literature Survey
3. Developing Hypothesis
4. Preparing the Research Design
5. Determining Sample Design
6. Collecting Data
7. Execution of the Project
8. Analysis of the Data
9. Hypothesis Testing
10. Generalization and Interpretation
11. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of the Results
Research Problem is an unanswered question that a researcher might encounter in the context
of either a theoretical or practical situation.
Components of a Research Problem:
There should be an individual or a group who have some difficulty or problem
There should be some objective to be pursued (A person or an organization who wants nothing
cannot have a problem)
There should be more than one alternative means available to the Researcher.
There should be some doubt in the mind of the Researcher about the choice of alternative
Conditions for Research Problem:
X- an individual or an organization (to whom the problem is attributed)
Y-the environment where X is situated
Z-the uncontrolled variables which control Y
A1 & A2 two courses of action
B1 & B2 two possible outcomes of the said course (One outcome should be what Researcher
It highlights decisions which include
1. The Name of the Study
2. The Purpose of the Study
3. The Location where the study would be conducted
4. The Nature of Data Required
5. From where the required Data can be collected
6. What time period the study would cover
7. The Type of Sample Design
8. The Techniques of Data Collection
9. The Methods of Data Analysis:
Concepts Relating to Research Design:
A magnitude that varies is known as a variable (ex: income, height, weight..)
When changes in one variable depend upon the changes in other variable (s), it is known as
dependent variable (ex: If Demand depends on Price, then Demand is a dependent variable,
price is independent variable)
The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect
the dependent variable are known as Extraneous Variables. (ex: Relationship between children’s
school performance (dependent variable) and their Parent’s Income (Independent Variable). In
this case Intelligence may also influence the school performance (Extraneous Variable)
Types of Research Design:
Exploratory Research Design
To formulate a Research Problem for an in-depth or more precise investigation
To discover new ideas and insights
Three methods considered for such Research Design
a) a Survey of related Literature
b) experience survey
c) analysis of insight-stimulating instances
Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design
Descriptive Research Design is Concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular
individual or a group.
Diagnostic Research Design is determines the frequency with which a variable occurs or it’s
relationship with other.
Both Descriptive & Diagnostic Research design have common requirements
Hypothesis-testing Research Design
The Researcher tests the Hypothesis of casual relationship between two or more variables
These studies require unbiased attitude of the Researcher.
Importance of Research Design:
It facilitates smooth conduct of the various stages of Research.
Makes Research Efficient to yield maximum information with minimum effort, time, expenditure
Plays a crucial role in attaining the reliability of the results obtained.
Characteristics of a Good Research Design:
Flexible, Suitable, Efficient and Economical
Minimizes bias and Maximizes Reliability
No Experimental Error
Yields Maximum Information